A. Colonialism in North America
England’s desire for economic gain and religious freedom sparked the beginning of their interest in colonialism in America (Gouch, LeGuin, & Walton, 1998). While some settlers came to America in search of gold or other riches, the Puritans that settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to escape religious persecution and have freedom to worship as they desired. In 1630, over a thousand Puritans arrived, being led by a lawyer named John Winthrop. All English settlers were required to set up charter system governments. This system allowed the settlers to organize governments as they desired, but required them to send a part of their profits back to the British government (Butler, 2007). After the Puritans arrived at Massachusetts Bay, they elected John Winthrop their governor. Under Winthrop’s leadership, the Puritans settled close together to form a tight knit communities that housed the people, the church and the government.
He believed this was the best way for the settlers to protect themselves from enemies and worship as God intended. The Native Americans of the Pequot Tribe who resided in the Massachusetts Bay area did not welcome the expansion of the Puritan’s settlements into the Conneticut River Valley. The Pequot Tribe resisted the expansion and were annihilated by the Puritans. The remainder of the New England tribes remained tense and distrustful toward the Puritans for many years. In 1675, these tense relations culminated. Chief Metacom led the Wampanoag Tribe into a battle against the Puritans. More than half of the Puritan towns in New England were burned. The Puritans retaliated with the capture and execution of Chief Metacom.
B1. Causes and Goals of the American Revolution
One cause of the American Revolution was desire of the American Colonist to be free of the rule of England. The goal of the colonist was to form their own government and become independent of British rule. The British, unwilling to give up their rule, even went as far as to demand that Colonist pay for the protection of the British Army and Navy. The Colonist felt since they had no representation in the British parliament, they owed nothing. When no agreement could be reached a revolution was inevitable (Joes, 1996).
Another cause of the American Revolution was the desire of the colonists to have freedom of religion and the determination of England that the colonist must remain true to the Church of England. Puritans, a religious group who came to the colonies seeking freedom of religion, wanted to remain a part of the Church of England, but develop their own style of worship. Another more radical religious group, Separatists, wanted a complete break from the Church of England. The goal of both of both the Puritans and the Separatists was to have the freedom to express religious beliefs without fear of persecution by the church or government. England remained firm that the colonist must follow the practice of the Church of England with no variation (“Annenberg Learner,” 2013).
B2. Indian Independence Movement
The general cause of the Indian Independence Movement was India’s desire for independence from British, French and Portuguese Rule. The aim of the movement was “Swaraj, a self-governing India” (Sharma, 2005, p. 22). One, more specific, cause of the Indian Independence Movement took place in 1905 when the province of Bengal was divided into two provinces, Eastern and West Bengal. This division was ordered by Lord Curzon, Viceroy and Govenor General, without seeking the opinion of the Bengali’s. The Bengali’s were enraged at the division. They saw it as “a means for the British to divide and conquer” (Sharma, 2005, p. 24). The Indian Congress met this division by calling for a “boycott of British products”, aiming to reinforce their demand for independence.(Sharma, 2005, p. 24). While the boycott did not gain total independence of India, it did lead to Indian representation on the Imperial and Provincial Councils, and the reversal of the division of Bengal (Sharma, 2005).
Butler, J. (2007). . In New Worl Faiths: Religion in Colonial America.
[ebrary book]. Retrieved from http://lrps>wgu.edu/provision/17908228 Gouch, C., LeGuin, C., & Walton, L. (1998). Chapter 14. In the Balance: Themes in Global History). [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/support/reading 20 1.PDF Joes, A. J. (1996). Guerilla Warfare: A Historical, biographical, and bibliographical sourcebook. [ebrary]. Retrieved from http/:www.ebrary.com Sharma, S. (2005). Civil Rights Movement. [Ebrary book]. Retrieved from http://Irps.wgu.edu.provision8539993 The coming of independence. (2013). In Biography of America. [ebook]. Retrieved from http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog02/index.htm