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To cite this document: Changuk Lee, Kye-Sung Chon, (2000),”An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 12 Iss: 2 pp. 126 – 134 Permanent link to this document: Downloaded on: 09-12-2012 References: This document contains references to 28 other documents Citations: This document has been cited by 11 other documents To copy this document: [email protected] This document has been downloaded 4335 times since 2005. *

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Changuk Lee, Kye-Sung Chon, (2000),”An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 12 Iss: 2 pp. 126 – 134 Changuk Lee, Kye-Sung Chon, (2000),”An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 12 Iss: 2 pp. 126 – 134 Changuk Lee, Kye-Sung Chon, (2000),”An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 12 Iss: 2 pp. 126 – 134

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An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach Changuk Lee Department of Park, Recreation and Tourism, Clemson University, South Carolina, USA Kye-Sung Chon Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, University of Houston, Texas, USA


Diversity, Trainig techniques, Management, Restaurant industry

The workforce is undergoing several changes including an increase in female and nonwhite employees. These changes have become the buzzwords among human resources managers and researchers in the hospitality industry. The shift in the workforce is evident in the hospitality industry: about 60 percent of the line-level personnel are ethnic minorities, including African-Americans, Hispanic and AsianAmericans (Andorka, 1997). It is projected that roughly 40 percent of all net additions to the labor force in the USA between 1986 and 2000 will be non-white, half of them first generation immigrants, mostly from Asian and Latin American countries (Fullerton, 1987). The National Restaurant Association (1988) predicted that Asian and Hispanic immigrants would fill more than 20 percent of the positions in the restaurant industry by the year 2000.

In addition to a multicultural workforce, the hospitality industry is increasing its emphasis on multinational business operations and global customers. Clark and Arbel (1993) found that the top six US international hotel chains operate in more than 40 countries worldwide. The top 50 restaurant chains ranked by sales in Restaurant Business indicated that 28 percent of the total sales in the leading restaurant chains originated overseas in 1996, and the growth rate clearly eclipses expansion on the home market (Houten, 1997). Houten (1997) reported that McDonald’s had about 49 percent of its total revenue from the international market, and KFC generated 53 percent of its total sales from the global market. In addition, tourists visiting the USA from Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Mexico and Europe are expected to grow by more than 10 The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at


The restaurant industry is dealing with diversity in terms of its workforce, international customers and multinational business operations. Acknowledging diversity through multicultural training is beginning to appear in some restaurant companies. This study investigates how franchised restaurants utilize multicultural training programs from a training cycle approach. The findings indicate that high employee turnover rates are the primary reason that the majority of companies do not have a cultural diversity training program. Companies with a diversity training program report that such training is successful in improving interpersonal cross-cultural skills.

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/2 [2000] 126±134 # MCB University Press [ISSN 0959-6119]

percent in the 1990s, and by the year 2001, Asia’s share of the world tourism market was expected to increase from 20 percent to 40 percent (US Travel Service, 1990). Diversity will have a significant impact on the hospitality industry. On one hand, diversity may cause problems, particularly in older, traditional organizations with a homogeneous workforce, including communication difficulties with supervisors and co-workers as well as with customers. Thus, group cohesiveness may be reduced by an increased cultural diversity among group members (Cox, 1993). The lack of understanding of different cultures may lead to ineffective management techniques in directing, motivating, and rewarding culturally diverse employees. On the other hand, diversity enriches a hospitality organization by adding new cultures, ideas, and alternative methods for solving problems. Cox (1991) argues that utilizing cultural heterogeneity leads to greater innovation and more efficient marketing strategies for the different types of customers worldwide.

