The Principles of Infection Prevention and Control Essay Sample

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To introduce the learner to national and local policies in relation to infection control; to explain employer and employee responsibilities in this area; to understand how procedures and risk assessment can help minimise the risk of an outbreak of infection. Learners will also gain an understanding of how to use PPE correctly and gain an understanding of the importance of good personal hygiene. Credit Level 3 2 Assessment criteria The learner can: 1.1 Explain employees’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection 1.2 Explain employers’ responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control infection 2 Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections 2.1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection 2.2 Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection 3. Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections 3.1 Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection 3.2 Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation 4. Understand the importance of risk assessment, in relation to the prevention and control of infections 4.1 Define the term risk 4.2 Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace 4.3 Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment 4.4 Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment

Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE)in the prevention and control of infections

5.1 Demonstrate correct use of PPE 5.2 Describe different types of PPE 5.3 Explain the reasons for use of PPE 5.4 State current relevant regulations and legislation relating to PPE 5.5 Describe employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE 5.6 Describe employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE 5.7 Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE 5.8 Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE

Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections

6.1 Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene 6.2 Demonstrate good hand washing technique 6.3 Describe the correct sequence for hand washing 6.4 Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out 6.5 Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing 6.6 Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare

Indicative content Learning outcome 1: Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infections The importance of infection control Definitions of infection control Employees’ roles and responsibilities Roles where infection control is important: employees who work in communal living environments; employees who work with hazardous substances; employees whose work activities may expose them to infection; employees working with individuals who may be vulnerable to infection How responsibilities arise: legal responsibilities, organisational responsibilities, personal/moral responsibilities Who employees have responsibilities to: responsibilities to self, colleagues, employer, clients/customers, visitors What employees are responsible for: taking action to prevent the spread of infection, reporting and recording concerns, following risk assessments, reviewing practice and procedures How responsibilities arise: legal responsibilities, organisational responsibilities, personal/moral responsibilities Who employers have responsibilities to: responsibilities to self, employees, clients/customers, visitors What employers are responsible for: assessing risks, putting procedures in place, ensuring procedures are followed, disseminating relevant information, ensuring employees are appropriately trained in relation to infection control

Employers’ responsibilities –

Learning outcome 2: Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections For all legislation and policies – key points, mandatory or relevant training, impact on organisation, impact on day to day work, implications of failing to meet legislative or regulatory requirements in terms of legal penalties, organisation reputation and individual safety Current legislation, to include: The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act, 1984 The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations, 1998 Health and Safety at Work Act, 1974 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Act (amended 1994) Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002 Food Safety Act, 1990 Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences (RIDDOR) 1995 The Environmental Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991 Health Protection Agency Bill 2004 Other new/current legislation that affects infection control Hazardous waste regulations 2005 The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulation (Department of Health, 1995)

Regulatory body standards NICE Universal precautions Other current Government and/or Health Department standards and guidelines Skills for Health Infection Control workplace competencies Other national standards and regulations that are current Local and organisational policies Health and safety policies Organisational infection control policies Any policies specific to role, industry or organisation e.g. food safety in food related areas

Learning outcome 3: Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections Operation of procedures and systems to include why they are important, their purpose, how they help to control infection, individual roles and responsibilities within the system Procedures and systems Organisational procedures Risk assessments Safe systems of working Health and safety management systems Reporting systems

Impact of outbreaks on: o Individual – Unnecessary illness in some cases leading to death – Distress to staff, individuals, family and friends – Disruption to staff routines o Organisation – Mortality/morbidity – Disruption to routine – Cost – Cancellation of services and activities – Possible legal action – Loss of reputation Learning outcome 4: Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections Definition of risk as any situation, activity or individual as a hazard which may cause the spread of infection to others Potential risks of infection: risk of illness and death particularly in vulnerable individuals (the very young, the very old, pregnant women, people with illness or health problems); risk to staff of illness especially those involved in high risk activities (nursing those with infection, contact with bodily fluids which may be contaminated), environments where food preparation is carried out or where the disposal of hazardous waste is carried out Risk assessment process: identifying hazards; assessing risks; eliminating risks where possible; reducing risks where they cannot be eliminated; recording the risk assessment process; disseminating findings to all concerned, regular reviews of risks to ensure suitable controls are in place; reporting of outbreaks of infectious or notifiable diseases; risk assessment as a continuous process which is the responsibility of organisations and individuals Importance of risk assessment: legal requirement of health and safety legislation to carry out and document risk assessment; proven safe way to control infection if implemented properly by all staff

Learning outcome 5: Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE)in the prevention and control of infections Types of PPE: single use such as plastic aprons, gloves, face masks etc re-usable such as uniforms Reasons for PPE: protection of staff; protection of service users/patients; prevention of cross infection between individuals Current regulations and legislation: Legal requirement in health and safety legislation for provision and use of PPE where employees or others may be at risk; regulations for use of PPE in infection control (see legislation and regulations as listed above) Employee responsibilities: employee responsibility to use PPE appropriately and as instructed by employer; to check PPE before and after use; to report any damage or wear or other problems; to store in facilities provided for PPE, reporting infectious diseases Employer responsibilities: requirement for employer to provide appropriate PPE according to work activities without charge to employee; to train employee as appropriate in use of PPE, reporting mechanisms

How to use PPE: correct use of PPE including application and removal; using appropriate PPE for work activity; preparation for use Disposal: appropriate disposal of single use items e.g. in clinical/hazardous waste where appropriate; preparation of re-usable items for re-use e.g. sending to laundry appropriately labelled etc: following policies, procedures and guidelines Learning outcome 6: Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections Good personal hygiene: importance of personal hygiene in infection control; personal hygiene routines when preparing for work eg hair washing, fingernails; situations of personal and family illness which could increase infection risks at work; absence reporting procedure, and healthcare checks required before returning to work following illness; vaccinations required for work; appropriate clothing for different work areas; appropriate footwear; how to care for work wear; reasons for restrictions on wearing make-up and jewellery; effective hair care Hand washing procedures; procedures as set in workplace; using water at appropriate temperature, appropriate washing solutions, appropriate drying methods (e.g. paper towels) When and why to wash hands:

When to wash: before starting work; after finishing work; before and after contact with an individual/service user/patient; after using the toilet; after contact with any body fluids; following the removal of disposable gloves; before and after handling food; after handling used laundry and clinical waste Why: to reduce the risk of carrying infection on hands which could be risk to self or others Hand washing products: products available for use within the workplace including antibacterial liquid soaps; alcohol rubs etc Procedures for skincare: importance of general hand care and risks if hands are not cared for and become cut and chapped; dressing cuts and grazes to the skin, and other wounds

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