The Theory of Scientific Management Essay Sample

The Theory of Scientific Management Pages
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Taylor put forward that workers are motivated mainly by pay. Workers do not naturally enjoy their work which means they have to have close supervision and control. In order to do this, managers should break down production into a small series of tasks. Workers then should be given appropriate training and tools so that they are able to work efficiently as possible when appointed a task. Workers are then paid according to how much they produce (time-piece rate pay). As a result this increases productivity.

I have gathered this information from: http://www.tutor2u.net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories.htm

Financial interests would include:

* Opportunities to achieve bonuses eg. Employee of the month

* Rewards after a certain duration such as an extra 5% on top of what has been earned

Non-financial interests would include:

* Holidays abroad that have already been paid for

* Company discounts

What business would it help?

This strategy could be used for businesses such as Jessops (an electrical store). If the worker plays a role of a sales executive, manager or assistant, they could be paid according to how much they sell. This would encourage them to work harder as they would be getting paid according to how much they are selling. This is called piece rate pay and they still receive a basic wage. Certain skilled jobs require different amounts of productivity levels such as being a sales assistant. A sales assistant would have to encourage customers to purchase a certain product in order to receive their pay. So, the more a sales assistant sells the more money the will be making. Even though Taylor has proved that this theory has proved to increase productivity, money is not always the only motivation. I feel that workers also have to be involved with each other in the working environment, to socialise to an extent where they can enjoy work as well as to earn for a living.

What business would it not work in?

The theory would not work in a business where all workers are already earning quite a lot of money and can stop working at a very early age. An example would be footballers in a well known football club such as Manchester United. As they are already multi-millionaires, money would not motivate them as much, so the manager would have to create motivators which suit the footballers’ lifestyles, to ensure that they enjoy their job.

Theorist: Maslow

Theory name: Hierarchy of needs

I have found this image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs.svg

Maslow developed this hierarchy of needs based on research about what motivates people to work. He suggested that there were 5 levels of needs that influence a person’s behaviour.

1. Basic needs: For food, drink and shelter

2. Safety needs: Protection against danger, threat and deprivation

3. Social needs: The needs for belonging, acceptance and friendship

4. Self-esteem needs: Reputation and status

5. Self-actualization: The need for realising one’s own potential for continual self-development

“We move toward self actualization”. This quote brings in Maslow’s theory of motivation, tying along with the growth, happiness and satisfaction of every person. He believes to be motivated that it is not driven by reducing tension or avoiding frustration that people look for a positive view. I have gathered this information from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow.

What business would it help?

Maslow’s theory would help businesses that involve tall decentralised structures such as Waitrose where the workers can take responsibility and can also progress. As tall structures have many stages, the workers can work their way up to the top of the structures. They are able to work their way up once they have the confidence and achieved what they need to move on to the next level. This can be taken from “esteem” in Maslow’s hierarchy.

What business would it not work in?

People that work from home for companies would not need to use this hierarchy to survive when working. As they would be in the comfort of their home, they will not feel unwanted or feel to be in need of friendships between workers.

A small business such as a newsagent, would not suit these hierarchy of needs as there would not enough people working in the business to build up this type of structure. For example it would involve the basic physiological needs of having food and a place to excrete but as the hierarchy moves up it involves many more needs that include the environment and the workers such as esteem. Esteem would involve self esteem itself, confidence, achievement and respect of and by others. These factors are not very suitable for small businesses as the workers would be working with a maximum of 3 people so building on respecting others would not make a great improvement on how the business is run. Self actualisation would be impossible to achieve if the workers decide to stay in a small business. They would not be able to gain any more responsibility than what they already have and they would also lack further opportunities to progress beyond being a shop floor manager. In order to improve their career prospects they would have to move out of the small business sector and into a business that is much larger.

Theorist: Elton Mayo

Theory name: The Human Relation Approach

Mayo believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work. This was something that Taylor ignored. His theory focused on managers taking more of an interest in the workers, treating them as people who have worthwhile opinions and realising that workers enjoy interacting with each other.

He isolated two groups of women workers and studied the effect on their productivity levels when changing factors such as lighting and other working conditions. He expected the productivity levels to decrease as lighting or other working conditions became worse.

From this experiment, Mayo concluded that:

* There was better communication between managers and workers

* There was greater involvement in employees working lives

* They worked more in groups or teams

What business would it help?

Mayo’s theory would help businesses that have large departments such as Marks and Spencer’s, John Lewis and Sainsbury’s. People that work there are mainly designated to do their own job. For example, they will stand at the till, work behind the pharmacy counter or stock the shelves etc. These job roles can get very boring as there is a lot of repetitiveness. Even if they are motivated by the money alone, not all motivation is due to the pay. Workers have to be involved with the working environment which means they have to enjoy their time spent at work so they have the motivation to go into work. This would help the workers to be more involved with their job roles and these departments that they are allocated to work together as a team so it also covers the social needs that have to be met in order to have an enjoyable working environment.

What business would it not work in?