In addition, diversity provides greater flexibility in responding to changes in the business environment because employees with different backgrounds bring different perspectives, thereby creating improvements in the status quo (Glick et al., 1990). Therefore, it is possible that heterogeneous teams perform better than homogeneous ones in the long run because of the learning experiences associated with cultural differences (Mejia and Palich, 1997). What is not understood is what effects, if any, these changes will have on an organization and how it can respond in a proactive way to them. Recognizing the significance of managing diversity in the hospitality organization, Welch et al. (1988) suggest that developing cultural awareness in a company helps employees become familiar with different values, interpersonal interactions, and communication systems which must be understood for an effective

Changuk Lee and Kye-Sung Chon An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/2 [2000] 126±134

multicultural working environment. Christensen (1993) emphasizes that organizations failing to acknowledge the full range of variety inherent in their employees and customer populations will have difficulty surviving. However, those studies do not provide specific information about the multicultural training practices in the hospitality industry, nor do they provide a need for adopting a conceptual framework for investigating such training. The purpose of this study is to examine the multicultural training practices of the franchised restaurants based on the “training cycle” concept by Woods (1992) and Milkovich and Boudreau (1991). In addition, this research investigates what factors deter restaurants from developing and using multicultural training programs.

Conceptual underpinnings
The development of a global business environment requires an increased managerial focus on how to facilitate crosscultural boundaries between people with diverse cultural backgrounds (Bochner, 1982). This has led to increased attention being paid to cross-cultural issues and their impact on hospitality industries (Gamio and Sneed, 1992). Cross-cultural interactions help bridge differences and facilitate adaptation between groups, especially if one group is being merged into a larger, more dominant group (Tung, 1993). To facilitate effective cross-cultural interactions, multicultural training helps individuals in an organization acquire both the knowledge and tools needed to reduce misunderstandings and inappropriate behavior.

Black and Mendenhall (1990) found that multicultural training was effective in developing greater self-confidence in dealing with diverse groups of people and provided the skills for improving relationships between and decreasing prejudices about people from diverse cultures. Barlett and Ghoshal (1990) also pointed out that ingraining a multicultural perspective in management training and development enhances a company’s ability to operate effectively in different cultural environments. Despite the good intention and the need for enhancing cultural diversity through multicultural training, such programs may fail to achieve lasting results. To avoid such problems and to provide complete guidelines, the training needs a systematic approach. Woods (1992) presented a “the training cycle” diagram which begins with developing the needs assessment, goes through training and implementation (identifying training objectives, contents, methods, implementation), and finally evaluating the program. Figure 1 illustrates this conceptual framework as it applies to multicultural training. The first step in the training process is assessing the needs of the corporate culture and the specific job tasks of individuals in a multicultural work environment because every training program affects the work unit and the organization.

The next stage in the cycle is the identification of training objectives. Woods (1992) recommended four categories of training goals: 1 Reaction-based. Investigates how employees feel about the issue. 2 Learning-acquired. Examines how a trainee obtains knowledge about dealing with cultural differences. 3 On-the-job behavior. Analyzes the degree of behavior change after the training. 4 Results-oriented. Measures the influence of training in improving technical skills for dealing with diverse people. The third stage in the training cycle is the establishment of the proper training content. The following content has been used: . sensitivity training; . cultural awareness programs; . orientation programs; . joint education programs with schools; and . communication competency programs (Cox, 1993; Gamio and Sneed, 1992; Tung, 1993). The next stage is choosing and implementing the training program using proper methods.

The methods of training vary substantially according to the circumstances of the company. Training can be done either on-thejob or in a place outside the workplace. Onthe-job training can be effective when supervisors or trained instructors are involved in the actual work setting, while offthe-job training, including lectures, simulation and case studies, can be done without interrupting the everyday routine. While traditional methods are still useful, technology-based training using CD-ROM is increasingly in demand (Harris and West, 1993). The final stage of the training cycle is evaluation. Milkovich and Boudreau (1991) highlighted that training programs need to verify whether the training is successful in trainees’ performances in work settings. Specifically, Black and Mendenhall (1990) found a positive relationship between crosscultural training and job performance, and  Changuk Lee and Kye-Sung Chon An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/2 [2000] 126±134

Figure 1 The training cycle framework for multicultural training (with selected synopsis of questions in the survey) proposed three indicators of multicultural training success: 1 cross-cultural skill development; 2 adjustment; and 3 job performance. Similarly, Jeffcoate (1981) reported four measurements for cultural diversity training programs: 1 cross-cultural understanding; 2 skills; 3 attitudes; and 4 experiences with diverse cultures. Besides evaluating the effectiveness of the training, it is also necessary to investigate what deters the widespread utilization of such training. Mendenhall and Oddou (1986) and Tung (1981) found that the deterrence factors included cost, perceived lack of usefulness, lack of specialized trainers, and lack of support from top management. These factors should be addressed in future training programs.

