The life of man is many sided. There is an economic aspect, legal aspect, a religious aspect, political aspect, and so forth. Sociology, therefore, can understand a social life as a whole, by taking help from other social sciences which study exclusively one or the other aspects of human society. Sociology, for example, in order to understand a particular society has to take material of the economics, political science, history, anthropology, religion, morals, law and finally interaction with the rest of the world. Therefore all sciences are interrelate and interdependent.
Sociology not only borrows from other social sciences but other social sciences also dependent on sociology. Actually there are two types of social sciences called special sciences which deals special activity of society like economics, psychology etc. The second type of social sciences calle general social sciences which undertake comprehensively .Sociology comes in category of general science.
Sociology and Psychology are overlapping in that social influences effect the psychological development of individuals. Sociology is obvious in history in that the social interactions of individuals have effected history, and then of course there is the history of Sociology itself. The study of economics in sociology is stratification, which is the study of how we are a part of a certain economic level in society and how we got there and how it effects us. Finally, political science has been studied by many Sociologists for such issues as slavery, women in politics, etc. It is interesting to see the connection and distinction between sociology and some of more important social sciences in what follows: Relation between Sociology and History:
Both social sciences are now a days coming nearer to each other. Some time ago history was considered as science of some dates, places and struggles.But now people have realizes that why the particular event in history occurred? What was form of the same? In short history is another social science which is related to irect society and sociology. History primarily deals with past events and how they affected society eg how the Ino-Pak partition ,compel Sindhu(Hindu word it self has originated from Sindhu_)to prove themselves laborious, on the other end will be concerned with how people intereacted, how culture was affected etc during the present and before the partition . By presenting following points we can clear the relation of both: Sociology takes help from history in mater of present studies.
By comparing between occurring past and present events, one can estimate the factors responsible for occurring that event. Sociology is obvious in history in that the social interactions of individuals have effected history, and then of course there is the history of Sociology itself. There are so many institutions, like family ,tribe, culture, folkways, mores, tradition ,social movements, social changes etc, who have historical background of occurring. On the basis of that we can understand present situation , and try to organized accordingly. In sociological research studies, Historical method of study is very relevant and important. History is not only history of events but it is key to understand present events. In the same way sociology gives social background for the study of historical events.
G.E. Harward to remarked that History is past Sociology ,and Sociology is present history.
But, in spite of their close relationship the two sciences are distinct: Sociology is general science which covers all human aspects ,while history is special science which study only historical aspects of events. History is related with past events an there is no relation with modern events. Contrary to it Sociology is basically a modern science, which study present social situation of human behavior. Durkheim’s book ‘The Rules of Sociological Method’ says ,sociology is entirely different from history. He further says, historical events have record of individual roles, while sociology means ,it is study of social facts and social representations occurred by social circumstances. History means only description ,while sociology means analysis, interpretations and classifications. The nature of History is not scientific, which can not be retested .But the test of social phenomenon is possible. social facts can be verified also.
Relation between sociology and political science:
Sociology and political science are also related in the sense that they both concern the welfare of people in a society. Political science basically deals with the distribution of power and the exercise of power ,democracy, dictatorship, communism, how people vote etc. sociology has its roots in politics. These two subjects have much common in subject matters.the following points are showing relationship of both- The important point is that king of any place is social as well as political. There is no separate existence without each other. In words of Giddings,”to teach the theory of the state to men who have not learnt the first principles of sociology, is like teaching astronomy or thermodynamics to men who have not learnt Newton’s law of motions”.(Principles of Sociology p.37.)
Both sciences explain the interdependency between man and society. Political science says man is political while sociology say man is social. Both need a group of people ,where he interacts. The process of socialization is done by both sciences. Both are helpful in development of social an political consciousnesses. both sciences are complementary to each other. Sociology makes theories for people and political science try to implement it. there are many subjects in common where both take equal participation and interest to organized the society like law ,social control ,tradition, public opinion, crime etc.
