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The Sperm and the Egg Essay Sample

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The Sperm and the Egg Essay Sample

The process of the sperm and the egg from start to finish is a very interesting one. Both males and females play an important role in the process and one depends on the other to create life. The function and role of the male and female sex organs in relation to the sperm and the egg is also interesting. Without the egg the tadpole like sperm will die and without the sperm the egg will be released during the menstrual cycle. Movement of the Sperm and the Egg

Let’s begin with the movements of the sperm and the egg from development to fertilization. A female is born with all the ova (eggs) she will ever have, about 2 million, but they are immature in form (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). When she hits puberty her ovaries will begin releasing mature eggs into the fallopian tubes. This will occur once a month and is generally one egg at a time. A male produces sperm in the testes. The sperm cell develops through several stages. In an early stage sperm cells are called spermatocytes and each contains 46 chromosomes, one x and one y set (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). Each of these spermatocytes divides into two spermatids, each having 23 chromosomes (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). The sperm look similar to tadpoles with a head, a cone-shaped mid-piece, and a tail (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005).

The head of the sperm contains the nucleus that houses the chromosomes, while, the mid-piece contains structures that provide the energy the tail needs to swim (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). Within minutes the sperm make the journey towards the egg. They pass from the vagina, through the cervix, into the uterus, and then the fallopian tube where the egg is waiting. Only one sperm can penetrate the egg, once it does a secretion hardens the outer layer of the egg making it impossible for other sperm to enter. During fertilization, the 23 chromosomes from the male sperm combine with the 23 chromosomes from the female ovum (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005).

The sperm holds the sex chromosome and will determine the sex of the baby. Once the egg is fertilized it is referred to as a zygote. Tiny, hair like, cilia propel the egg through the fallopian tube toward the uterus. The cells of the zygote divide repeatedly as it moves down the fallopian tube and the zygote makes it to the uterus within a few days (The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2005). In the uterus the cells continue to divide, becoming a hollow ball called a blastocyst (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). Inside the uterus the blastocyst implants in the wall where it develops into an embryo. It is the function and role of the male and female sex organs that make it all possible. Function of the Female Sex Organs

Let’s first look at the function of the female sex organs. The external sex organs, or genitals, are called pudendum or vulva. They include; the mons veneris which consists of fatty tissue that covers the joint of pubic bones in front of the body and acts as a cushion during intercourse, the labia majora which are large folds of skin that run downward from the mons along the sides of the vulva and they shield the inner female genitals, the labia minora which is light-colored membranes between the major lips, and the clitoris which is the only sex organ whose only known function is the experiencing of pleasure (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). The internal sex organs carry out several functions. The internal organs of a female are the cervix, the uterus, the vagina, two ovaries, and fallopian tubes (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). The function of the ovaries is to produce the eggs and the female hormones. The function of the uterus is to act as a home for a developing fetus. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina which is sometimes referred to as the birth canal (The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2005). Functions of the Male Sex Organs

The male external sex organs are the penis and the scrotum. The penis is the organ used for sexual intercourse. Its main function is to ejaculate sperm and to pass urine. The penis contains three cylinders of spongy material that run its length. When a male is sexually aroused the spongy material fills with blood and results in an erection (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). The scrotum is a loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis and houses the testes (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). The scrotum has a protective function acting as a climate control for the testes. In order for normal sperm to develop the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler then the body (The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2005).

The male internal sex organs include; the testes which are responsible for making testosterone and sperm, vas deferens which is a muscular tube that transports sperm from the epididymis to the urethra for ejaculation (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L., 2005). There are also the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the cowpers gland which make up semen. The clear function of the male sex organs is to produce, maintain and transport sperm and to produce male sex hormones (The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2005). Role of the Male and Female Sex Organs

The role of the male and female sex organs are to regulate hormones and to make a baby. A male will take his erection and place it inside the female’s vagina where he will ejaculate. The sperm will find the egg and the role of the female uterus will be to offer a home to the growing baby. Clearly, the process of the sperm and egg from start to finish is a very interesting one. It takes both male and female sex organs to function correctly and make a baby. The male and the female are both important when it comes to the relationship of the sperm and the egg. Without one the other would not make it.

References
Cleveland Clinic Foundation. (2005). The Reproductive System. Retrieved from http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L. (2005). Human sexuality in a world of diversity. (6th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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