In this unit I will be investigating the business Cadburys Trebor Bassett and producing a detailed report; researching and analysing the objectives and activities within the business. My fields of research will include resources from the internet and knowledge learnt throughout the project.
? Importance of stakeholders
? Organisation of the business, job roles, working arrangements
? Employer/employee rights and responsibilities
? Dealing with disputes, health and safety
? Recruitment and training
? Customer service and protection
Confectionery consumption in the UK is among the highest in the world, exceeded only by Denmark and Ireland. Chocolate confectionery accounts for around 70% of sales value in the UK market, with sales of sweets at around 30%.
Cadbury’s Ltd is the confectionary division of Cadbury Schweppes plc, a major force in the confectionary and soft drinks international market; Cadbury’s with over 50 different brands, sells over 1 million bars of chocolate every day and last year made an overall turnover of ï¿½6.7 billion.
Cadbury’s Schweppes is one of the biggest international confectionary and beverage companies in the world with an outstanding market capitalisation of ï¿½11 billion. With factories placed all over the globe, Cadbury’s chocolate is manufactured internationally and its brands are enjoyed in almost every country around the world.
The purchase of Adams makes Cadbury Schweppes the leader in the global confectionery market and the only one company to span all three categories – chocolate, sweets and gum. Cadburys Schweppes are also proud to be the world’s third largest soft drinks company.
Cadbury’s Schweppes, concentrating on core brands in the competition market, have joined forces with brand icons such as Mott’s, Canada dry, Halls, Trident, Dentyne, Trebor, Bassett, Dr Pepper and 7up to name a few.
Cadbury’s Trebor Bassett is the particular division of this company that I will be investigating.
Stakeholders are defined as anyone who takes an interest in the company. These people could be:
Customers are external stakeholders because they are not part of the company. Customers can greatly influence a company by choosing which products they buy. This will affect the company’s production for example, if a particular product is in high demand, production lines will increase to meet the customers’ demands.
A company will want to make the most profit and may choose to develop their products or bring out new ones altogether, to match the needs or preferences of the customer.
Customers will expect a good quality product or one that is good value for money. This will affect the companies manufacturing process, to make their products more desirable and may lead to special offers and at competitive prices to encourage customers to choose their brand or product
Customers are the most important stakeholder of all. After all, if there are no customers to buy their products, there are no profits.
Employees are a very important stakeholder as they are internal and affect decisions made within the business. Employees are also an important stakeholder because they are receiving part of the company’s wages and will take an interest in the different parts of the business involving promotion and training opportunities.
Unhappy or under trained employees can also dramatically change the view of customers through their actions or unwelcoming attitude and break the reputation of a business.
Owners and Shareholders
Owners of the company will influence major contractors with other businesses and other big decisions. They are an internal stakeholder as they own part of the business, as are shareholders. Except, shareholders have gained their parts of the business by investing money in exchange for shares. The shareholders will receive a share of the company’s profits annually.
Both stakeholders expect the business to be successful and bring in large profits. The shareholders, so they will receive a larger amount of money from their shares and the Owners of the business, to invest more money to increase growth within the company.
The local community is an external stakeholder as they are not part of the business, yet they hold a remarkable amount of power under the company if the businesses’ actions disagree with them. The community can complain, take demonstrations and even legal suits against the company. This is very bad for the company’s reputation especially if it goes public and consumers will be deterred from buying their brands or products.
Communities often take stands against matters of traffic and pollution, caused by customers’ vehicles, the look of certain buildings or properties owned by the company, or vandalism on the company’s’ grounds.
The government is an external stakeholder, as the government controls what the business can and cannot do through strict regulations and government laws. The government puts taxes such as VAT on certain items and restricts the ages of employment for particular jobs etc. using such contracts as the labour laws and environmental and safety laws.
The government may also be giving funding to a business or receiving payments for a piece of land bought by the business. If the government is unsure about the stability of a businesses, they may choose to withdraw their funding and this will affect the finances of that business dramatically.
Pressure groups are an external stakeholder and are part of the public or local community. Pressure groups often hold demonstrations against a particular product or brand that does not agree with their views or affects the rights of the customers. Some company’s are protested against for legal reasons or due to the fact that the ingredients used are against the public view. For example; Non-dolphin friendly tuna, GM ingredients, fair trade etc.
These issues can be taken up by these pressure groups and the public may be deterred from buying the product. This may even reach further than the local area as papers may print these particular events and this will damage the reputation of the business.
The reputation however may be recovered by taking the problem into hand and changing their product to please the consumers and even turn this into a marketing opportunity, displaying the fact that the product is recyclable, healthy ingredients etc.