The sample of 300 restaurants was selected from the Franchise Directory (1992) that lists franchised restaurants with corporate addresses in the USA using systematic random sampling. The total number listed in the Franchise Directory was 603 franchised restaurants. Since the researchers chose a sample of 300 restaurants listed, every second restaurant was used after the number two was selected to start the process. The sample Changuk Lee and Kye-Sung Chon An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/2 [2000] 126±134

size of 300 was chosen based on the Zikmund’s (1991) suggestion. Zikmund (1991) indicated that a sample size of 306 is good for population of more than 500,000 with 95 percent confidence level. He also suggested utilizing a sample size, similar to the sample sizes used in previous studies, provided the researcher with a good guideline. For instance, Gamio and Sneed’s study (1992) on multicultural training in the hospitality industry had a sample size of 213. This study is believed to have a proper sample size. A three-page questionnaire was developed to mail to the corporate headquarters of the company-owned franchised restaurant units. They probably have more control over the company training than non-company owned franchised restaurants and emphasize training as one of the top priorities in restaurant franchising. The questionnaire was addressed to the director of human resources/personnel department, the one who is usually responsible for implementing and evaluating corporate training and, therefore, would be most aware of the multicultural training programs.

While companies with such training were asked to proceed to part two. The deterrence factors were measured with a nine-point Likert-type scale, ranging from “most important factor” (1) to “moderate factor” (5) to “least important factor” (9). The second part of the questionnaire focused on the multicultural training practices and perceived effectiveness of such programs. Respondents were asked to check the items that applied to their training reasons, goals, contents, and methods. In addition, the effectiveness of the training was assessed with items that included crosscultural skills, job performance, and attitudes towards cultural diversity literature. A six-point Likert-type scale, ranging from “strongly agree” (1) to “neutral” (3) to “strongly disagree” (5) to “not an objective of the program” (6) were assigned to each effectiveness item.

Data collection

Research framework and questionnaire

A research model (see Figure 1) was developed to show the framework of the multicultural training practices in the hospitality industry. Since there were no research questionnaires or scales developed to investigate the training practices, the researchers developed the questionnaire and training effectiveness scale specifically for this study. During the questionnaire development phase, academics at a large university in eastern USA were used to refine the content and the phrasing of each item. The questionnaire was then pilot tested to ensure its validity and clarity among personnel directors in franchised restaurants in small to medium size cities in the eastern USA.

The results of the pilot test revealed that the questionnaire and cover letter were appropriate and understandable for respondents and the respondents had access to the information to complete the questionnaire. Based on the pilot test, the final questionnaire was divided into two parts, the first part covering general questions about the company background and the second part dealing with current training practices. The first part was intended to obtain information about franchise unit control and the presence of multicultural training. Companies without such training were asked to answer the question concerning reasons for the lack of multicultural training programs and then to return the instrument to the researcher,

A package that included a questionnaire, a cover letter explaining the purpose of the study, and a postage-paid return envelope was mailed, encouraging participation and ensuring anonymity. A follow-up postcard was sent to the study sample two weeks after the initial mailing. A letter encouraging participation and explaining the importance of the study was sent two weeks after the follow-up postcard with a postage-paid return envelope. To test for the non-response bias, a telephone survey, developed from the original survey and focused on the most important information, was done for 30 companies. There was no difference between the respondents and non-respondents in terms of respondent profile and presence of training practices.

