Asian countries, such as Macau and Singapore, have invested in innovations directed at the development of operations management (also known as management science) for the cultural sector. Managing the arts calls for skills in the management of cultural activities, background knowledge about how culture may be viewed by analyzing incidents in their proper historical context, a deep understanding of how cultural organizations and artists integrate paradigms in order to achieve the goals of their objectives; finally, there is the required broad knowledge about the various types of art expressions (Tan, 2001).
For these Asian economies, Management of the Arts curriculum designs focused on training of human resource to oversee the preservation of cultural and heritage sites and to meet the demands that go with the very organization inherent to the management systems that give the construction of modern cultural infrastructures, such as museums and art centers, their significant purposes and roles (Karugawa, 2002).
In Europe, cultural policy and management of the arts, derive their rights to discourse from how Europe recognizes that human resource for the arts and cultural sector must do away with generalist principles and aim for good training when it comes to management skills and long, worthwhile immersion periods in one’s chosen cultural activity or art form (Leary, Ed., 2007).
Presently, these models when applied to management courses as training “pathways”, allow professionals to build their careers in more dynamic ways. Individuals can now choose specific and highly concentrated modules if they want to immerse their professional lives in only one cultural activity or art form, but they can also opt for a more generic placement options within a certain discipline and its areas of discourse, such as research development and even tourism (Holden, 2006).
This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of using performance targets as management tools in the cultural sector. In a more defined essence, it aims to answer the following question:
- What is performance management and what are the basic features of performance targets?
- What are the core competencies in the area of human resource management and how do these manifest in the efficient evaluation of management science tools?
- What are some issues to consider when planning for innovations in the design of management of the arts “pathways” and modules?
The theories and related literature that support this analysis paper are presented as follows:
- Taylor, (1911) in “Scientific Management” philosophized that management should focus on “securing maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with maximum prosperity for the employee”. Fayol, (1916) in “What is Management” drew the roles of a manager by highlighting the tasks of “ to plan, organize, command, co-ordinate, and control ” as being those significant tasks proper to all managerial[management] positions.
- What management is as a discipline as presented by Stewart (1967) in “Managers and their Jobs” was approached in four classic ways which were segregated as being the “theoretical, descriptive, comparative, action-based” methods of deriving the meaning of management. Stewart indicates that “theory of management, positions in management, organizational division in management, and the practice of management”, are four of the critical factors which make management a science.
- After the theoretical period of defining management using classic methods, Weber, (1924), who was influential for using social and economic theoretical analysis in order to unify some aspects of the different sciences, as cited by Boylan; incidentally critiqued and amended by Vlachos, (2000) in “Introduction to the theoretical and philosophical basis of modern management”, a series of notes on Cultural Policy and Management, presented an angle coming from the modern era. Weber postulated that the “rational, traditional and charismatic classifications of legal authority assimilated the semblance of first orders in management where managers must capitalize on the use of their free will while the employers must always heed to practice utmost discipline in their labor environments”.
- Sloan, also, cited by Boylan (1963), developed a “federal structure and management system accompanied by the development of a strategic system of strategic planning and managerial accountability”. Mayo, (1950) furthered the theories of Sloane by introducing the concept of performance as “ basically not economic-depends more on working conditions and attitude- communication, positive management response, and encouragement”, thus producing work satisfaction.
- McGregor, (1964) in “The Human Side of Enterprise”, formulated a response to Sloane wherein McGregor locates a few underlying principles. According to McGregor, on the topic of management, “ …behind every managerial decision or action are assumptions about human nature and human behavior,” and that it should be taken into consideration how there is a “ Theory X—the negative view of human behavior and management–, and Theory Y—the opposite of Theory X.”
The methodology used in this research essay is content analysis. The focus of analysis has been the descriptions/definitions of management across decades found in qualitative and quantitative texts in archives, libraries, university discussions, and in the internet.
The source of empirical data was based on a case study about the exploitation and development of the job potential in the cultural sector in the age of digitalization
(and digitalization is one of the issues to consider when planning for innovations in the design of management of the arts “pathways” and modules), presented in Munich in June of 2001. The final report which was presented to the scholastic audience had commissioned by the European Commission on DG Employment and Social Affairs.
Other sources of primary data were two cumulative studies on performance management and performance targets.
The procedure undertaken in this research essay is as follows:
- Determining the relevant sources of information with regard to issues to consider when planning for innovations in the design of management of the arts “pathways” and modules, in the light of a goal that has been determined to have this quality: “ in the context of the country, region, or local authority of your choice”. The relevant sources chosen for this study are the following:
- United Kingdom
- European Council
- International Federation of Art Councils and Cultural Agencies
- Other international sources on cultural policy
- Determining the particular research and development issues to analyze-
From all the relevant sources of information for the problem of this research essay, the researcher determined the particular research and development issues to be used in the research essay by getting the most recent and significant data forms suitable to the modern perspective. These are:
- cultural preservation
- performance management and performance targets
- Procedures in Content Analysis of Empirical data and other primary data-
- Noting down the phrases/sentences/words/ that best define what management is.