This theory would not work for catering businesses. As catering businesses employ people on a short term basis they are used to seeing different people most of the time which means they cannot socialise much. It takes the workers time to fit in with the new environment of people that are moving in and out of their working conditions which means they are unsettled so they are unable to socialise. Overall, I would see this type of business being motivated by money and not by socialisation needs.

Task 1B

Two theories that Waitrose use to keep their workers motivated are:-

* Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

* Hertzberg’s two factor theory

How Maslow’s theory is used by Waitrose

Maslow’s theory is used by Waitrose as they provide their workers everything that Maslow has in his hierarchy. Waitrose provides the basics, the safety and security, the employee of the month, socialisation time and also helps their workers build up confidence.

Waitrose provides:

* Health services

* Three full time occupational doctors

* Fifty health advisors working for them

* Life assurance which pays a sum equivalent to three times the annual salary to their nominated beneficiary

* A pension scheme from the age of 60, to most partners who have completed a five-year qualifying period

* Annual bonuses, discounts, benefits and paid holidays

* Leisure activities where Waitrose own residential clubs for workers that have provided three years of service

These can all be seen as motivator factors as health services, having three occupational doctors and fifty health advisors working for them gives great security of well being which other companies are unable to give. The disadvantage of this aspect is that it is costing Waitrose a lot of money but it does act a very strong motivator.

Life assurance also plays a large motivator as this money provides a piece of mind. It is a lump sum of money which is three times as much as the individuals’ salary which goes to the next of kin if the employee dies whilst working for them. The disadvantage for the company is that it increases company liability as three times the amount of their salary is a lot of money. In order to do this, Waitrose has to also buy insurance to cover them.

Waitrose also gives a pension scheme to employees that have stayed on for five years. This would motivate employees to carry on working for Waitrose as they would be receiving an extra factor that would benefit them in the future and it is a non-contributory scheme. This means that the employee does not have to contribute to their pension if they do not wish to do so. The disadvantage of this scheme is that the money is coming from Waitrose, therefore this would also increase company liability.

Providing leisure activities for employees that have given three years of service would also motivate them to stay on with Waitrose as they would be receiving an extra benefit. The disadvantage of having this aspect is that Waitrose are again spending their profits in order to keep their employees motivated.

Annual bonuses, discounts, benefits and paid holidays are also a motivator to work for Waitrose as the company shows their employees that they are needed. They also want to make working at Waitrose an enjoyable experience. The disadvantage of this aspect is that in order to provide this luxury, profit is being spent. Having discounts is not so much of a liability as a percentage of the profits still remain the same, but it takes longer to gain the money back.

The overall advantage of having these motivators is that they all have the possibility of reducing staff turnover even if a lot of money has to be spent. This is what makes peoples experience at Waitrose enjoyable.

(I have gathered this information from http://www.waitrose.com/about/thewaitrosefoundation.asp).

How Hertzberg’s theory is used by Waitrose

Hertzberg’s theory includes motivational and hygiene factors. Below is a diagram of Hertzberg’s theory model.

The motivational factors that Waitrose use are:

* Status

* Opportunity for advancement

* Gaining recognition

* Responsibility

* Challenging/ stimulating work

* Sense of personal achievement and personal growth in a job

(I have gathered this information from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/people/motivation_theory_herzberg.asp).

Waitrose match up to these factors as they provide responsibility so the workers have the opportunity to be in control of their work lives. This gives the workers more confidence as they have the power of a small amount of control. The company also provides employee of the month, which will also motivate the workers as they will have the push to work to their best limits to get to the top. Waitrose also offer challenging management career paths in the fast moving retail sector and they also believe that all workers have a say in the way the organisation is run.

Waitrose offers challenging career paths which relates to Herzberg’s motivational factor of having the opportunity for advancement. As the company allows their employees to work to achieve this they gain a sense of personal growth in a job. To help their employees gain this achievement they give them some responsibility so they are faced with a challenge.

(I have gathered this information from http://www.waitrosejobs.com/graduateSchemes/waitrose/index.php).

The hygiene factors that Waitrose use are:

* Company policy and administration

* Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration

* Quality of supervision

* Quality of inter-personal relations

* Working conditions

* Feeling of job security

Waitrose provides safe working conditions for their workers to ensure that they are secure and that they enjoy their work life. They provide benefits such as paid holidays and pension schemes which help out with the workers’ future and free time outside the working environment.

Two theories that Waitrose do not use and how Waitrose could use them:

* Taylor’s Theory Of Scientific Management

* McGregor’s Theory Of Theory X

How Waitrose could use Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management.

The theory is based on piece rate pay. This means you are paid according to how much you are producing in the given period of time. An example could be a baker at Waitrose. The baker would earn according to how many loafs of bread he/ she produces. Another example could be the role of a shop floor assistant. Here he/ she would have to sell themselves very well in order to gain sales. The more sales they make, the more they earn.