There can also be conflicts of interest between the stakeholders as different stakeholders will want different outcomes from the business. However, there are many similarities as well as differences to consider.
A majority of the stakeholders will want high profits for the business. These stakeholders are mainly internal as higher profits for the business would mean higher rates of payment for shareholders; also the managers and owners of the business will benefit from a larger amount of capital to invest back into growth, expansion etc. The government, an external stakeholder, will also benefit from high profits as this would mean a larger amount of tax can be taken from the business and workers, being internal, will want higher rates of pay; increasing costs and overall affecting the gross profit of the business.
However, high profits may be the result of high prices on produce which is a conflict of interest for the customers. Customers will want to pay lower prices for their purchases and this may cause customers to change loyalty.
Caring for the environment is a growing consumer market such as organic ranges of foods and eco-friendly packaging. Certain pressure groups and also the government encourage this, although it may cost the business money as the government charges to recycle certain materials.
A business may produce these products as a matter of personal interest but may also use this as a marketing opportunity. Nowadays, customers are considerably encouraged to purchase environmentally friendly products and healthy foods; and businesses will use this to advertise their produce in this way.
Influences on the business
– nutritional value
– attractive packaging
– good quality product
– good value
– trust in the brand
– changing tastes
– to maintain high quality ingredients
– develop ingredients to adapt to consumer tastes
– no customers means no profit
Employees (including managers)
– fair wages
– clean working environment
– treated with respect
– promotion & rewards for quality work
– affect quality & quantity of products
– Bad services may deter customers
– Buying decisions affect product lines
Owners & shareholders
– Profits on capital invested (high dividends)
– Can withdraw investment or sell shares which affects value of company
– discounts or special offers
– local employment
– visitors bring economy
– pollution/traffic/noise issues
– Legal action against pollution/traffic/noise issues
– Complaints lead to a bad reputation
– corporation tax
– legal merges
– health & safety, ethics laws
– Increase in tax leads to a decrease in profits
– Legal constraints on business activities & certain ingredients
– Fair trade
– Animal derivatives & ingredients
– Tree felling (wrapping & recycling)
– Take direct action such as demonstrations, legal action & publicising information leading to a bad reputation
– commitment from the business (used on a regular basis)
– fair deals
– clear orders
– payment on time
– affects efficiency & quality of supplies
– Speed of delivery affects amount of stock available
– New ingredients from new suppliers affects quality of produce
– loans to be paid in on time
– Can withdraw investments
– Can stop funding
– Can deny loans
How do Cadbury’s meet the needs of stakeholders?
Customers can identify the Cadbury’s brand by particular, recognisable packaging and the brands’ name. Such brands come from the Cadburys’ product ranges including Fuse, Dairy Milk and Flake. The Cadbury’s brand, identified by the logo, ensures the customer of a good quality product and customers soon learn to trust the brand name. Cadbury’s have introduced, over the years, an availability of a range of different products.
These products are aimed to fulfil a broad range of the consumers’ needs such as to quench hunger or thirst and provide energy. Taste is also an important factor as it affects the customer’s view of the quality of the product and this reflects the overall quality of the Cadburys brand.
Cadburys attempt to meet these fundamental needs in a range of products which offer a huge variety of ingredients and styles.
Variety is important as within the Cadburys business, freedom of choice means not only the freedom to seek new combinations of old favourites, but also develop new tastes and experiences.
Listening to consumers
Cadburys listen to the consumers’ comments to evaluate the needs of their customers which can be used to develop new innovative products. Communication between the customers and Cadbury’s is fundamental to the businesses’ success as it helps Cadbury’s to understand the consumer trends.
Cadbury’s also deal directly with consumers and have substantial resources at the business unit level to listen and respond to consumer queries and complaints.
Cadburys aim to treat their employees fairly and with respect. Cadburys openly reward their employees according to performance and skill in line with competitive industry and local conditions. Cadburys actively encourage individuals to develop their own approaches, reflecting upon their needs and preferences. Cadburys only employ individuals upon a reasonable time-frame and a decent amount of hours, not causing a large work-load onto their employees which could lead to a stressful environment for the individual. Communication between employees and their subordinates is important to the Cadburys community, as they believe that good relations between colleagues lead to effective communication channels.
Cadburys Schweppes have linked with certain organisations such as Earthwatch and the Ghana nature conservation research centre. These organisations aim to improve the standard of living for the farmers of Ghana who supply the cocoa beans for Cadburys and also to ensure fair trade for the amount of produce being purchased. Cadburys’ are also working together with the African and Ghana government to abolish the use of child labour not only within their factories and farms, but globally.