The researcher collected qualitative and quantitative texts in archives, libraries, university discussions, and in the internet. Phrases/ sentences /words used to define management were noted.
- Gathering significant content data about performance management and performance targets.
From the data collected through these qualitative and quantitative texts in archives, libraries, university discussions, and in the internet, two cumulative and comprehensive studies and one final report for an international convention were isolated for further analysis and discussion.
- Choosing a country, region, or local authority for the study,
The country, region, or local authority was chosen based on the top four relevant sources for the research essay , in the light of issues for innovation planning in the management of the arts for the cultural sector.
- Determining what specific art form or organization to use in this research essay
The specific art form or organization used in the hypothethical part “solution” -part “conclusion”–to the research essay problem– section of this;can be attributed to the analysis and discussion of: the issues for innovation planning in the management of the arts for the cultural sector.
- Evaluating the data in order to locate the issues relevant to this paper’s (research essay) objectives.
The relevant issues for innovation planning in the management of the arts for the cultural sector, were drawn from the process of determining the meaning of performance management and discussing the utilization of performance targets as management tools in the cultural sector.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
It must be delineated that professionals should not be regarded as “human resource” in any department of discipline and labor, but they must be seen as
“ resourceful humans”.
- Performance Management
Performance management is not merely an evaluation mechanism, but a powerful motivational and development tool which should be a continuous process rather than a rigid bureaucratic system (Lowry, 2000). It is necessarily divided into the formal and informal classifications; the two major sects when it comes to the processes proper to each professional competency. These processes are to be used appropriately to negotiate the occurrence of events in various organizational implementations useful to their corresponding beneficiary sovereign sector.
- Performance Targets
Performance targets generally tend to improve employee efficiency and these consequently improve the level of performance amongst a company’s labor force (Tan, 2001) When used with appraisal system, the goal of attaining, “maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with maximum prosperity for the employee” may very well be achieved without sacrificing the other objectives which propose to preserve the esteem that each management group should have for the concepts and essences of dignity, parity, justice, respect, and fairness, in order to maintain the basic economic ideology of “ for the common good”.
Appraisal systems make sure that employees (the members of a work/labor force) do not have to feel that they lack dignity in their work environment, and also, these professionals who make up the human resource base of companies, institutions, and organizations, should never have to suspect that they are operating amidst a culture which extols the presence of the servile common and the reigning elite. Skilled workers must be employed where their contribution will be most widely felt (Todaro, 1999).
Effective appraisal systems assist those in managerial positions in ensuring that companies, institutions, and organizations are able to assess employees against defined objectives (Karugawa, 2002). These managerial assessment methods act as channels by which employees can receive feedback from their superiors about the quality of their work, and appraisal systems are also ways to “praise” the effort of employees. This is how performance efficiency levels are raised. Employees will feel “valued”. Through appraisal systems, strengths and weaknesses may be addressed and subsequently, solutions to negate and nullify theses weaknesses may also be found. Lastly, appraisal systems pave the way for the delivery of further objectives and future targets—in performance efficiency—from managerial group to human resource(“ resourceful humans”) group.
- Recommendation about Appraisal Systems in relation to Performance Targets
Different situations require different appraisers to maintain the good of propriety and also, appropriation.
1.) “Objective based, competency based, and multi-source feedback approaches” are newer ways of assessing employee performance as opposed to the older variation of trait system appraisals (Lowry, 2000).
2.) Incidents of low (under) performance should be handled with great care. As has already been mentioned, the belief should always be that of how the managerial professionals are dealing with humans as material beings, and how it (management science) is a system which centers on the extraction of materials from humans is not the case (Todaro, 1999).
- Some issues to consider when planning for innovations in the design of management of the arts “pathways” and modules
There is a need to look at the status of digital preservation in the United Kingdom, a country with a rich documentary history dating back more than a thousand years. Whether the cultural heritage of Britain can be preserved in digital form is open to question; this is equally true for the United States and nations throughout the world. It has been said that, in relation to their numbers, the British people have made a greater contribution to world civilization than any group of people since the ancient Greeks and Romans. It remains to be seen whether they can lay claim to such a feat in the sphere of digital preservation (Robbins, 2000).
Discussing Secondary Issues
Digital preservation remains relatively undeveloped. The United Kingdom does not possess a strategy for the long-term preservation of digital information on a measure of standard large enough in order to suffice and serve as support to the birth of innovations in research and development. A strategic positioning plan (design) for digital preservation is now one of the pressing demands that needs best to be met in a timely manner in any national information policy campaign and it should be integral to any investment in digital libraries and fiber optic information highways.
According to Hayes in “Digital Culture: Maximizing the Nation’s Investment” as cited by Robbins,, (2000; 3) “leading members of Britain’s digital preservation community conclude that there exists wide concern that digital resources are being lost and agreement on the need for a campaign to promote general public awareness concerning the digital preservation problem agreement that most organizations have not yet addressed the implications of digital preservation; policies and other technical guidance addressing best practices are not available.”