Using this method for the business of Waitrose could make a huge amount of earning for the company, but in the long run it could cause many problems as errors would be made. Mistakes would occur as the workers would be working according to the piece-rate pay pushing them to work faster in order to earn more. As workers would only be motivated by the money they are making, Waitrose would not need to provide for their workers social lives within the working environment, such as the sports leisure centres, health services and pension schemes. Due to money being the only motivator in this scheme, there is no back up in case the workers start to feel de-motivated which will decrease sales dramatically. This would end up costing Waitrose a lot of money, proving that the scheme that they use now would suit their environment in the best possible way.

Waitrose’s workers would not enjoy their working life as money would be their only motivator. Money is not the only factor that motivates people. They want to be able to enjoy their experience as well as to earn money. This theory of motivation does not provide any security or fringe benefits. It does not give a chance for the employees to move higher so that they can achieve more as no responsibility is given outside of their job role. Using this theory could become a loss for Waitrose as it could cause high staff turnover as other companies would be able to provide them with better staff quality.

How Waitrose could use McGregor’s Theory X.

Waitrose could use this Theory with there workers by motivating them in different ways. This would include not giving responsibility, they would be one-way communicators, not very good listeners, can be demanding if manager is a Theory X worker and they would be very anti-social. Using this method of motivation would lose Waitrose a lot of money, as they would have to have more workers to keep up to speed and to keep other workers on the correct track. More workers would also be needed to keep a close eye on them in small groups in case they step out of line. The workers would not be trustworthy nor attached to the environment.

This theory could work for Waitrose if their workers prefer to be told what to do instead of looking for work. If they are given orders they are able to complete their tasks much faster but in return they also want security within their job. Waitrose would have a good chance of have high productivity levels if they give these employees what they want as they do not demand much and they do not want any responsibility.

Task 1C

The areas of conflict that could take place between the motivational method and the objectives of Waitrose:

Method of motivation:

* To receive 25% discount on all John Lewis and Waitrose goods

Conflicts with this objective:

To reach profit target levels within a given period of time.

This method of motivation would disrupt the making of profits as it would prevent the company from reaching their target levels on time. As the company would be giving that percentage away to their employees it would take that extra time to make up for the loss.

Method of motivation:

* To receive bonuses, annually/ profit share

Conflicts with this objective:

To reach profit target levels within a given period of time.

To be able to expand.

This could count towards Waitrose not making targeted profit levels as giving away extra pay would slow down the process of making more money. This would happen every year because they are annual bonuses so reaching an end of year target may not be possible. If these targets cannot be met then the business may not be able to follow their original plans on time.

Method of motivation:

* To be trained according to the job role

Conflicts with this objective:

To reach profit target levels within a given period of time.

To provide a high quality of customer service.

As training staff can be expensive, profit levels may drop. This would be due to the extra staff that would have to come on to cover for the new workers and to pay for the time of the training for them. The cover staff may reduce the efficiency of the customer service as they may not be used to working in certain areas.

Method of motivation:

* To receive social perks such as extra holidays but only for certain staff, for example people who have been working for the company for over 5 years

Conflicts with this objective:

To reach profit target levels within a given period of time.

To provide a high quality of customer service.

This method of motivation would simply affect the levels of profit as a lot of the money would be spent of buying the rewards. This method would also result in Waitrose employing temporary staff for replacement whilst their permanent employees are away. This would drop their quality of service because the environment would be new for the temporary staff therefore it would take time for them to get used to the surroundings.

Method of motivation:

* To promote workers

Conflicts with this objective:

To reach profit target levels within a given period of time.

To provide a high quality of customer service.

This method would decrease the profits as the company would have to give higher wages, pay for extra cover workers (recruitment costs), provide training for new workers and replacements. This would decrease the quality of service as the new workers would have to get used to the working environment therefore the working efficiency would not be as good until they have a suitable amount of experience and practice.

Task 2A

Below are 10 areas in which I have implemented Taylor’s theory into Waitrose. I have spoken about 10 different methods in which Waitrose could improve in and then related it to the company noting the advantages and disadvantages of each.

As I have already mentioned in the previous task that Taylor’s Theory of motivation is based on money. Taylor’s theory can be used by piece rate pay if it was to be used in Waitrose. Piece rate pay is when you are paid according to how much you produce. Waitrose would not have to spend money on motivation methods as money would be the only motivator that would encourage them to work. This would save the company a lot of money which means they would be making profit much faster than their current rate but errors would increase.

Profit

Advantages

The productivity in Waitrose is most likely to increase as employees become more used to and involved with their role. As time moves on, the employees would have a better view and aspect on their job role. Therefore they would become experts at their job and produce more products; this is due to undertaking small tasks respectively. An example of this would be baking bread.

Disadvantages

As the current employees would be highly trained giving Waitrose a chance to provide an excellent customer service, during the recruitment periods the quality of their service may drop as new employees would have no experience. In order to train them, they have to use their profits in order to gain back their high quality of customer service.

Reduce costs

Advantages

As employees become experts at their job due to repetition of their work, they would make less errors which leads to reduced costs for the business.

Disadvantages

This repetition may cause boredom for the employees which can increase the errors that are being made. Boredom of the job may also end up leading to high staff turnover which would decrease productivity levels and profit levels dramatically.

