In business, the motivation means the force or process which impels staff to behave in the way that they do and passionate detection of the objectives or tasks set out by the firm. Moreover, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. There are three main factors that influence the staff motivation for instance the company culture, the financial reward system and the effective management of people.
Company culture means the accepted set of attitudes, values and habits within an organization – its ethos. It is the major factor to influence staff motivation in the workplace. Nowadays, every business has its own culture as same as every college, classroom and every country. According to the FW Taylor who conceived the notion of ‘a fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay’, but Mayo was the theorist who analyzed the social factors affecting what staff regard as fair. The hierarchy shows that how many factors influence the staff motivation are as follow:
This is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological needs are the basic need. For example the high wages enough to meet weekly bills so that the employee put more time to their work. Secondly, Safety needs are the obligatory need everyone in the firm such as job security. It can make staff working under the safety working environment so that the staff can have power and effective to work everyday inside the firm. Third, Social needs are very important such as good relationship between the staff because everyone must working under the lighthearted environment. It can motivate the staff working effective. After that, Esteem needs are very important as everyone must given recognition for doing a job well so that they have motivation to continuous their work everyday. Finally, Self-actualisation is the main factor that influences the staff motivation such as being promoted and given more responsibility. When the staff works under the pressure surrounding, they will hard working every time. As a result, the Maslow’s Hierarchy can stimulate the staff motivation.
Financial reward system is extremely important factor that influence staff motivation in the workplace. Financial reward system separate to piecework, performance-related pay (PRP), profit sharing, share ownership and fringe benefits.
Piecework means working in return for a payment per unit produced. Usually pieceworkers not only receive no basic or shift pay but also they are no sick pay, holiday pay or company pension. Generally, the worker will be hardest when whey want higher earnings. Therefore, piecework is greatly influence staff motivation when they are striving everyday. Furthermore, due to the job pay per unit produced, the staff will increase the working efficiency by themselves. So it is useful method to motivate the staff in the factory.
Performance-related pay (PRP) is a pay system where part of an employee’s pay is based on his or her performance. Due to the worker can enjoy extra benefit form their work, they will enhance the ability and efficiency to their work. Moreover, the worker can have more challenge if they want have higher performance. As a result, Performance-related pay is also greatly effect staff motivation when the staff has an excellent performance.
Profit sharing is a marvelous psychological benefits factor that influence staff motivation. It is to distribute of some portion of profits to the employees of a company. It can encourage staff to think about the whole business, not just their own job. Profit sharing has advantage for the employee so that they can work laboriously in the firm. For instance, the sale worker works in the mobile phone shop if they can sale more mobile phone, naturally, the profit of the firm also will increase. After that, the profit has increased so the profit sharing of portion also increased. Finally, the worker can get more portion of profit from the firm.
Fringe benefit is very important factors that influence staff motivation. The staff can get benefits of reward rather than their income. For instance, low interest rate loans or mortgages, discounts or special offer on the company’s product and membership of clubs. In some cases, when the staff want to buy a new car, he have not enough money to buy that, he can enjoy company’s fringe benefit – low interest rate mortgages. So the fringe benefit can increase firm’s morale from staff and motivate the staff.
Effective management of people means different things in different circumstances. People must careful planning and good organisation are the key factors. Boss or manager have well experience, the foresight and the skills to ensure that the employee feel confident and prove competent in their day-to-day tasks. In business, effective management of people includes job enlargement, job enrichment, empowerment and teamworking.
Job enlargement means the horizontal job design and makes a job structurally bigger. It involves increasing the scope of a job and the range of tasks that the people carry out. It always achieved by combining a number of related operations at the same level. There are some factors that influence staff motivation from the job enlargement – Job rotation, Job loading and Job enrichment. Job rotation can increase the worker activities by switching between tasks of a similar level of difficulty. Because of this, the employee does not increase the challenge and they can reduce the boredom of a job. It can motivate the staff to concentrate their work. Job loading means increase workload and a redundancy such as the staff often has extra activities that have to be taken on. It is not good for the staff and will reduce the motivation from the staff.
Job enrichment is an extension of the more basic job rotation and job enlargement methods of job design. It focuses attention on intrinsic satisfaction. Due to job enrichment give the employee greater autonomy and authority over the planning and execution, they can get more meaningful and challenging job. As a result, the employee can work more effective from their job.
Empowerment means the delegation in the firm that the manager has power delegated to others. So empowerment may lead to greater risks being taken and lead to opportunities being identified. For example, the sale manager delegated the authority to others so he has more free time to take consideration about the other important task. As a result, it can relief motivation because the employee get the more challenge.
Teamworking means maximize employee satisfaction and involvement by organisating employees into relatively small teams. For instance, a group of designer working together, they can share the objective and multi-skilled. Therefore, they can finish the job efficiency and have good motivation because they are affecting by each others.
On the whole, the above factors also have their advantages and disadvantages. Maslow’s Hierarchy is an influential factor that influences staff motivation. As Maslow’s Hierarchy also know what is the staff ‘need’ and ‘want’. It is the main point why it is very important. Maslow’s Hierarchy can provide all of the necessary and basic need for the staff. But piecework is not very well to influence staff motivation. Because the staff has a same task work everyday, they would feel the job is very boring and lack of challenge. Day-by-Day working would lose of interesting in their job. It is strongly disadvantage to influence staff motivation. In fact, piecework can only keep the production of balance but it can increase the effective of staff.
In my opinion, I think the elements of the Maslow’s Hierarchy and effective management is exceedingly important for the staff motivation. Because each company operates must under the Maslow’s Hierarchy and effective management whatever large or small organisation. If the firm has not good operation such as good leader and well system, they can not operate in this generation. As the great competitor all in the world in difference commercial circumstance. Each firm must increase their reputation from good management. Generally, there are many factors that influence staff motivation apart from the above three main factors. For instance, increasing salary, insurance, holiday and better working environment are also influence staff motivation in the workplace.
To conclude, the main factors that contribute to staff motivation in the workplace have Company culture, Financial reward system and Effective management of people. Undoubtedly, the above main factors also have their advantage and disadvantage. If the firm can proper operate the firm form above system, they must become the distinguished firm whatever small or big organization.
1 Gillespie, A., 1999, Business Studies, Hodder & Stoughton
2 Mullians, L.J., 1985, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 5th.ed, England, Prentice Hall
3 Pass, C., 1991, Dictinoary of Business, 2nd.ed, England, HarperCollins
Course: International Foundation Year – Economics Of UK Business