The environment is also a major issue and Cadburys aim to minimise their impact on the environment around the world by becoming as economically friendly as possible. Cadburys have found an economical way of maintaining the crop and farm land for as long as possible by introducing a new bio-farming system for the Ghana farmers and promoting recycling systems and the reduction of water and energy waste in the local environment in which they operate.
Over the years Cadburys have contributed to the local community by introducing education and recreation facilities. Cadburys have received numerous awards, such as the FTSE giving list, in recognition of their generosity.
There are many job roles in the organisation of Cadbury World and each of these job roles consist of numerous tasks, responsibilities and general duties to attend to. Here are three examples of the existing staff from Cadbury World, which can be seen in the above organisational chart.
The purpose of the operational staff of Cadbury World is to represent Cadburys by performing tasks to standards which exceed visitors’ expectations; by answering visitors’ queries and deal with requests and complaints in a positive manner. This is basically to encourage customer satisfaction to its fullest, thereby reinforcing the Cadburys reputation and position as the first name in chocolate.
This is one of the most important job roles as far as Cadburys’ image is concerned. This is because if the customer is treated in an uncaring manner or doesn’t have a pleasant experience during their visit to Cadbury World, they will most probably have a negative attitude towards the Cadburys brand. Effective customer service will lead to an increase in repeat visits to Cadbury world and maximise sales.
Cadbury’s operational staff may respond well to a supervisor, if possible several supervisors’ delegated to small groups or separate divisions. This may motivate the operational staff to work more effectively and to perform to a standard set by the supervisor. However, the operational staff may feel under pressure to meet these standards which could result in a large amount of stress to be put on the worker.
Operations and project manager
The requirements for this job role includes experience in the area of leadership, as the job holder will be expected to manage the projects for new attractions including information, safety and costs of the project. The Operations and Project manager is responsible for organising and managing over activities designed to appeal to the visitors of Cadbury World and encourage the subordinates under his or her management to use new and developed strategies to maintain the quality of the Cadbury’s image in the eyes of Cadbury World’s visitors and the general public.
An operations and project manager would be required to direct subordinates with clear and detailed instructions explaining what is expected of the various tasks. A lack of sufficient information from the operations and project managers would result in a restriction in the work that employees do and bring down the level of efficiency in future projects.
Operations and project managers are also expected to ensure that the highest standards are set for all of the attractions in the theme park maintaining the reputation of Cadbury’s.
The importance of this job role, for Cadbury World, includes managing both small and large scale projects without affecting the visitors’ enjoyment whilst in the park in the process; the monitoring of subordinates would lead to completion of all projects with efficiency. This is to maintain the high profile interface that Cadbury’s possesses with the general public and to develop an efficient and organised image towards the public view.
In doing this, the reputation of Cadbury’s is seen in the public eye as professional and appealing towards its customers.
Deputy Operations manager
The deputy operations manager has exactly the same responsibilities as the Operations and Project manager and is expected to carry out these tasks just as efficiently. Tasks such as, the day to day running of the operations area, assisting the Operations and Projects manager in the running of projects and various visitor and staff services. This relieves the Operations and Project manager from a great amount of stress, as the workload can be shared between them.
The Deputy Operations manager is also responsible for acting as deputy in his absence.
This position is an important job role for the running of Cadburys’ because if the Operations and Project manager were away or became ill there would be someone there with the same expertise to take-over and run the project efficiently. This would mean Cadburys’ needn’t be concerned about issues such as delayed project deadlines or any problems concerning workers and subordinate employees.
Employee & Employer rights and responsibilities
Employee rights including:
* Benefits from legislation
* Maternity & paternity rights
* Equality of opportunity
* Receive minimum wage
* Paid holidays
* Right to join a trade union
* Protection from discrimination
Employee responsibilities including:
* Uphold aims & objectives of the business
* Work to contract
* Support rules of the business
* Adhere to contract terms
* Uphold health & safety procedures
Employer rights including
* Support the business aims
* Work to contracts
* Respect firms property
* Support health & safety
* Appropriate use of firm equipment & time
* Set conditions of service
* Set disciplinary & grievance procedures
Employer responsibilities including:
* Observe employment legislation
* Duty of care to employees
* Observe employees contracts
* Provide safe & healthy workplace
* Provide public liability insurance
* Provision of appropriate training
* Provide grievance and disciplinary procedures
* Adhere to EU directives
Expectations of the workplace
Employees would expect:
* A fair wage for the work done
* To be treated fairly by managers and everyone else in the organisation
* To work reasonable hours in a clean and safe environment
* To receive some paid holidays
* To receive appropriate training for the job
* To join a trades union or staff association
* To be able to access their confidential computer records kept by the business
In return, employers would expect employees to:
* Be punctual and co-operative
* Obey all reasonable instructions
* Treat facilities and equipment with care and respect
* Be loyal and trustworthy and perform a fair amount of work each day
* Notify them if they cannot attend work
* Dress in appropriate manner
These expectations would be turned into a legally binding agreement between the employer and the employee. This agreement is called an employment contract.
