Michael Argyle (1972) – The communication Cycle
Argyle believed that interpersonal communication was like learning to drive, a skill that could be developed. It involves building an understanding of listening, observing and reflecting on what another person may try to communicate. The communication cycle could be: Ideas occur – You have an Idea to communicate.
Message coded –You consider the options of communicating your idea and put your thoughts into words or sign language etc. Message sent – You convey your message in a way that you might find more comfortable. Message received – The other person notices your message and hears or sees what is communicated. Message Decoded – The person your communicating with has to try to decode the message , they might find it difficult and jump to a conclusion especially if you don’t use your body language to help. Message Understood – They will respond on what they understood, it might be a perfect response or they might have miss understood you but some people don’t always understand exactly what you mean.
Bruce Tuckman (1965) how does observations of Communication styles impact on a group/person Tuckman thought that the communication within a group can be effected by how the people should feel around each other and if these people have first met different people may have different reactions. Tuckman suggested four stages to a process groups go through. Forming – This is when a group of strangers come together for a meeting and begin to talk about themselves. Storming – This is when a group begin to fall out with certain people and there is a tension within the group and disagreement about how the group acts. Norming – This is when things calm down within the group and they find themselves coming to an agreement and meeting with each other halfway and they can work effectively and comfortably. Performing – This is when the group are all sorted and can work together and will come to an agreement within ideas. Others considered this theory and eventually added on a fifth process to the cycle – Reforming.
R.F. Bales (1970) how does observations of communication styles impact on a group/person Bales began to look at the behaviour of people towards each other and the tasks, in a group and the methods of group communication. His system was based on his thoughts of there being three fundamental dimensions which structure interactions in a group: Dominance/Submission – Whether the group members took control and tried to lead or whether they just followed what people said and was quiet. Friendliness/Unfriendliness – Is the member enthusiastic shows kindness and acts welcoming or whether they show hostility, refuse to help and put people down. Acceptance of Authority/ Non acceptance- Is this person focused on getting things done, glad to do the role given to them and will listen or talk back, refuses to work the allocated role and acts resentful. R.F. Bales research influenced many people and researchers into psychology in the 20th century.