Minimise waste

Advantages

Although staff may have the wages following the piece rate pay where the workers get paid according to how much they produce, they will not want to take the risk of rushing in case they have a loss of pay for inadequate goods so, therefore the employees would take care when they are producing products. As employees also become used to their job roles they become experts which mean they would be less likely to make errors which would decrease the amount of damaged goods and waste products being produced.

Disadvantages

Employees at Waitrose may end up rushing their work in order to meet their target levels which will increase the waste being produced as they will be producing inadequate products. The staff may also become bored of their job roles which can lead to making mistakes as the employees may not be very complacent.

Staff turnover

Advantages

Waitrose have to think of ways in which their staff turnover remains the lowest possible. As they pay their employees by the piece rate pay wages, it gives the staff more of an opportunity to earn more money, as it is up to the individual to how much they work. This may act as a motivator to stay. The staff at Waitrose are given small discreet tasks to get on with which results in them becoming very efficient and they can feel proud of what they have achieved. This increases their self esteem.

Disadvantages

The employees may not feel as secure as they do not have a guaranteed wage. For example, when they take days of work for being sick or when the equipment they work on fails, they will not be able to work therefore they may not be paid. The staff at Waitrose may feel restricted to one job which means they may not have the opportunity to progress higher leading to boredom of the job role. Due to this, the employees may look for alternative employment which can offer them a better future.

Recruitment of workers

Advantages

Recruitment makes it easier for the business to attract new staff as the piece rate pay is incentive. The potential employees have easy job roles that require minimum skills, therefore it would also be easy to find replacements as simple job roles and few skills are needed. The job descriptions are easy to produce as there is limited responsibility and the type of staff that are needed do not need to have a wide range of skills. A simple and narrow but specific set of skills would be needed.

Disadvantages

The main disadvantage would be that employees may get very bored of the role, as it would be very simple and standard with nothing challenging to do. There also would not be much of an opportunity to progress further. Applicants may think twice about applying for the job roles because of the piece rate pay as they may want financial security and set wages.

Increasing profit levels

Advantages

If the profit levels increased, Waitrose would have the chance to expand further on their company. They would be able to produce a higher quality range of goods in order to fulfil the full customer satisfaction. Their employees would also receive higher wages because of their hard work and commitment. Taylor’s method of motivation would help to increase the profit levels as his theory is based on money and money only. His method of motivation is done according to how much each individual produces (piece rate pay), therefore the more they produce the more profits the company receives meaning the wages for the employees can also increase.

Disadvantages

The employees of Waitrose would be very tired from all the hard constant work that they would have put into achieving the increased profit levels. The staff may become restless and over worked. This would not be efficient as staff would not be giving their full commitment later on due to all the stress and full on work. Staff turnover also has a chance of increasing as the employees may be over worked and they may not enjoy working there. Errors may also increase due to boredom of the job role leading to inefficiency. Costs would also increase as the errors would have to be paid off resulting in less profit.

Absenteeism

Advantages

This method would stop them from taking days off work for being sick as they would not be getting paid so this would be another motivator for the employees. It would help to keep the absenteeism levels low.

Disadvantages

The employees may get bored and tired of working. They may also be over worked which would decrease their motivation to work. This could then affect the businesses profit levels because their staff would not be giving their full 100% of effort into their jobs therefore they would be absent regularly.

Staff morale

Advantages

The employees would want to work hard to their full potential as they would be receiving higher wages if they show an increased amount of work being done. This would make the individual feel positive and good about their job.

Disadvantages

Money would be the only motivator for the workers. This may bore them as they would not be having any social time with the other employees. This may de-motivate them in a very bad way as they may not have anything else to look for ward to when going to work.

Quality of the product

Advantages

As Taylor’s method of motivation involves repetition the workers have a chance to perfect on their skills as they are practicing the same job roles every time they attend work which improves on the quality of the product.

Disadvantages

The disadvantage of this would be that the employees would be working a lot in order to have the best outcome. This would make them tired and restless due to over working. If Waitrose do not make much profit from the product, it would be a lot of time and money and work that would have gone to waste.

Beating the competition

Advantages

To beat competition, the employees would have to work constantly so they do not fall behind. This falls into Taylor’s theory well as he motivates them by the piece rate pay. So, they more the produce the more they earn. This would benefit both the company and the employee.

Disadvantages

If the wrong decision is made a lot of money would have been wasted as they would not have gained much out of the work that was put in. The problem with this theory is that Taylor sees the employees as individuals and not as a team. Some tasks have to be done in teams, for example when making a marketing decision as many skills have to be put together in order to gain a successful output.

Task 2B

* Autocratic

Management style description:

An autocratic leadership style is when the in business terms is a person who keeps most or all of the key authority for themselves. It is when the manager retains all of the power and decision making. He or she does not consult any of the other staff in any of the decisions that are made. The employees are not allowed to interfere of give the point of view when choices have to be made. They give a lot of orders and tell their employees exactly what to do. The employees are then expected to follow without any further questions or explanations. They tend not to delegate very much or share information willingly with their subordinates. They assume responsibility for all operational aspects. This type or leadership style would work for factories and in the army, even though it has been criticised for a very long time.