Cadburys have numerous contracts to suit the individuality of the employees’ situation. The types of contracts include permanent, temporary, full/part time or seasonal. These shifts can come in useful for example students who may only have the holidays as an opportunity to work. Different working times are also taken into account and the hours of work vary within shifts of flexi-time. This is basically working around the employees’ other responsibilities which may include picking up their children, college or other educational hours.
The recruitment process
Recruitment and selection is the process by which the business finds the best candidate for a job. Before doing this, however, the business must analyse the skills or special qualities required for that job and how it can best attract the right type of applicant.
The recruitment process consists of several stages to which a business must go through in order to recruit an employee.
Firstly, the company must identify that there is a vacancy to be filled. The human resources function of the business is accountable for identifying a vacancy and verifying what sort of person would be the best to fill it, this is known as an application profile, to which the department can use to base the selected applicants upon.
Applications for Cadbury Schweppes can not only be found within the grounds on which their existing staff operate, but also on the internet. The internet opens up opportunities to a much wider audience as it is easily accessible and allows possible applicants to apply at their convenience.
Cadburys then sit the selected applicants through a series of verbal and numerical tests to short-list the most agreeable of those applicants; after which a first-round interview with a line manager from the recruiting department will be organised.
The final stage of Cadbury’s application process will involve the chosen applicants to attend an evening dinner with the managers and current graduates of Cadburys. This is a very unthreatening approach towards recruiting as the applicant feels relaxed in a non-work related environment and managers can get an idea of that person’s personality and an inside look at what they are like outside of work. I believe this approach would be very effective as although someone may look good on paper, degrees, qualifications etc; that doesn’t necessarily mean that, that person would be a pleasant employee to work with.
The following day, applicants attend an assessment centre where they are put through a number of assessments designed to be challenging but fun. Again, this relieves pressure from the applicant as the assessments are enjoyable and allows the applicant to feel relaxed in their environment and with the employers who would otherwise be seen as threatening, authoritative characters.
The applicants are also provided with an “all expenses paid for” overnight stay in a hotel which provides a welcoming and relaxing environment for the candidate.
Candidates are informed of a decision upon hiring within five days. This is an example of Cadbury’s being very effective with their recruitment process, not wasting any time and avoiding leaving any candidates in angst.
Cadburys also recruit internally, where an already existing employee applies for the job and is promoted to that position. Application forms are still considered and internal recruitment is based upon their portfolio and employment record during their time at the company.
Development and training
Training programmes are always available in the Cadburys Schweppes organisation, encouraging the development of the capabilities of individuals within each workforce. Each business unit within the company has their own training and development programme tailored to enhance individual group’s capabilities to meet cultural and commercial aims.
Employees are also encouraged to realise their full potential by developing their careers within the company through the provision of open access to job opportunities and also to gain international experiences through cross-functions. This is where an employee is set an international assignment in another branch and this brings development benefits to the individual as well as the company. Cadbury’s encourages an international diversity within the company enriching the businesses’ equal opportunities policy and developing international relations between branches.
Health and safety in the workplace
There are numerous health and safety regulations covered by the laws of the workplace. In some industries health and safety codes are initiated through which employees must abide by. Some firms apply their own voluntary regulations, often as a result of negotiations with trade unions.
Health and safety regulations in Cadburys are very important due to the amount of risk applied to employees while working in factories and with many different types of machinery. The production of the chocolate must be monitored closely as the general hygiene of all those working within the factory must be maintained and working with food products requires a careful health and safety policy.
Health and safety issues may arise in the workplace and if they cannot be settled through the health and safety policy, action must be taken to correct the problem and settle these disputes. To resolve disputes that do not apply to the company policy, they would need to be settled on an agreement between the two parties through a series of negotiations. This would be a compromise and both sides would settle on an outcome that is agreeable with both of them. Industrial disputes often arise in the workplace and Cadburys may use many of these different solutions to settle such disputes between the employer and the employee.
Business grievance procedures can be used to settle simple disputes and a compromise is usually settled on during a session where the two personnel sit down and try to solve the problem between them.
