Theoretical Framework Essay Sample
- Word count: 1230
- Category: teaching
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Theoretical Framework Essay Sample
Teaching English grammar can be difficult for the teacher and the students. It doesn’t have to be difficult or painful, however. English grammar can be taught using fun learning games and before knowing it your students will be more than willing. There has been a movement away from the traditional methods of teaching English grammar through writing, rewriting and worksheet to using a more active approach through games. Researchers have also begun to look at how and why these new methods work. The study is premised on the theory of intrinsic motivation Vernon (2007) which gives some insight as to how teaching grammar through games actually works. Intrinsic motivation refers to the internal factors that encourage us to do something.
Most young learners will not internally decide that they want to learn grammar. They don’t yet understand the concepts of why it’s important to know proper grammar, so these external factors won’t affect them much either. Instead, intrinsic motivation can lead ancourage them to play games.if these games are good then they will be leaming while they are playing. Using some movement is crucial because movement helps activate the student’s mental capacities and stimulate neural networks,thus promoting learning and retention. It is related to the present study because it implies other techniques to the teacher to catch their student’s attention when teaching grammar. It can also be a way to increase students’ interest in grammar.
Musumeci (1997) mentions the idea of connecting form and meaning in grammar teaching as a developing trend in reference to the proficiency oriented curriculum. She points out that students should be able to learn explicit grammar rules as well as have a chance to practice them in communication in the authentic or simulation tasks. Interestingly, Musumeci advocates giving students a chance to look at the language on a sentence level to see how certain grammatical rules are applied. It is related to the present study because it suggests other strategy to the teacher to know their student’s development in terms of grammar by means of practicing authentic communication task. This is also a way to improve the teaching competencies of the teacher and the student’s performance. Ehrenworth (2003( suggested two possible reasons why students did not learn grammar through the direct instruction method to which Shuman (1991) referred. First, the researcher noted the most direct grammar instruction is confusing and filled with exceptions, Which renders students unable to think independently about grammar schemes on a sentence level?
Secondly, the researchers noted the resistance theory research conducted be Heshusius (1989, as quoted in Ehrenworth, 2003), who claimed that “resistance theory provides a framework for understanding these children’s behavior as active resistance to a situation they find threatening, boring, or otherwise intolerable”. It is related to the present study because as compared in the present situation, many high school students find hard in learning grammar, and so the resistance theory might help them to resist in a situation the find boring specifically in grammar. Vavra (1993) noted that fe English teachers are prepared to teach grammar and receive little or no instruction on how to do it in their teacher preparation classes. Therefore, often, teachers teach grammar the only way they know how, the way they were taught years ago. Moreover, Weaver (1996) referred to learning theory to support why students did not learn grammar in the traditional method. She argued that grammatical concepts were so complex that the traditional behaviorist strategies of repeated skills practice done in isolation do not work.
She cited Harris and Rowan (1989) who showed “quite convincingly that a conscious grasp of grammatical concepts requires a depth of understanding that is often not gained through practice exercises alone. It is related to the present study because it cited that most of the teachers in English teacher have o prepared topic to teach, and just like in the present it can greatly influence to their teaching competencies. In addition to that traditional way of teaching grammar and other common way of teaching might not be so effective. Lindblom, et. al.(2003) Recommended three vitalization of grammar in authentic and purposeful ways. These integrated strategies included: Build and Make Use of a Grammar-Controversy Archive that is used by and contributed to by both students and teachers; Hold Public Grammar Debates that combines speaking, writing, and listening with a real audience and purpose can be a powerful way to have students see the importance of grammar; and Assign Descriptive Grammar Studies so that students can see that grammar is not just one set of rules used by people in power, but that different grammars are used for different situations.
According to them the use of all of these activities achieves the goal of integrating grammar and helps student to internalize the importance of grammar. Also, asserted that students would begin to see that grammar is not just a boring set of rules, but a subject that is alive and constantly changing. The authors argued that these grammar strategies and others would not only reestablish the importance of grammar in the classroom, but would also invigorate writing, speaking, listening, and reading in the classroom. Used of this approach not only taught the grammar needed to help students, ut Integrated the areas of language arts and made more meaningful connections for all. It is related to the present study because today high school students do not give much importance and focus in learning grammar and so this will be their basis to recognize grammar not only just a boring subject but can help them better in the four macro skills in English.
Griffin et al. (1998) suggest that children must become skilled users of language. They must be highly competent in reading and writing to pass the various assessments that constitute gateways for completing schools, getting into college, and finding jobs. Teachers need a wealth of content and pedagogical knowledge to ensure that they are providing appropriate instruction to all students. Teachers also need a thorough understanding of educational linguistic- how language figures in education. This foundation would support teachers practice overall, and in particular, it would help them literacy skills. It is related to the present study because it shows that students should perform well in English to acquire high achievements. And so teachers have great responsibility to that they should also be highly competent in English grammar to sustain to the knowledge require by their students. Related Study
There is scarcity of studies especially local studies related to teaching competencies of high school English teachers. The following are some abstract of related studies taken from the internet. Geimer et. al.(2000) studied the Improving Student Achievement in Language Arts through Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Strategies says that student achievement has been low in language arts in Suburban, Chicago, Illinois school districts. This action research project was designed to determine the effect of incorporating multiple intelligence strategies into the language arts curriculum. Further was indicated through teachers observation of student performance other factor that impact low students achievement are mobility, lack of teacher training and support in implementing curriculum, and teachers not addressing students’ various learning styles. It is related to the present study because, it suggested that teachers must subjected to the different trainings and workshops that can help to the poor learning styles of the teachers.