Directions: For each of the four timelines that follow (1914, 1915, 1917, and 1918–1919), complete the timeline replacing the words “[Paste description here]” with the text of the correct description from the table beneath it. 1914 Timeline
1914| The event that triggered World War I|
Sarajevo| The heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and his wife are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist living in the recently annexed Bosnian province of Austria. Austria-Hungary blames Serbia for this attack and issues a series of harsh demands to the Dual Monarchy’s much smaller Slavic neighbor.| July 28,
1914| Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia|
Vienna| After receiving a warning that Russia would not defend its Balkan ally, Serbia submits to nearly all of the humiliating demands of Austria-Hungary. With German encouragement, the Dual Monarchy rejects this offer.| August 1–4,
1914| Germany, Russia, France, and Great Britain enter the war| Berlin, St. Petersburg, Paris, and London| Military timetables dictate events, and the mobilizations in Germany and Russia make war inevitable. German troops streaming toward France first invade Belgium, and Great Britain honors its treaty obligations to defend Belgian neutrality, declaring war on Germany.| Oct–Nov
1914| The Ottoman Empire joins the war by attacking Russia| Sevastopol, Odessa, and Feodosiya, Ukraine; Novorossiysk, Russia | Eager to destroy Russian military power in the Black Sea and reclaim lost territory in the Balkans, Turkey enters into an agreement with Germany and Austria-Hungary to join the Central Powers. The Ottoman Empire launches simultaneous surprise attacks on the four most significant Black Sea ports in the Russian Empire.|
1915| The Treaty of London signed|
London| Italy is promised the South Tyrol, parts of Dalmatia, and dominance over the Adriatic Sea in return for its pledge to side against its former Triple Alliance partners. The British eagerly seek the opening of a third front and relief for their small allies, Serbia and Montenegro.| May 7,
1915| German U-boat torpedoes and sinks the RMS Lusitania| North Atlantic, near Kinsale, Ireland| More than 1,000 lives are lost. Germans declare the British waters a war zone. British shipping is subject to attack. Neutral vessels are also subject to attack.| May 23,
1915| A new ally declares war and attacks Austria-Hungary| Rome, Italian/Austro-Hungarian frontier| Adding over 800,000 soldiers to the Allies, Italy joins the war effort. The new fronts with Austria-Hungary draw off some of the Central Powers’ strength, but do little to shift the balance or prevent the fall of Serbia and Montenegro.| August 5,
1915| Warsaw falls to advancing German armies|
Warsaw| Continuing their advances and victories over the Russian army, German forces drive the Russian Empire out of Poland, Lithuania, and parts of Latvia and Byelorussia.|
1917| A German offer of alliance|
Mexico City, Berlin and Washington| The Zimmerman Note, a telegram relayed from the foreign ministry in Berlin to the German ambassador to Mexico offers a German–Mexican alliance and the return of formerly Mexican territories in the United States in the event of American entry into the war. The telegram is sent because Germany planned to resume unrestricted submarine warfare and feared American intervention.| March 8,
1917| Women strike and soldiers join the protests|
Petrograd| Russian women strike, frustrated with 12- or 13-hour workdays, long bread lines, high infant mortality, and malnutrition. Russian imperial troops mutiny throughout the capital, defending the protestors they have been ordered to disperse. Within 4 days, Tsar Nicholas II is forced to abdicate, and the Provisional Government—lead by Lvov and Kerenski—takes power, seeking compromise with the Soviets or workers councils, and continuation of the war.| April 6,
1917| United States declares war on Germany|
Washington| Outraged by the Zimmerman Note and unrestricted submarine warfare, Congress declares war at the urging of President Wilson. American entry into the war decisively favors the Allies, with additional resource and shipping capability and, by the war’s end, 2 million American soldiers in Europe.| November 7,
1817| Bolsheviks seize power in the October Revolution|
Petrograd| Lenin and Trotsky, building on their promise of peace, land, and bread, lead the Petrograd Soviet and Red Guards in seizing political power with little bloodshed. This initiated the Russian Civil War between Bolshevik and other factions and brings the leadership of the Russian military under communist control.|
1918| The Treaty of BrestLitovsk signed|
Brest, Belarus (Brest-Litovsk)| After months of negotiation, the Bolsheviks sign a peace treaty with Germany, surrendering much European territory of the old Russian Empire. Lenin believes he must deliver on his promise to end the war in order to consolidate the revolution within Russia, but the separate peace lost the Soviet regime its place at the Paris Peace Conference.| March
1918| The Ludendorff Offensive|
The Western Front| Following the collapse of the Ludendorff Offensive, German troops retreat, destroying property and equipment along the way. Surrender is difficult due to weak leadership, but by November there is clearly no hope and the cease-fire is signed.| July 17,
1918| Tsar Nichols II and his family are executed|