In total, 61 usable surveys were returned out of 300 initial mail-outs, yielding a response rate of 20.3 percent. Several possible reasons may explain the relatively low response rate of this study: . the topic may be sensitive to the respondents; . employees in the industry may not believe the need for research; and . the low utilization of multicultural training in the industry may be reflected. The findings of this study must be interpreted with caution since the low response rate certainly limits the generalizability of this study. It also suggested a larger problem in doing research both in the area of multicultural training and in the field of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/2 [2000] 126±134

hospitality management. This low response rate is not unusual for the hospitality research. For instance, Gamio and Sneed (1992) reported a 19 percent response rate in their multicultural training research in the industry. Of the returned questionnaires, three restaurants had the multicultural training and 58 did not have such training. Data from the three companies currently engaged in multicultural training programs were analyzed to address the current training program activities and effectiveness. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for the items concerning the effectiveness of multicultural training was high ( = 0.96). Data received from all 61 companies were analyzed, using the SPSS Statistics Package, to investigate franchise unit control and the primary deterrent factors for the training program.

Respondent profiles

To obtain the characteristics of the restaurants, respondents were first asked to indicate which units within the organizations were company-owned. Approximately 66 percent of restaurants reported 0 to 39 percent of their total franchise units were company-owned, suggesting a substantial number of restaurants have little control over franchisees. It may contribute to the limited use of multicultural training in the study sample.

Multicultural training practices

To provide a framework for analysis, a case study perspective was used to discuss the results of the training practices (see Table I). The first step in developing training programs deals with the need assessment. The investigation of training reasons demonstrated that all respondents recognized the significance of “strategic planning for incorporating cultural diversity” by selecting it as the primary reason for committing to the training at the corporate level. Further, cases 2 and 3 recognized the legal ramifications of cultural diversity issues in their companies. However, the diversity of their workforce and customer base was not considered a significant reason for the training. As these results indicated, the companies emphasized the need for a broader management philosophy and awareness of the legal responsibility rather than providing practical help for their employees to become open to cultural diversity and for their diverse customers.

The second stage in the training cycle is the identification of the training goals for the program. All cases reported sensitivity about cultural diversity as the primary reactionbased goal. For reaction-based goals, cases 1 and 2 emphasized the goals of decreasing perceptions and stereotypes toward other cultures while cases 1 case 3 incorporated appreciating other cultures. For the learningacquired goal, cases 2 and 3 set acquiring knowledge about cultural diversity as the goals. For the on-the-job behavioral goals, only case 3 set the increase in employee teamwork as the training goal. It is worthwhile to note that no case reported the use of results-oriented (i.e. developing technical skills and facilitating cross-cultural interactions) goals. Only case 3 employed jobspecific goals that included increased teamwork. Overall, companies focused more on reactive goals rather than result-oriented and job-specific training goals. These findings coincided with Woods’ (1992) suggestion that companies have multiple objectives for their training programs.

The third stage in the training cycle is the establishment of training content. Overall, each company used different distributions of training contents. But all three cases emphasized communication (i.e. exploring differences in communication styles) and sensitivity components (i.e. exposing prejudice and hostility toward different people). Employees easily observe differences between and recognize prejudice towards people while they are working. In addition, cases 1 and 2 included conflict resolution, and cases #1 and #3 included awareness training as their training component. On the other hand, training components such as language training (i.e. second language) or spectrum policy training (i.e., preserving the identity of original cultures) were not reported.

The next stage is investigating training methods. Overall, all three cases used traditional training methods more than innovative ones. Cases 1 and 2 used only traditional training methods, which included on-the-job training, lecture-pupil instruction and workshops or seminars. Case 3, however, incorporated more progressive methods, combining innovative approaches such as mentor programs and minority advisory groups along with the traditional training methods. It is interesting to note that none of the companies used joint programs with educational institutions nor computer-aided methods.

