Physical Fitness can be divided into two types namely the health related fitness and the other one is the skill related fitness (“Exercise Information”). The following are factors of health related fitness (“Exercise Information”):
The cardiovascular endurance depends on the cardiovascular system’s ability to pump blood and deliver oxygen through the body. It is also the body’s capability to finish or accomplish the task given in a period of time. This factor is a vital element in a fitness program. Another benefit of improving cardiovascular endurance is decreasing the risk of life threatening heart diseases. Normal heart rate ranges from 60 – 85 beats per minute or 100,000 beats per day. Exercises that are recommended for cardiovascular endurance are walking, bicycling, and calisthenics.
The muscular endurance is the ability to sustain an effort or produce work overtime. Muscular endurance can be measured in several ways depending on the activity being studied. Loss of muscular endurance may be an indicator of cardiopulmonary or neurologic problem. There is a program or group of exercise use to develop the endurance of muscle. High-repetition, moderate-weight sets are performed initially, followed by a rapid, low-resistance repetition until fatigue. Exercises that can improve the muscular endurance are pushups, swimming and treadmill.
Muscular strength is the capacity of the muscle to produce the tension needed for maintaining posture, initiating movement or controlling movement during conditions of loading on the musculoskeletal system. Some of exercises that can be given to improve the muscle strength are weight lifting, throwing, and running.
Another health related factor is the muscular flexibility. Movement of muscles and joints in its full range of motion (ROM) is called the muscular flexibility (“Exercise Information”). Muscular flexibility also helps in preventing injuries. Prior to inception of any exercise program, joint range of motion and soft tissue flexibility must be improved. Exercises that can be use to attain or improve the muscular flexibility are bicycling, stretching, and calisthenics.
The body composition which is the last on the health related factors refers to as the body’s lean mass and fat mass (“Exercise Information”).It is important to have knowledge in body composition it is use to measure the nutritional status and a basis on which to estimate nutrient and caloric needs. The most popular recognized measures are those of height and weight. Brisk walking, jogging and jumping can be done to improve the body composition depending on the physical aspect that is needed to be improved.
Skill Related Factors of Fitness
This is the second type of physical fitness namely the skill related fitness. The following are the elements of skill related fitness (“Exercise Information”): Power is the ability to perform maximum effort in as short time as possible. Power is equivalent to the product of speed and strength.
Speed means the rate of motion or the distance cover in the shortest time as possible. Speed can be affected by reaction time, genetic factors, and movement patterns.
Reaction time means how fast the subject or a person would react to a stimuli or situation. It is important in the prevention of injuries or falls. Reaction time can be improved through training.
Balance is the ability of the body to remain upright during alterations in positions and challenges to stability.
Coordination is the harmonious action of muscles, permitting free, smooth and efficient movements under perfect control. Attainment of coordinated body movement of upper and lower part is sometimes hard to accomplish.
Agility is the rapid and accurate movement of the body when changing its position from one point to another.
15 Benefits of Exercises
Here are the list of the benefits of exercises: (1) Increases muscle strength and endurance; (2) Increases bone mass; (3) Sustained weight loss; (4) Decreases hypertension; (5) Increases maximum oxygen consumption; (6) Increases maximal cardiac output; (7) Decreases resting and submaximal heart rate; (8) Increases peripheral oxygen extraction; (9) Improved glucose tolerance; (10) Improved balance and coordination; (11) Increases pain threshold; (12) May help to prevent falls (improved margin of safety); (13) Increases functional capacity; (14) Decreases medical complications; (15) Decreases premenstrual syndrome.
Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke
Heat exhaustion is a condition were the people who is working or playing in a humid place and they are losing their body fluids and salt (electrolytes) which cause their body to overheat. If there is an inadequate replacement of fluid, the circulation might have a disturbance that may result in a mild shock.
When a heat stroke happens, the cooling system of the body that is being controlled by the brain has stopped working. Since the cooling system stop, the internal temperature would rise and this will cause damage to the brain or in some internal organs. This usually happens rapidly.
Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises
An aerobic exercise has low resistance enough to allow the exercise to continue and high enough to recruit the larger fibers. Aerobic exercises have more impact on cardiovascular and circulatory system. This type of exercise burns 25 % of muscle and 75 % of fats. The following can be used as aerobic exercises: (1) ski machines; (2) jogging; and (3) air gliders.
Anaerobic exercise is a high resistance, short duration dynamic activities at 80 % of maximum are needed. This exercise is use in building muscle and bone and it also burns 100 % fat. Examples of anaerobic exercises are: (1) dumbbells; (2) weight lifting; and (3) Machines that offers resistance.
The following can be use to measure the intensity of the exercises given to you. The first is the Target Heart Rate. It is your training zone. You should know or estimate your heart rate so that you’ll know that you’re training aerobically. Training below your training zone may not burn the right calorie but training beyond your capacity may burn the calories inefficiently. Next is Rate of Perceived Exertion which is the most versatile because it relies on your feeling of exertion during the exercise. This may be based on current fitness level and perception of exercise. In this method you will identify your RPE scale when your heart rate is in 50-70% maximum. This will help you to measure the intensity of the exercise using the RPE scale when the THR is not possible to determine. Lastly is the Talk Test which is subjective and taken with the pulse. In this method, they would allow you to talk and they would observe if you can breathe comfortably and rhythmically throughout the workout. In this way, we can have the assurance that the exercise is comfortable and safe for you.