In the first illustration concept map(below), however, it can be seen that even if Robbins indicated that “ there is no campaign concerning the promotion of general public awareness regarding the preservation of culture and heritage in the age of digitalization, in the United Kingdom: the figure presents that contrary to the situation that the United Kingdom finds itself in against the backdrop of ever-present changes in society, science, and technology, there are statistical findings which proclaim that in Europe, the scenario is disparate and rather far from the statistical record of the United Kingdom.
As of 1999, according to the findings of the case study about the exploitation and development of the job potential in the cultural sector in the age of digitalization ( and digitalization is one of the issues to consider when planning for innovations in the design of management of the arts “pathways” and modules), presented in Munich in June of 2001: the three pronged shared hierarchy which describes the European Union’s global positioning as a conglomerate of nations which are supported by the merits of the new age digital culture is as follows: 1.) Technological innovations represent the element of TIME in existence, and changes in technology are necessarily factored out by time; 2.) The size of services and the methods of distribution of these services also depend on a trend: seasonality ratio, therefore, these two are also configured by the essence of the ever-changing times; and; 3.) Since, cultural changes can be attributed to technological changes– developments in the cultural sector are dependent on time, technology, service and distribution elemental integration;
in the case study that has been cited, the three-pronged shared hierarchy presently do move towards the leadership of the digital culture as influence—trend.
More significantly, the case study produced two results which are available for a compare/contrast reading. It was presented that in the EU today, there are less people employed in the recreational, cultural, and sporting activities (figure 3), than there are “resourceful humans” employed in the digital sector, meaning, the sector reserved for publishing, printing, recorded media (figure 4)
In Table 1, (1999) 2,004 was the total surveyed number of those employed in the cultural sector, and 5,161 had been the statistical frequency recorded for those with non-cultural occupations.
How then, to best reconcile the phenomenon of ambiguity that has emerged from this data? The answer is through a hypothetical proposal drawn from the practical laws, herein.
- Cultural and Heritage Preservation—a hypothesis: United Kingdom and Museums
The meaning of sophistication lies in how much simplicity one can manage to utilize without revealing that he did not begin with a compound but rather, with only one element, thus the adage of I think, therefore I am now needs be added. The representative building block of complexity in matters of importance, aspects of scholarship that demand meticulous handling especially in the laborious processes of regression (for results consequently become the machinery for high development) is a single unit of intuition.
Really, when one thinks about it a commendable thesis is almost always one that managed to elicit an exquisitely choreographed succession of raised eyebrows trying to articulate disbelief at its fertilization, that because its seed had the living factor of unity in shared first draw of breath, the reality it inherently possessed was redeemed and the accusations about it’s having a deficiency in the complete parts of qualities that would make it tenable were admonished in the end. What comes after history and theory then? Experimentation mandates an inquisitive mind to search and examine specimens, though discourse is not experimentation for it can be characterized as being a full-blown idea. But an idea can only be further supported by perfect examples and perfection relies extensively on individual perception.
Admittedly, the United Kingdom needs a recommended strategic preservation plan when it comes to the preservation of its cultural past and heritage, which finds a problem in the principle behind the expectations of a nation; those which consider the assimilation of a digital culture in its society, to be one and the same with the denotative meaning of innovation.
Museums have always been the most easily chosen “pathway” to the cognizant manager/strategic planner (designer). If professionals in the management of the arts utilize performance targets and appraisal systems on the employees of museums in the United Kingdom—museums that aim to preserve the culture and heritage of the United Kingdom by using the aspects of a digital culture that has been brought about by technological advancement—then the strengths and weakness of any existing recommended strategic preservation plan regarding digitalization, may be addressed.
|STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS OF USING PERFORMANCE TARGETS IN THE CULTURAL SECTOR|
|Using performance targets in the cultural sector
will allow for “praise” to be bestowed
from the management division
to the employees in the cultural sector, and so, the employees will feel VALUED.
|There is much difference between the number of
people working in for the cultural sectors and
the number of people working for the non-cultural sector. There are less employees to assess in the cultural sector, and so, only a small number may benefit from the use of appraisal
systems and performance targets as management (managerial) tools.
|Using performance targets in the cultural sector; specifically now, in a museum, can influence the use of performance targets as management tools in the other key discipline sectors such as in government, tourism, and even medical services.||Even if the use of performance targets in museums, prove to be highly efficient methods of assessing the employees who work there, due to the problems that the United Kingdom has when it comes to integrating a form of digital culture unto its operative, social, and governmental sectors, compared to the other countries which also belong to the European Union, the pro-active results may not reach their proper audience. The utilization of performance targets in other sectors besides the cultural sector may never happen because of lack of information,|
In so doing, if the employees do perform efficiently in the aforementioned phase of S-W-O-T- analysis [S-trengths, W-eaknesses, O-pportunities, and T-hreats], then they can proceed to the next proposed phase of immersion and praxis: in order to engage in developmental experimentation whose ultimate goal is to try to apply the same strategic management design to other sectors, other than the cultural sector; thus proving, that performance targets and appraisal systems also lend themselves to the goals of other disciplines, and not merely to the arts. This hypothetical solution, hereby ends, this research essay.