Multicultural training effectiveness

To verify tangible outcomes of the training program, respondents were asked to estimate

Changuk Lee and Kye-Sung Chon An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/2 [2000] 126±134

the overall success of their cultural diversity training programs in three different areas: interpersonal skills, perceptions/attitudes change, and job performance (see Table II). Respondents agreed (mean = 2) that their programs had successfully increased their employees’ interpersonal skills. In addition, they, for the most part, agreed (mean = 2.3) that trainees positively changed their perceptions/attitudes towards cultural diversity, but they were not sure (mean = 2.7) about the training effectiveness of the language and communication components. We need to remember that adjusting to a new culture through decreasing language barriers involves a gradual development of a familiarity and proficiency with another language. It was also indicated that the training was perceived as successful in employee job behavior but neutral in the area of organization effectiveness. Respondents believed that training was most successful in promoting more efficient communication

between diverse people and improving the work atmosphere and morale (mean = 2). To a lesser degree, they perceived that the training was successful in improving company image and employee loyalty (mean = 2.3). Meanwhile, they did not perceive that the training resulted in organization effectiveness (i.e. more promotions of diverse employees and better decision-making). The results coincided (overall mean = 2.3, overall SD = 0.25) with the past studies, since none of this research reported a significant negative relationship between multicultural training and job performance (Black and Mendenhall, 1990). In all, it was found that individual jobrelated aspects (i.e. interpersonal skills and communication) improved with the training while organization-level aspects, such as promotion and decision making, were not readily enhanced with such a program. It was not surprising that changing individual employees through training was more achievable than transforming corporate-level decision making.

Table I Description of the multicultural training practices by case sample Training criteria Case 1 x Case 2 x x Case 3 x x

Deterrence factors for multicultural training

Training reasons 1. Strategic planning for incorporating diversity 2. Government (legal) mandate 3. Organization’s highly diverse workforce 4. Organization’s highly diverse customer base Training goals 1. Increase sensitivity about diversity 2. Decrease negative perceptions and stereotypes 3. Appreciate and respect other cultures 4. Acquire knowledge about cultural diversity 5. Increase employee teamwork 6. Increase overall productivity 7. Develop technical skills in dealing with diversity 8. Facilitate cross-cultural skills Training contents 1. Communication 2. Sensitivity training 3. Conflict resolution 4. Awareness training 5. Language training 6. Spectrum policy Training methods 1. On-the-job training 2. Lecture-pupil instruction 3. Workshops or seminars 4. Simulation 5. Case studies 6. Mentor programs for minorities 7. New member orientation 8. Minority advisory groups 9. Joint programs with an educational institute 10. Interactive video

Investigating the deterrence factors for multicultural training in the hospitality industry is as important as studying the effects of such training on job performance. Table III presented the perceived deterrence factors for the use of cultural diversity training programs. The “high turnover rates of employees” was ranked as the most important factor for not initiating training programs. Other constraints associated with the training, such as cost, time, and difficulty, agreed with previous research on the topic (Tung, 1981). It should be noted that the mean (mean = 2.3) of “high turnover” in this study was substantially higher, and the standard deviation (SD = 1.0) was significantly smaller than for other deterrent factors such as cost (mean = 4.3, SD = 2.1), time (mean = 4.4, SD = 1.9), and difficulty (mean = 4.7, SD = 2.4). The data suggested that even with the absence of less significant factors, training programs would not be instituted because of the perceived problems with high turnover in the restaurant industry. Other factors, the presence of diverse employees (mean = 6.1, SD = 2.2) and the presence of diverse customers (mean = 7.1, SD = 2.2), had the lowest ranking.

This study explored multicultural training practices in the franchised restaurant

[ 131 ]

Changuk Lee and Kye-Sung Chon An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 12/2 [2000] 126±134

industry. Although the practice of multicultural training was not widespread, respondents who had the training understood the importance of such training for incorporating cultural diversity. Thus, restaurants set the training goals to increase sensitivity about cultural diversity utilizing rather conventional training contents and methods. In addition, it was perceived that multicultural training was most successful in improving interpersonal skills dealing with culturally diverse people in their work environments. High turnover rates in the restaurants were the most important factor for not implementing the training.

From a company-specific perspective, case 3 has adapted the most professional approach to the multicultural training. The company recognized the importance of the diversity and the legal implications of multiculturalism and included job-specific training goals of increasing employee teamwork. Further, it employed advanced training methods, such as mentor programs and advisory programs for minorities. The approaches used by case 3 would serve as an example for other restaurants that want to implement multicultural training.