When this style would work for Waitrose:

– This style would work best when new employees have just recently started to work and they would not know many things at first. As everything would be new to them, it would be best that they receive orders from their managers so they do not lose track of their job role. They also are able to perceive close supervision.

– When the productivity level is low, the mangers need to act fast. In order to do this they would give specific orders to the staff. This would keep the staff paced at a good rate so they do not fall back.

– When the employees receive poor appraisals, the manager has to put things in place again so the company has a good track record. Therefore the he/ she would have to give strict orders and instructions to ensure this.

– During busy periods such as Christmas, when there are sales or when there are inspections, the manager will need to make fast decisions to when and where certain products will go and how much to produce. This is when this type of method will be very efficient as decisions would be made very fast which means there would be no problems with getting left behind.

– When the different departments need to come together, many people would be involved within the same task. Therefore the manager would make it easier for everyone to co-ordinate all the details and information needed in order for the task to go forward. This would avoid all the hassles and errors.

When this style would not work for Waitrose:

– This strategy would not work well when the departments need to come together to do the marketing for the products. The employees would need to work with each other in order to make the correct decisions about which marketing strategy to use. If the incorrect choice was made then the company would loose a lot of profit and money as they would not be targeting the correct target market.

– When the manager makes the decisions and does not tell the employees about any of the choices that are made, the staff may become frustrated an annoyed with the new changes happening as they would not all agree with the decisions. They may feel left out, not involved and lost as they would not know what would be going on.

– Due to the employees being unhappy about the situation and the way their work environment works, the company would end up with a high staff turnover which would not look good on the company’s records. This would lead the business to be short staffed.

– If the managers always make the decisions, whether they are big or small choices to make, the staff may become very dependant of him or her. This would result in their staff being scared of tasks if they are suddenly given a small responsibility. They would also loose all their confidence when being independent. The highly skilled staff would not be satisfied with their duties as their skills would not be put to use. Even if the manager would be the one to make all the decisions, the skilled workers may know best due to experience in that particular sector of work.

How does this management style help motivation?

This management style motivates the employees in many ways. Below are a few ways that the staff can be motivated.

– The staff may be motivated as they would not have the pressure of being responsible of any thing. If they are responsible of a task it would not be big, therefore they would not become stressed and worried.

– The employees would receive rewards for following the correct orders so in return they would get praised by the manager. This would motivate the staff to work to their full potential.

– Another motivator would be that the employees would not feel lost or have low self esteem as they would have been given orders which would ensure them that they are doing the correct thing.

Why do Waitrose use that style of management?

Waitrose may use that style of management and leadership as it would be in control by one person. This way, not many mistakes would be made. As there are many staff working at Waitrose, getting everyone involved may confused certain decisions. Therefore the best option would be to use the autocratic leadership style to keep things simple. If the manager keeps in control of all the changes that are going to happen, then the company will know exactly when and where everything is. This means that nothing will get confusing or lost as the staff will not be involved with the changes. This is especially appropriate and useful for new and poorly appraised staff and if the productivity levels in the business fall.

* Democratic

Management style description

A democratic leadership style is when the manager or the main leader invites the other staff to help make a decision. Using this leadership method would mean that not all responsibility is put on to one person. The manager would share all the responsibility out so all the staff is involved with the decisions made. A democratic leadership style works well with experienced and confident employees who can join in with group discussions and decision making. It gives other employees a chance to progress and a chance for their point to be shown and shared with their co-workers.

When this style would work for Waitrose:

– This style would work for Waitrose when marketing comes into the picture. All departments would need to come together in order to decide how to do things, so they would be working in teams or as one big team. It needs creativity and involves skilled workers.

– When the employees work within their own small departments they can work as one team but they would have to report everything to the head staff or manager at the end to inform them of the changes or decisions that may have been made.

– When the employees that are experienced are involved as they know what they are doing. Depending on how long they would have been working at the company for, they would have experienced and seen changes that have happened, therefore they would know what to do for future decisions.

– If the changes are being made according to the employees comfort, for example their hours or wages the employees would want to be involved. As the changes happening would be involving the staff, they would want a say in the change that is happening. This would help the manager as he or she would know if the employees are happy with the change.

– When new products are brought into the different sectors, the departments would work together to promote and which marketing strategies to use, so they can make their customers aware of the new products.

– When the customers have queries that need resolving, the staff may need to work together to find the best solution in order to fix the problem, or if one member of staff do not know how to deal with the query then having a partner or a group of employees working together would help and make things easier.

– When big changes are being made the staff can be reluctant to face changes, therefore they may feel that they need to be consulted before anything goes ahead. This way they will feel more accepted.

When this style would not work for Waitrose:

– This style of leadership would not work for Waitrose if the employees are failing to meet their targets because their would be no one to advise them as they would be using their own skills.

– When the business is under inspection the employees will have to be organised to their best potential at what they are doing so they are not running around finding jobs to do. If it was an autocratic leadership everything would already be organised.

– When the store is busy, such as the Christmas holidays or sales, it would be easier if the manager allocated all the employees to the available roles instead of the staff being every where not knowing where the best place to be is.

