There are various reasons why and how the Mongols accomplish the conquest of such a large territory within such a short period of time. Many of the reasons may vary, but many can agree that their military tactics and culture are some of the reasons why they conquered such a large territory in such a short period of time.
The Mongols, who eventually became known as the Tatars, were one of the most savage conquerors of history. The Mongols had good military tactics, that’s how they conquered many so fast. They were very clever in their battles and planned ahead. They didn’t act until they had plenty of men or when they had a good chance of winning. They wore defensive armor made from buffalo and hides of other beasts, dried by the fire, and thus rendered extremely hard and strong. (Document 3) Warriors were divided into companies of ten, appointing one of the ten as commander, and for every ten commanders there was another commander called ‘commander of the hundred’ since he commanded a total of a hundred people. And so it is with each thousand men and so also with each ten thousand, over whom they appointed a commander whom they call ‘commander of the tümen.’
The Mongols were brave in battle, exposing themselves without hesitation to all manner of danger. They wiped out those who opposed to them with cruelty. Enemies or possible enemies. One summer, Chinggis Khan sent soldiers out against those of the Tangqut people who had rebelled against him…The whole tribe was completely wiped out. Then he showed favor to Bo’ orchy and Mugali, saying: “Take what you want, until you can carry no more… Make their fine sons follow behind you, holding your falcons. Bring up their daughters to arrange your wives’ skirts.” (Document 7)
This vast empire helped increase contacts between peoples of different cultures. Migrations fostered these contacts and promoted trade. Roads were built to connect Russia and Persia with eastern Asia. Many Europeans came to China, and Chinese went to Russia and other parts of Europe. Printing and other Chinese inventions such as paper, gunpowder, and the compass may have been introduced to the West during Mongol times. (Richard L., “Mongol Empire: biggest land empire in history”)
Culture also took a big part in the Mongols conquest. Even if the Mongols acted cruel in battles, they managed to make good teamwork with one another, not only between warriors, but also between men and women. The men made bows and arrows, factored stirrups and bits, fashion saddles, constructed dwellings and wagons, tend the horses and mares, and loaded the camels. Women’s tasks were to drive the wagons, load the dwellings on them and to unload again, to milk the cows, and to dress the skins and stitch them together. (Document 5) Men and women balanced their tasks like a team and had a good balance. They both had their own separate tasks, one helping the other with the results of good teamwork.
With such powerful empire from the start, it is no wonder other countries who heard about the Mongol’s accomplishments in the short period of time were amazed by their conquests and invasions and that opened opportunities for alliances, and new enemies between the Mongols and other countries, as we can see in various letter exchanges between Great Khan and Pope Innocent IV.
Although many enemies were made throughout their conquests, the Mongols’ clever skills in battle and culture helped them become one of the most savage conquerors of history up to this day.