Employees may disagree with the quality of work pay or hours demanded from their company and the situation may become so extreme it could result in the need for employees to take action against it, for example voluntary strikes. Negotiations can be used between the employees and the company with the assistance of a trade union which can negotiate with the company on their behalf. Trade unions may take legal action against the company if they do not receive an acceptable settlement, demonstrating the employees’ rights.
Employment tribunals are courts that can be used by employees who feel their rights have been abused and can display their case to this court, which can impose an agreement upon the employer and the employee. Employment tribunals are often used to settle claims of unfair dismissal.
The European court of Justice is the highest court that citizens of the European Union can go to. It can be used to solve legal disputes between employees and workers and activate certain rights that either side are entitled to.
Arbitration services; such as the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service for England (Or ACAS) which is an independent organisation, meet with employers and employees to try and solve industrial disputes.
These methods are often effective and help to meet the needs of their employees and achieve employee satisfaction. However, these procedures can be long and require a legal process to be taken place involving a third party such as a higher court. This process may also attract unwanted publicity and the company may gain a bad reputation, affecting the public view.
An easier alternative would be to use methods such as the business grievance procedure, monitored by a councillor, to come to an agreement within the internal practices of the company. This would mean an agreement is placed on a more personal level, where the employer and the employee can achieve a deeper understanding of the problem and no third party is involved, which would mean less publicity is attracted to the company, therefore leaving their reputation unaffected and large quantities of legal documents from higher courts are not to be taken into hand.
Cadburys use many different methods to meet the needs of their employees and keep industrial disputes to a minimum. Cadbury’s aim to avoid such disputes altogether by consolidating with their employees and planning ahead to keep them happy.
Thorpe Park is one of the UK’s most famous theme parks and is open seasonally for the public’s enjoyment. Its attractions include mind-numbing rides reaching the highest limitations of the thrill factor for the customer and this is what makes it one of the most popular theme parks found in the UK. The park also arranges social outings to the site such as birthday parties, family visits, school trips and client visitations for business days out. Thorpe Park is situated just 20 miles from central London……
Aims and objectives of Thorpe Park
All businesses have aims to help them plan and set targets for what they want to achieve in the future. An aim would be a long term plan, what a company wants to achieve in the long-run; but an objective would be short term, small steps towards the overall achievement of their aim.
A business might aim to:
Make a profit
A profit may not be very important to a business in the short-term as other factors such as survival in the market would be crucial, especially for start-up businesses. However in the long-run, a profit would be needed to develop the business further.
Providing goods and services to the local or wider community may be an aim for businesses whose focus is not on profits or any other factor other than developing and contributing to their community. The stimulus for such a business may be for the enjoyment of the employees, the good of the community or education resources.
A company’s, especially those in the start-up stages, main aim may be to survive. This would mean the company would need to make a profit or at least break-even to maintain their place in the market. This would not be included in the main aims of Thorpe Park as the business doesn’t need to worry about survival in the market. Thorpe Park is a well developed business and holds a secure place in the market. Thorpe Park is increasingly expanding continuously working to develop new and inventive rides to attract the demand thrill-seekers of today.
As a company grows and develops into a secure market, more imaginative aims would be set to encourage an increase in the success of the business.
Thorpe Park is a developed and highly successful business and their aims and objectives would consist of developing on already existent factors, such as developing new strategies for promoting Thorpe Park or the improvement on the internal activities of the business such as the training of employees or development of new rides and visiting areas.
Thorpe Park’s main attractions include many thrilling rides for their visitors to enjoy. Many of these rides are aimed at all ages, yet there are height restrictions on many of the more challenging and stimulating of the rides which would restrict younger children and some of the larger rides are advertised towards an older market consisting of teenagers and young adults.
Colossus is one of the largest and fastest rides at Thorpe Park and is definitely not for the faint-hearted. This ride is aimed at teenagers and adults, as part of the appeal is the speed and intensity of the ride. Height restrictions prohibit younger children from riding merely as a safety caution, but many are willing to brave the intensity of Colossus as many of the taller young teens are able to take part from as young as 10 or 11.
Colossus is famous for being the first ride to achieve 10 loops and this has enabled Thorpe Park to break the world record for the roller coaster with the most loops in the world. This achievement has created masses of publicity for Thorpe Park and promoted the ride with great success. This unique selling point is part of its appeal to the customer and attracts thrill-seekers from all over to come and face its gravity-defying twists and turns.
Detonator is another of the many main attractions at Thorpe Park and is one of the tallest rides in the park. Its awesome pinnacle can be seen from the furthest distance and even before you set foot into the grounds.
Thorpe Park is a tertiary business and provides leisure and retail services through their souvenir stores, food outlets and rides. Thorpe Park’s main activity is to produce a profit and to accomplish the highest standards of customer satisfaction.