How does this management style help motivation?

Staff can be motivated very well with this style of leadership. Below are a few of the ways that help the employees to be motivated.

– As the employees are involved with the changes and decisions that are made, it makes the employees feel special and part of the business instead of being workers for the business.

– To the employees, their opinions matter to each other. Therefore, the staff work harder in order to come up with ideas to help boost the business. This also advantages the company as they have to chance to hear ideas from an outsiders’ point of view. This way the company will be working from the customers’ point of view and not just what would work best for the staff.

– This leadership style would motivate workers as they would have responsibility which would make them feel needed and they would have self esteem.

Why do Waitrose use that style of management?

Waitrose use this style of management because it involves all of their staff. The company try to make the work life for their employees as enjoyable as they can so they feel motivated to come to work. It gives their employees shared responsibility between them all. This encourages them to meet their targets and be in control of a task. The fact that the manager decides to involve the employees when making changes also makes it easier to come to a conclusion as all the best points come forward and everyone hears each others input towards the decision. Even if this style of leadership takes longer to make a decision, the best output comes from it. All the workers are happy as they know that they have had a say in the future changes of their working environment.

* Laissez Faire

Management style description

The Laissez Faire is also known as the “hands-off” style. This is when the manager provides minimum direction. The employees have all the power to make their own decisions but they also have to solve their own queries with no help from the manager. They are given all the freedom that a manager can give but they also have to determine their own goals. Here the workers are very experienced, well educated and highly skilled.

When this style would work for Waitrose:

– This style would work for Waitrose when their workers are very experienced and know what they are doing. The employees would have to have worked at Waitrose for a fair enough time to work themselves with out a manager to look out for them.

– When the employees are going to be advertising or creating campaigns as they would not have to consult the manager. It would work out better as the employees would know best what happening with their marketing sales.

– It would work when the store managers are qualified very well and the staff are highly skilled as they would be able to coordinate themselves to tasks that need to be completed without being told.

– They employees would be trusted a lot as they would be long standing and would show that they are committed to their job as they know what they doing in depth.

– The employees would be confident at what they are doing as they would have been on their own from the beginning so they would have learnt everything from the start by them selves.

When this style would not work for Waitrose:

– This style would not work with Waitrose when new employees have been employed. For example, when Waitrose recruit, new employees will be coming in and out. They will not know anything even when and where to start.

– The employees may become stress or depressed due to all the responsibility that they would have from meeting their own deadlines and targets.

– It would not work when Waitrose has employed low skilled workers as they may only know how to use a till. If they are unaware of how to work a till, then they would have to be trained but this would take a very long time which means the production rate would decrease and slow down.

– The levels of absenteeism would be high as the employees may have too much to deal with and the responsibility may be too much for them. It may also cause high staff turnover as the employees would want to get away from the work.

– The manager would not understand the levels of work that the employees are doing therefore he or she is hoping that the employees can cover for them.

– It may make the employees feel insecure as they would have to loss of a manager.

– The manager would not be able to give the employees regular feedback on their progress at work, therefore they would not be praised for their work and would be given appraisals at work.

How does this management style help motivation?

Staff can be motivated in many ways with this style of leadership. Below are some of the ways that employees are motivated.

– The employees can make their own deadlines according to their working style or to what suits them the best.

– They have complete responsibility which means they have reached the top of Maslow’s heirarchy at self actualisation. This proves that they are creative, lack prejudice, can problem solve and can accept facts.

– They feel trusted with the work which means that they will be loyal towards their work life.

Why do Waitrose use that style of management?

Waitrose uses this style of management so they can give their employees full control of their job roles as it gives them confidence in their work. Using this leadership helps the company to show to their employees that they trust them. The employees show pride in their work and as they are responsible it gives them that push to do it own their own successfully. The employees are also able to work in teams with this style of leadership. This would help the company and the employees as they would be sharing ideas and the company would have heard their employees views as well.

Task 2C

Areas of conflict between individual and organisations needs and the explanations of how they can be resolved prevented and justified

* Workers ambition V lack of opportunity to progress

Situation:

To allow the employees to progress further up the hierarchy without losing out on much profit or time. If they do want to move up, it would cost time and money as they would need to be trained and it would also take a while for the employ to settle in with the new job role and environment. Opportunities also need to be available and this may not be the case.

This may happen when an employee has been serving Waitrose for a long period of time and want to have the opportunity to advance.

Resolved:

Introducing job enlargement would make the employees feel as if they are gaining an opportunity to progress. This would allow them to have a feel of being responsible to more aspects of the business. In other words they would be in control of more tasks.

If the company offer a wage rise, the employees may also feel that they are moving up as the higher you move up the better pay you receive as the work tends to hold more control and responsibility.

If the business allows the employees to work shadow, they will have the opportunity to be learning new things. This way they will be progressing but without being paid while they are being trained. When opportunities arrive, they will have the experience to be a strong candidate to apply.

Prevented:

To prevent the employees complaining and wanting to progress when there is no opportunity for them, the company could mention it at the interview before they agree to take on the job if they receive an offer.

