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Thesis in Language Research Essay Sample

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Thesis in Language Research Essay Sample

This Research focuses on the ability of the Secondary freshmen students who are proficient in reading skills in application level such context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. In this research, the researcher used different theories and theorist to come up in experimentation with regards in the skills of Secondary freshmen students. The researcher used the principle of comprehensible inputs of Stephen Krushen and Operant Conditioning of B.F. Skinner. Comprehensible Inputs help the researcher to classify the level of Secondary Freshmen and classify what skills they are found weak and strong. Operant Conditioning also helps the researcher to know the effect of the unconditioned behavior of the student in learning reading skills in the application level.

These theories will help the researcher to come up to his theses title “Comprehensible Inputs and Operant Conditioning as Instructional Process to develop Secondary Freshmen Students’ Reading skills in the application level. This title is supported by thesis statements and sub-thesis statements; 1) Secondary freshmen students develop the reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing in the application level easily and effectively if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced by pleasurable consequences only; 2) Secondary freshmen students develop the reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing in the application level more frequently if the conditioned of the behavior of the students will be reinforced either positive and negative consequences; 3) Secondary freshmen students develop the reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing in the application level proficiently and effectively frequently if the conditioned of the behavior of the students will be reinforced will be reinforced by negative consequences; 4) Secondary freshmen students develop the reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing in the application level if the students behavior is immediately followed by pleasurable consequences then the student will engage in that behavior more frequently.

These thesis statements are meant to be achieved by classifying the Secondary freshmen Students ability and knowledge in reading skills. The researcher also formulated research objectives and questions, these research questions and objectives should be accomplished and answered after the experimentation process. The researcher is mainly focus on the five objectives to be accomplished; 1) Classify NTC Secondary freshmen who are proficient in reading skills ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level; 2) Classify the level of the NTC Secondary freshmen in ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) through the process of comprehensible inputs; 3) Identify which among the four reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) they can easily response and which among of the reading skills which they can find difficulty; 4) Determine how reinforcements affect the conditioned behavior of NTC Secondary freshmen in learning reading skills in the application level; 5) Determine how English teachers develop students’ reading skills in the application level by looking into the theory of Skinner and Krashen.

The researcher set questions which are also congruent in research objectives; this can answer if the given objectives are achieved; 1) How NTC Secondary freshmen students classified their level of reading skills proficiency in (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level from the perspective of Krashen’s Comprehensible Inputs; 2) To what level of reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) classified NTC Secondary freshmen through the process of comprehensible Inputs; 3) In what level of reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) are the NTC Secondary Freshmen found weak and strong; 4)How does reinforcement affects the behavior and action of NTC Secondary Freshmen in learning the reading skills in application level; 5) How do English teachers help the students develop their reading skills clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level by looking into the perspective of Skinner and Krashen. This research is mainly focus on the questions HOW; how did Secondary Freshmen learn the reading skills and how reinforcements affect their conditioned behavior during and after the reading skill.

Part I

This case study entitled” Comprehensible Inputs and Comprehensible outputs as Instructional Process to develop Secondary Junior Students’ Reading Skills in the application level” focuses on how Secondary Freshmen develop their reading skills in context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. I used different views and principles on language. Before I come up to my thesis title I had many things to consider. This thesis title encompasses with the theory of Stephen Krushen and it has something to do with the comprehensible inputs. This comprehensible input is my guide or my springboard to know the ability, strengths and weakness of the Secondary Freshmen in developing reading skills. Where in only acquire language when we receive comprehensible input (CI). This hypothesis developed by Stephen Krashen is one of the most prominent modern theories in the fields of first language acquisition and second language acquisition (SLA) and I also used the theory of B.F. Skinner, the operant conditioning theory.

This principle focuses on how Secondary Freshmen response to the lesson if the teacher gave reinforcements. is the use of a behavior’s antecedent and/or its consequence to influence the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of “voluntary behavior” or operant behavior. Operant behavior “operates” on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors which are elicited by antecedent conditions. Behaviors conditioned via a classical conditioning procedure are not maintained by consequences. In my research paper I used the principle of Operant Conditioning because I want to know if the Secondary Freshmen will response or react to a certain situation. If they will respond quickly or if they will respond ineffectively. This diagram shows the theory and theories of B.F. Skinner.

SPECIFIC LANGUAGE THEORY AND THEORIST

In this diagram, B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual’s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded) the individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner’s S-R theory. A reinforce is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforces any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn different from aversive stimuli and punishment which result in reduced responses.