Yekaterinburg, Russia| During the Russian Civil War, the Bolsheviks decide they cannot risk losing the former tsar and his heirs to the advancing forces of the White Movement—a loose alliance of nationalist, monarchist, and democratic forces united in opposition to the Red Guards. The royal family is executed by gunfire and bayonets by Soviet soldiers.| November 11,
1918| Armistice signed between the Allies and Germany|
Compiègne Forest, France| Freed from war on the Eastern Front, Germany quickly redeploys its forces westward to overwhelm the Allied line in France. Despite German successes, the Allied defense holds, and intelligence from prisoners of war along with new American reinforcements allows the allies to attack the Germans.| June 28,
1919| The Treaty of Versailles signed|
Versailles, France| The Paris Peace Conference, dominated by Wilson, Clemenceau, Lloyd George, and Orlando, dictates the terms of peace offered to each of the Central Powers. Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany cedes its colonies and some European territories, pays crippling reparations in cash and resources, and accepts limits to its military capacity.|
Provide a 2- or 3-sentence response to each of the following questions. * Why was Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated? Cite evidence from the document “Borijove Jevtic: The Murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand at Saravejo (28 June 1914).” * The Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his pregnant wife were murdered by Gavriol Princip, a Bosnian Serb and this was coordinated by Danilo Llic. The reasoning behind the murders was to break off Austrias-Hungary’s south-Slav territories so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or Yugoslavia. These murders are also referred to as the Young Bosnia. * Jevtic, Borijove. “The Murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo 1914 Borijove Jevtic.” MyHistoryLab. Ed. John Carey. N.p., 2009. Web. 25 Jan. 2013.
How did new technologies set the Great War apart from preceding conflicts? What were these technologies, and what were their effects on soldiers and civilians? *
* During WW1, also referred to the Great War, there were many new technologies that were utilized. The effects of these new technologies were greater casualties of soldiers and civilians. Another effect of these technologies was making war easier to fight, such as recoil absorbers on heavy artillery. This allowed cannons to be fired rapidly rather than having to be wheeled back into position of the next cannon. Other technologies were fighter planes, bombers, and poisonous gas known as mustard gas.
How did Russian involvement in the Great War lead to the Russian revolution? *
* The Russian Navy and Army suffered terrible causalities during WW1 on top of being malnourished and having a lack of clothing, weapons and ammunition. Civilians had it pretty bad back home as well; long work hours, with even long bread lines, and infancy mortality was very high. Russians united and revolted as well as Russian Navy and Army soldiers. This revolt was stirred by the Bolsheviks. Nicholas Tsar knowing the conditions his soldiers were in and the state that his public was living in did not make the best choices and the Russian population had had enough.
How did Russia’s withdrawal change the course of the Great War? * Russia withdrawing from the Great War had some effect on the war, but not much. With the German Army in the condition that they were, Russia pulling out of the war disabled Austria and Germany from gaining wins in any battles. Russia was having some inter conflict and when news of this spread to German and Austrian soldiers this caused to go on strike to cause their own government to step down from the war. *
Why did the provisional government of Russia insist on remaining in the Great War in 1917? * The Provisional Government was the type of government that was leading Russia. Members had an interest in remaining in the Great War and that was the war credits they received from France and other countries. War credits were funds from civilians, that they gave to feel that they were a part of the battle field, this was essentially free money and the provisional government wanted it.
What was the significance of Lenin and Trotsky?
* Lenin and Trotsky were the leaders in the Russian Revolution. Trotsky was second in command to Lenin, and Trotsky inadvertently placed Stalin into power. Trotsky also played a major role in building the Red Army, without this army the revolution would have been destroyed.
How did the creation of the Soviet Union at the eastern edge of Europe affect the West?
What were the outcomes of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919? * The outcomes of January 18th 1919 were that of many different treaties, created the League of Nations, severely damaged the economy of the nations that lost the war and the biggest outcome was causing World War II. The treaties, five in total, were established to govern peace after the war one treaty in particular the Treaty of Versailles crumbled Germany. Germany was ordered to pay for the rebuild of the countries they had destroyed. This led to hyper-inflation, eventually the great depression and the rise of National Socialism and Hitler. Although the conference and members had good intentions with the treaties and their ideas to prevent another war, in the end it only paved the road for another.