The company could also write up a contract stating that there is no opportunity to progress unless a promotion comes up, which they will be informed of.

Justified:

To justify the situation, they could show the employee the contract that they signed at the interview to show that they agreed to the situation.

The company could also explain to the member of staff that they need to hold back on promotion because they want to cut costs and help raise profit levels for bonuses and discounts etc.

* Wanting control over job V requirements to work

Situation:

To justify the amount of hours given to the employees without giving to much control over their job role.

This may happen when an employee wants more flexibility according to their life style or if they want to do over time but they can only to a certain amount otherwise it may become unfair to the other employees that work in the same sector.

Resolved:

The manager could put up rotas showing the staff working hours and the amount they are putting into the business. This way everybody would be able to see what the popular hours are and what hours are available.

The company could hire more staff to fill in the gaps in the rotas if all the workers are already working more than their expected hours but it can be very expensive.

The employees could also job share. This means they would share the hours out between them so they do no have to work the full 5 hours. So, therefore one member of staff could work 2 hours and 30 minutes and the other employee could do the other half. This way not all of the work gets put onto one person and they both receive their wage.

The popular hours could be on a fixed rota to make it as equal as possible for the employees.

Prevented:

This situation could be prevented by stating clearly at the interview stage what the job role that they are applying for involves so they applicant knows for sure what they are in for and the hours they are expected to work.

In the contract it should state what the working hours will be and what will happen if they are short of workers.

Justified:

The situation could be justified by showing the employee the contract that they agreed on before joining the company.

The manager could also explain that all hours need to be covered of the supermarket opening hours and unfortunately some of the hours are more popular than the other but not all staff can benefit from this as it comes on a first come first serve basis.

* Increased pay V objective to make profit

Situation:

To increase profit without reducing the amount of employees that Waitrose already have. If employees ask for a pay rise the company have to ensure that they do not lose out on their profit.

This situation may occur if an employee feels as if they are not receiving the correct pay for the amount of work they are producing. It would be more of a problem when the sales are at its lowest.

Resolved:

Introducing non-financial incentives such as vouchers, holidays or discounts instead of giving a higher wage would be one way to resolve this situation.

The manager could review the pay on time, for example every month exactly, therefore no-one would get left behind or ask for a raise due to late pay.

The manager could give appraisals, but if the employee or employees get an excellent appraisal they could be entitled to ask for a pay rise due to their outcome of work.

Prevented:

If the manager states that there is a set pay at the interview stage, the employee cannot argue with the fact as they would have agreed to the contract before they would have joined the company.

The manager could introduce pay brackets. This way they would have limits to how high they can raise their pay by.

Giving pay reviews would also help. If this is done then the manager can see if the employee is entitled to a pay rise but it would have to within the pay brackets, otherwise the company would loose profit.

Justified:

The manager would have to explain to the employee that the profits are shared so it is hard to give a pay rise. Giving a pay rise also results in less profit therefore less bonuses can be given out.

The employee signed a contract before they joined so they can show the contract to them to prove that they agreed with the situation.

Task 3

Team situation:

My team situation is based on my Unit 2 coursework in my AS level. During the period of producing this coursework, I worked with my partner to produce a piece of work. This coursework was about opening a business with my partner and successfully keeping it open. We had to work together for a school term (4 months) and produce charts that told us how much to sell in order to break even we both hoped to achieve a good piece of coursework. In order to do this we had to co-operate, share out ideas and work together. This coursework involved researching everything that is needed when starting up a business. Agreeing and deciding on choices that we had to make was one of the main situations that we both were always dealing with.

The benefits and limitations of working as a team:

Benefits

* If we worked as a team we would have the chance to receive help from each other if we did not understand certain tasks.

* If I wanted to change an aspect of the coursework, I would always have the chance to hear a second opinion.

* When one of us did not know how to do a task we would teach each other, therefore the outcome would be that we would always learn something new.

* We were able to share out the responsibilities. This would decrease the stress and pressure on one person.

* When we had a problem to solve, it was much easier as there were both of us working on the problem. Therefore, the more skills you have put together, the faster he problem can be solved.

* We have each others help to make choices, even though it takes longer we would still come out with the best outcome as we would have taken into consideration each others views.

* The productivity levels usually become higher.

* Working in a team allows each member to be allocated to their tasks according to their weaknesses and strengths.

* Tasks can get done much faster as there would be more than one person working on a particular job.

* Certain people within a team can be trained to do more than one job. This is called flexible working.

* Having a team may allow them to have a social life within the working environment as well as socialising outside of work.

* Other members of the team can motivate their team workers to come to work and work to their full potential.

Limitations

* When making a decision it would take longer to come to a final choice, if we were not working together it would be up to the individual.

* Arguments may occur if the team could not come to a suitable decision.

* Indirect or direct bullying could happen.

* It would take a long time for all the co-workers to bond and trust one another.

* The team may not get along, therefore it would be hard to work as a team.

* The managers cannot select people in their own “image” rather than considering what it needed the most.

* The productivity levels may fall to the level of the weakest worker.