A great deal of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement and their effects on establishing and maintaining behavior. One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner’s theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena. In experimentation, reading the selection is my stimulus and the response is the student’s reaction about the selection they have read. After knowing the different views of the theorist in my experimentation I came up with the grand thesis statement and sub-thesis statement; this thesis statements are every essential factor to my case study. This will be my direction for me to be able to classify and determine the ability of the Secondary freshmen in terms of their level of reading skills in context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. General thesis statement

Junior Students develop the four reading skills( context clues, note taking, fac and opinion and summarizing) in the application level as the result of stimulus- response pattern of conditioned behavior through the perspective of B.F. Skinner ( Operant Conditioning theory) and Krashen’s (Comprehensible inputs) Sub- thesis statements

1. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills( context clues, note taking, fac and opinion and summarizing) in the application level easily and effectively if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced by pleasurable consequences only.

2. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level more frequently if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced either positive and negative consequences.

3. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level proficiently and effectively if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced by both negative and positive consequences.

4. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level slowly and ineffective if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced by negative consequences only

5. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level if the students’ behavior is immediately followed by pleasurable consequences, then the student will engage in that behavior more frequently.

1. My goal is to know the action or behavior of my students while discussing the four reading skills. In this situation I used the theory of Krushen. I used comprehensible inputs to know also if the students learned something about what I have discussed. I also my research objectives and questions; 1) Classify the level of the NTC Secondary Junior in context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining through the process of comprehensible inputs; 2) Identify which among the four reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing ) they can easily response and which among the five reading skills which they can find difficulty; 3) Determine how reinforcements affect the conditioned behavior of NTC Secondary Junior that is proficient in reading skills; 4) Determine how English teachers develop students’ reading skills in the application level by looking into the theory of Skinner;

5) Determine how English teachers develop students’ reading skills in the application level by looking into the theory of Skinner ( Operant Conditioning theory) and Krashen ( Comprehensible Inputs) these objectives should be attained with the help of research questions; 1) How are NTC Secondary Junior Students classified their level of reading skills (context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining) in the application level by looking into the perspective of and Krashen (Comprehensible Inputs)?; 2)To what level of reading skills (context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining) do NTC Secondary Juniors classified through the process of Comprehensible inputs?; 3)In what level of reading (context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining) found NTC Secondary Junior weak and strong?; 4) How does the reinforcement affect the behavior and action of NTC Secondary Junior in learning the reading skills in application level?; 5) How do English teachers help the students develop their reading skills (context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining) in application level by looking into the perspective of Skinner (Operant Conditioning theory) and Krashen ( Comprehensible Inputs)?

My experimentation is focuses on the inputs and behavior of the Secondary Freshmen before and after teaching. In this diagram shows the process that I undergone in the high school laboratory. This helped me to achieve my goals and objectives throughout my teaching.

RESEACRH PARADIGM

I had undergone this paradigm while I was teaching Secondary freshmen. At first I acquired the principle of Krushen and Skinner. In comprehensible inputs means that students should be able to understand the essence of what is being said or presented to them. This does not mean, however, that teachers must use only words students understand. In fact, instruction can be incomprehensible even when students know all of the words. Students learn a new language best when they receive input that is just a bit more and the theory of B. F. Skinner and it has something to do with the stimulus and response of the students if I used positive and negative reinforcements. At first my goal is to classify the level of reading skills, if Secondary Freshmen has already knowledge about reading skills. Context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing will serve as my comprehensible input for me to be able to assess the level of reading skills of Secondary freshmen.

Using comprehensible input I will be able to know their reaction and behavior through from their interaction and participation. I will be able to know if learning occurs or students will response if I used positive reinforcements only. Students will response if I used both negative and positive reinforcements. Students will response if I used negative only. From those comprehensible inputs I can easily know if the Secondary Freshmen learned the four reading skills such as context cues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing, this is only means that the learning is satisfying and my goal are achieved but if the input and response of the students is not good from the four reading skills definitely the students are not learned so the result is annoying and the set goals are not achieved. Reinforcements have a great influence to the behavior and learning of the students. If the behavior of the Secondary freshmen is satisfying definitely the reinforcement will be positive but if the behavior of the Secondary freshmen is annoying definitely the reinforcements of the teacher will be negative. Positive reinforcement such praises incentives, grades and rewards. Negative reinforcements are any kind of punishments to the students.

Part 2

Methodology

In this research paper, one of my goals is to classify Secondary freshmen who are proficient in the four reading skills such context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. And be able to know to what skills they are found weak and strong. This table below shows the result of the three kinds of test that I administered. The Diagnostic test composed of topics about context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. This diagnostic test is given to the Secondary Freshmen for me to able to know if they have the ability to the four reading skills. Followed by a formative test, this test is given to the students if they really understood and learned the four reading skills and lastly the achievement test, this test is given for me to be able to conclude that they develop their skills in reading. This test shows the development or progress of the student in each reading skills. In this tabulation, you can see the four reading skills they found weak and strong and how secondary freshmen develop their level of reading skills in the application level.

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