We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

The Philippine educational system Essay Sample

essay
The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues.

Get Access

The Philippine educational system Essay Sample

The Philippine educational system was and remains one of the legacies of colonialism in the country. It was initially introduced under Spanish colonization (which lasted from 1571 to 1898), and widely disseminated in the 1900s under American colonization (from 1898 to 1946), with the so-called modern educational system (Agoncillo, 1990; Constantino, 1971). Among the colonially implanted knowledge fields was psychology, European and American in influence, until pioneers of indigenization started in the 1960s to critique and challenge academic colonialism and proposed alternatives based on indigenous Filipino experiences, concepts, languages, and orientation.

There are three major indigenization movements that fermented in the main campus of University of the Philippines in Diliman, Quezon City, namely Sikolohiyang Pilipino ( Filipino Psychology) – founded by Virgilio Enriquez, Pilipinolohiya ( Filipinology) – founded by Prospero Covar, and Pantayong Pananaw ( which in Filipino literally means point-of-view from us and for us), founded by Zeus Salazar, a perspective that distinguished kami (Filipino term for exclusive “us”, and thus, history by and for foreigners) from tayo (Filipino term which means inclusive “us”, and thus, history written by and for Filipinos) (Covar, 1995, pp. ix-x). These three projects held in common the two-pronged objective of decolonizationindigenization, and they cross-fertilized each other.

Sikolohiyang Pilipino ( Filipino Psychology ) can be defined as the psychology rooted on the experience, ideas, and cultural orientation of the Filipinos. It is regulated by the National Organization of Filipino Psychology (Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino) which is established in 1975 by Virgilio Enriquez, regarded by many as the Father of Filipino Psychology. It is usually thought of as a branch of Asian psychology, the placement, determined primarily on culture. However, there is an ongoing debate on the make-up of Philippine culture, because this will generally determine whether Philippine Psychology is to be placed under the realms of either Asian psychology or Western psychology. From the beginning of the periods when the Philippines was colonized by Spain, and then the USA, academic psychology, or the psychology taught in schools, was predominantly Western in theory and in methodology.

Many Filipino intellectuals, notably the two Philippine heroes Jose Rizal and Apolinario Mabini, expressed dissatisfaction at the pejorative interpretations of Filipino behavior by Western observers. This disenchantment continued as Filipinos struggled to assert their national and cultural identity. In the 1960s, many Filipino intellectuals and scholars were already sensitive both to the inadequacy as well as the unfairness of the Western-oriented approaches to psychology. For instance, in the area of personality, the Western approach in research of not being enmeshed and bound by the culture being studied has resulted in a characterization of the Filipino from the ‘‘judgmental and impressionistic point of view of the colonizers’’. For example, the predisposition to indirectness of Filipino communication was regarded as being dishonest and socially ingratiating and reflecting a deceptive verbal description of reality (Lawless, 1969, cited in Enriquez, 1992) rather than a concern for the feelings of others. (There are many other examples which are discussed further in this article.)

Thus, using American categories and standards, ‘‘the native Filipino invariably suffers from the comparison in not too subtle attempts to put forward Western behavior patterns as models for the Filipino (Enriquez, 1992, p. 57). However, there was no concerted effort in the 1960s to reject and correct the traditional way of teaching and studying psychology. It was in the early 1970s that this was initiated when Virgilio Gaspar Enriquez returned to the Philippines from Northwestern University, USA with a Ph.D. in Social Psychology and lost no time in introducing the concept of Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino Psychology). Together with then-chairman of the Department of Psychology at the University of the Philippines (U.P.), Dr. Alfredo V. Lagmay, Enriquez embarked on a research into the historical and cultural roots of Philippine Psychology.

Subsequently, the research included identifying indigenous concepts and approaches in Philippine psychology and developing creativity and inventiveness among Filipinos. From these researches, a two-volume bibliography on Filipino psychology and a locally developed personality test, Panukat ng Ugali at Pagkatao (Measure of Character and Personality), were produced. In 1975, Enriquez chaired the Unang Pambansang Kumperensya sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino (First National Conference on Filipino Psychology) which was held at the Abelardo Auditorium at U.P. In this conference, the ideas, concepts, and formulations of Sikolohiyang Pilipino were formally articulated.

There are four traditions upon which psychology is rooted that is being identified by Zeus Salazar, a historian. Those are the (a) Academic Scientific Psychology or Akademiko-siyentipikal na Sikolohiya, a Western Tradition which follows the tradition of Wilhelm Wundt in 1876 and is essentially the American-oriented Western psychology being studied in the Philippines; (b) Academic Philosophic Psychology or Akademiko-pilosopiya na Sikolohiya, a Western Tradition which was started by priest-professors at the University of Santo Tomas. This tradition is mainly focused on what is called ‘Rational psychology’; (c) Ethnic Psychology or Taal na Sikolohiya which is the tradition on which Philippine psychology is primarily based. This refers to the indigenous concepts that are studied using indigenous psychological orientation and methodologies;

(d) Psycho-medical Religious Psychology or Sikolohiyang Siko-medikal: The tradition that fuses native healing techniques and explains it in an indigenous religious context. Filipino Psychology has constructed a core, Kapwa which means “ togetherness”. This refers to community or not doing things alone. It has two categories, namely “ Ibang Tao”(other people) and “Hindi- Ibang Tao”(not other people) . Ibang tao ( refers to the outsiders) has five domains namely Pakikitungo (civility), Pakikisalamuha( act of mixing), Pakikilahok(act of joining), Pakikibagay( conformity), and Pakikisama( being united with the group). Hindi- Ibang Tao (also known as “one-of-us”) has three domains namely Pakikipagpalagayang- loob( act of mutual trust), Pakikisangkot( act of joining with others), and Pakikipagkaisa( being one with others).

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Battles with anorexia nervosa

The Dad of the family, Stephen aged 52 ,is a heart surgeon who travels around the world working for charities .The mum of the family is called Marisa aged 50,she is an ex catwalk model, now fixated on plastic surgery to keep her body looking young. Their Daughter Alice aged 25 is a successful shop owner of high end clothing, also with a clientele who...

Analytical psychology

Termed by Carl Jung, collective unconscious offers a respectable insight into the field of analytical psychology. Describing the concept as “a psychic activity which goes on independently of the conscious mind”, Jung clearly differentiates this term from personal unconscious and states that collective unconscious, as suggested by its name, refers to the part of a person’s unconscious that is shared by all people, ignoring the...

Social Sciences: Geography, Anthropology, Sociology, Eeconomics and...

Geography is the study of the physical parts of the earth and its atmosphere, geography can also be the study of the human activity. Every day, geography affects our daily lives. Examples of geography affecting us on a regular basis are shown from everyday experiences. The environment constantly affects us, whether it be by weather and climate change or giving us natural resources like energy...

Erickson’s Psychosocial theory of psychosocial development

In this assignment, I will be discussing Erickson’s Psychosocial theory. I will be doing the case analysis of a grade 1 learner focusing on the psychosocial theory and recognizing the emotional and social systems of the grade 1 learner. The power of this theory lies in Erickson’s integration of both Psychoanalytic and social insights. In the Psychosocial theory, the eight stages will be discussed. Erickson...

Effective Workplace Communication

Effective Workplace Communication Dashman Company was a large concern which produced equipment for the armed forces of the United States. It had over 20 plants situated in the central part of U.S. There was the absence of coordinated purchase policy within the firm. Each plant was working as a separate individual unit. It became evident in the late 1940’s when the company felt that they...

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

We can't stand spam as much as you do No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own.
logo

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?