* Meetingitis’ can occur due to having too many discussions on what action to take. This would be a waste of time.

* As managers are not really a part of the team they still have to be in charge of what happens and where everyone is located. This can cause a problem as the managers do not always allocate their work to the workers properly. They do not always understand the way the team member work, for example: whether they are gelled together or not.

* If a new member comes into the team, they may find it hard to fit in and settle. This is an area where bullying can occur.

* The team may take advantage of a worker by dropping all the work into their lap. As they are working as a team they will all be rewarded if the team produce a good output. Therefore, the individual that has been working the most will not receive an extra praise.

* If one of the team members are not comfortable with working with the team they may feel neglected. If this happens their work may suffer and the team will be let down.

* The workers may become very attached to each other and they may start to get on too well. If this does occur, their work productivity levels will drop as the working environment will become a socialising place. The team may start making excuses up to cover up for their fellow co-workers when the manager starts to ask questions when the team is not meeting their targets.

* The workers within the team may clash if they have different opinions, attitudes and approaches to work.

* Working as a team also makes it hard to track the individual’s progress at work as everyone is moving from one task to anther to help each other out even if they are located to doing one task.

What was the team structure?

Belbin carried out a research in the 1970’s. He identified eight roles which would prove to be useful in a well balanced team. Later on, a ninth role was identified. Belbin’s theory can be used in such areas as team selection, understanding group dynamics and improving team performance. There are several types of team, they are: Temporary teams, Cross-functional teams, Top management teams and Self-directed teams. Many teams have less than 9 people. Some teams need to contain specific types of people. For these reasons Belbin’s theory is not a master plan but it does provide a structured mechanism for team members and managers to look at the dynamics of their team and understand the relationships.

Below are the nine roles that Belbin identified:

Plant – Creative, imaginative, unorthodox and solves difficult problems. (However they tend to ignore incidentals and are too immersed to communicate effectively).

Resource Investigator – Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative and explores opportunities and networks with others. (However they can be over optimistic and they may lose interest after the initial enthusiasm has passed).

Co-ordinator – Belbin’s Co-ordinator is a mature, confident and a natural chairperson. They clarify goals, promote decision-making and delegate effectively. (However it can be seen as being very manipulative and controlling. They can over delegate by off loading personal work).

Shaper – Challenging, dynamic and thrives under pressure. They also jump hurdles using determination and courage. (However they can be easily provoked and ignorant of the feelings of others).

Monitor Evaluator – Even tempered, strategic, discerning and they see all the options and judges accurately. (However they can lack the drive and inspired leadership qualities).

Team Worker – Co-operative, relationship focused, sensitive and diplomatic. Belbin described the Team Worker as a good listener who builds relationships and who dislikes confrontation. (However they can be indecisive in crisis).

Implementer – Disciplined, reliable, conservative, efficient and acts on ideas. (However they can be inflexible and slow to see new opportunities).

Completer-Finisher – Conscientious and anxious to get the job done. Has an eye for detail, good at searching out the errors. Finishes and delivers on time. (However they can be a worrier and reluctant to delegate).

Specialist – Single minded self starter that is dedicated and provides specialist knowledge. The rarer the supplier of this knowledge, the more dedicated the specialised. This was stated by Belbin.

(However they can be stuck in the niche with little interest in the world outside it and dwell on technicalities).

These nine identities describe the characteristics of each role in the Belbin theory. I have also shown in brackets, what the allowable weaknesses are. This means that managers can expect these weaknesses to emerge and therefore an allowance should be made. For example, if a ‘Team Worker’ has a natural tendency to be indecisive in a crisis, then the team can make sure that they do not have high expectations in that situation. However, it is evident that many of these roles will naturally conflict with each other. It is very powerful when individuals within a team understand that the conflicts that sometimes occur are caused by these natural behaviours and tendencies and not because the other person does not like them.

The Belbin self perception inventory was allocated to the teams members by a series of questions that were asked to each team member on how they behave in certain situations. From the answers they can surmise which profile fitted the team member. This can then be discussed between team members as they understand what the findings mean to them. Each team member will not be 100% skilled at one of the roles. They will have been allocated to the top three that they scored best in. this would make up for the shortage of the nine people if there are not enough workers to cover the identities.

I have sourced this information from (http://www.teambuilding.co.uk/team_building_belbin.html)

* My team structure and how it fit with Belbin’s theory

My team structure involved the co-ordinator, implementer, the plant and the monitor evaluator. I was the co-ordinator and the implementer and my partner was the plant and monitor evaluator.

As the co-ordinator, I took the lead with most tasks. I helped my partner with graphs and charts where we had to control the finances in order to break even. I also took the lead of being the implementer. Here I had to turn all of our decisions into practical actions such as when we discussed whether we were going to let or buy the office in order to carry out our business in, when we decided I took the first step by researching in order to find a suitable office that would fit into our budget.

My partner had the role of being the plant and monitor evaluator. Here she had to view all the possible options that could be foreseen in order to have the best outcome when doing our coursework. She also had to be very creative and imaginative when organising the products that were needed in order to carry out our coursework.

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