But in spite of their close relationship the two sciences are distinct: Sociology is science of society. Political science is the science of state. Gilchrist says,”Sociology studies man as a social being ,and political organization is a special kind of social orgnisation; political science is more specialized science than sociology.”(Principles of Political Sciences.P.11) Sociology is science of society which studies all organized and unorganized activities while political science is science of society which studies only organized activities. Sociology studies only present society while political science studies present and indicates future side also. Sociology is older than political science. Human society had first come in existence .State and other political system arise after years. political science starts with the assumption that man is a political being, sociology goes behind that assumption and attempts to explain how an why man became a political being.
Relation between sociology and Anthropology:
Anthropology and sociology also deal with society but the only difference is that social anthropology mainly considers small groups and their culture but their area of study is basically the same. Actually both are same, two names for the same field enquiry.. The study of ancient and simple societies are done by Anthropology ,while on the basis of that sociology studies the wider and complex societies. Anthropology has been divided in to three parts. A-Physical Anthropology ,which deals with physical/bodily traits/features of early man and our primitive centuries back counterparts. with the help of that sociology try to know the reality of struggles among various groups. B-Cultural Anthropology which investigates the cultural remains of early man an of the living cultures of some of the primitive counterparts. With the help of this sociology studies cultural heritage and tries to understand the changes occurred by it. C-Social Anthropology deals with the institutions, behaviors and human relationships of primitives of the past and present. sociology also does scientific studies of human culture as a whole. Dr S.C.Dube says basically there is no difference between both. Anthropology takes help from sociological research methods while sociology interprets the things on the basis of studies done by anthropology.
Now a days Tribal societies an civilized societies are come closer to each other. Even the influence of technology is increasing day by day in tribal societies .The changing social values are encourage them to form big groups A.L. Karoeber has called sociology and anthropology twin sisters. Evans Pritchard considers social Anthropology to be branch of sociology.
But in spite of their close relationship the two sciences are distinct: Anthropology is the study social and cultural features of primitive societies while sociology studies the social and cultural features of modern societies. The simple and static primitive societies’s study is done by Anthropology while the study of complex and changeable societies is conducted by sociology. The study methods are different for both sciences .Participate observation is main method of study in Anthropology and sociology uses survey method. Sociology is concerned with social planning where as Anthropology is not concerned with social planning. It does not give any suggestion for future society.
Relation between sociology and economics:
There is also a relationship between sociology and economics which is another social science. Economics deals with the production of goods and services and how they are distributed to people just like sociology which also consider how the goods are reachable to all members of the society. In society every social being has some economic needs and these needs are evaluated by economics. Economics is science of wealth, which is possible in context of society. Marshall says economics is study of economic activities which are related to human welfare.
The following points are showing their relationship
We can not imagine a society without economic needs .All cultural elements are influenced by economic system. On the other side there is great influence of social conditions/control on economic system . Economic development and social progress go together in every society. In society where there is lack of education, and prevalence of unemployment, crimes and poverty ,that can not be called economically developed society. Both sciences study some common factors of society like rural reconstruction, labor welfare, unemployment, poverty, social security, industrialization, social insurance and planning etc. The theories of socialism, communism, democracy and welfare state are nothing bur the theories of social reorganization. According to Thomas, “economics is, in fact, but one branch of the comprehensive science of sociology”.(Elements of economics.p.7)
In spite of their close relationship the two sciences are distinct: Economics studies the economic relations of the society while sociology does study of all social relationship. The approach of study of both sciences are different. Sociology conclude the things on basis of all factors while economics considers only on the basis of economic factors. Both sciences use different methods of studies. The Inductive and dedective theories are important in economics,while sociology uses various methods like survey, case study, sociometry etc. Economic forces play important role in every aspect of social life .But the scope of sociology is still very wider. Economics is much older science than sociology.
In the end we can conclude with views given by Barnes and Beker, “Sociology is neither the handmaid, nor the mistress of other social sciences, but their sister”.