There are stages in the interviewing processes; these stages are there to help not only the interviewer, but also the interviewee. These stages are here to help human service professionals to master these skills to help each client. The three stages in the model of interview would be exploration, insight/clarification and action.
Exploration is helping the client explorer their feeling, problems or issues. The elements in this stage;
*Attending behavior these are the listening skills as well as out attending skills. This would include eye contact verbal and nonverbal behaviors. Giving all the attention to the client in this stage, we are here to here where the problems, issues or feelings are coming from.
*Effective questioning asking open-ended and closed-ended questions. These questions will help the client to express themselves. Having the client express themselves opens them up to us as a professional.
*Reflecting Content effective listen skills, by listening to emotions. Reflecting on what we are hearing both verbally and nonverbal.
*Reflecting feelings accurately identifying emotions to in turn reflecting these emotions with the client.
*Integrating your exploration skills reviewing all the above skills and putting all your explorations in one piece. The information the client has given is just like the start of a book, the human service professional is then to take action on what can we change to make this story better. This leads to the next stage clarification/insight.
Clarification/insight helping the client to clarify their experiences and help develop goals, these elements would include;
*Confronting the discrepancies or inconsistencies in the clients behavior. Once these are identified bring to clients attention for a resolution.
*Communicating feelings or immediacy sharing own personal reactions or observations, making sure that we know what is inappropriate and appropriate throughout the interview.
*Self-disclosing is ok at time, however, we need to make sure that it is not taking over the clients time. Remember this is time for the client to self-explore.
*Interpreting identifying the clients underlying meaning and reconstructing the meaning to have the best understanding.
Actions helping the client take action. The elements in this stage would include;
*Information giving, giving the clients feedback. These can be instructions, feedback or an informational statement.
*Structuring for exploration, clarification and actions. Helps the client to examine their issues, consider alternatives or make their own choices or decisions.
*Enlisting cooperation, many times the client will resist or become reluctance, using basic interviewing skills will decrease the client discomfort and increase cooperation throughout each stage.
Effective communication, putting it all together from start to finish, for each stage we are taking steps to make sure all attention is on the client. Once all information is given, it is time to tell the story on how we view it and start with the ending.
I do believe there are differentials in interviewing gender, culture and religious beliefs. In many cultures it can be known to make eye contact with someone as disrespect. Body language can also have different meanings within different cultures. For each of these this is where we listen before we take actions, we can verbal and nonverbal offend someone. No two cultures are the same and no two people are the same. Gender can be one where we feel “this person will relate to me for we are the same sex” that is never the case.
You may be interviewing a person of the same sex and their problems may have stemmed from the person of the same gender. This person will not be easily open to talking to you, but may feel better talking to a different sex. Religious beliefs are one I always say to leave alone and not to go into much detail. For some tend to close off if I say “I don’t have the same belief as you”. If the client is talking about their beliefs, I think it is better to let them talk as we listen. All beliefs are different and should never be a reason to close each other off.
Interviewing is getting to know each other but more importantly getting to know the client. There are times where we just need to effective listen with both our eyes and ears. Watching body language for both the interviewer and interviewee and listen to what they are saying correctly and accurately.
University of Phonenix. (2011). Essential Interviewing Chapter 1. Retrieved from
University of Phonenix, BSHS385 website.