Table II Perceived success of multicultural training items Mean SD 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Very little is documented about multicultural training in hospitality literature. For effective management of multicultural training, an in-depth training approach is required for the practitioners and a research guideline is recommended for the hospitality researchers.

Interpersonal skills Greater responsiveness to diverse customers Increased cooperation among diverse workers More information about cross-cultural job tasks More acceptance to diverse values Perceptions/attitudes Decreased stereotypes Reduced prejudices Positively changed attitudes Decreased language and communication barriers Job performance More efficient communication Improved morale and work atmosphere Increased loyalty Improved corporate image emphasizing diversity More promotion for diverse employees Better decision making

Restaurant practitioners

Notes: SD = standard deviation Scale: 1 = strongly agree; 3 = neutral; 5 = strongly disagree; 6 = not an objective

Table III Deterrence factors of multicultural training program Factors High turnover Cost Time Difficulty Absence of training specialist No need for training Lack of support Few diverse employees Few diverse customers Mean 2.3 4.3 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.2 5.8 6.1 7.1 SD 1.0 2.1 1.9 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.1 2.2 2.2

Notes: SD = standard deviation Scale: 1 = most important factor; 5 = moderate important factor; 9 = least important factor [ 132 ]

Restaurants need to have more thorough multicultural training programs, focusing on training goals which are practical and jobspecific. Job result-oriented training goals, including increasing employee teamwork among culturally diverse employees and improving cross-cultural skills, must be a part of the training goals to encourage employee participation and eventually help in facilitating job performance in dealing with multicultural work environments. In addition, training methods should be more comprehensive rather than limited. As case 3 reported, minority mentor and advisory programs could be utilized to encourage full participation of ethnic minorities.

These involvement efforts, with full support from upper management, would help change employees’ attitudes and lower barriers between diverse workers and promote ethnic minorities, and hopefully lead to less turnover generated from the feeling of isolation and difference. Furthermore, human resource directors may consider utilizing employees with multicultural experience. For instance, the company can hire managers who have handson experience with different cultures or language skills for efficient interaction with diverse employees and for multicultural training. These comprehensive training approaches can eventually generate productive training results and increase better understanding among employees from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Hospitality researchers

Results of this study have provided useful directions for future research in the area of multicultural training. Respondents in this study perceived more success in improving interpersonal skills than dealing with culturally diverse people because those skills are probably more easily observable and acquirable. A more rigorous research design is recommended before definitive conclusions about the efficiency of the training can be reached (Black and Mendenhall, 1990). Without identifying a baseline of knowledge and skills before starting the program, it becomes difficult to measure training effectiveness. Researchers can solve this problem by utilizing a pretestposttest design with a control group, identifying two separate groups during pretest. One group would be tested before and after receiving the training. The other group would simply be tested twice ± once before and once after the program ± but they would not receive the training. By measuring both groups, training managers could fully assess the impact of the training program.

Furthermore, the measurement of the training effectiveness needs to incorporate the trainee’s estimation about the program in addition to perceptions from directors of human resources. Alliger and Janak (1989) advocated that training needs to integrate two evaluation criteria: 1 Internal. For assessing how trainees feel about the training experience. 2 External. For estimating the changes in job behavior and organizational effectiveness (Milkovich and Boudreau, 1991). The investigation of deterrence factors is as important as studying the effectiveness of the training programs.

Even though the previous study by Gamio and Sneed (1992) did not list “high turnover rates of employees” as a deterrence factor for multicultural training, this research found it to be the most important one. Managers in restaurants may blame the lack of multicultural training on high turnover rates among their employees, using turnover rates as the reason to disregard the need for such programs. Diversity in the organization brings higher turnover rates, in part, because it may inhibit the development of a strong bond among culturally diverse group members; in other words, heterogeneity among team members may contribute to the high turnover rates in the company (Jackson et al., 1991).

Because of the issues of high turnover rate and the muticulturalism in the restaurant industry, research exploring the relationship between cultural diversity and employee turnover will become an important agenda for hospitality researchers. In responding to the multicultural work environments and international scope of restaurant operations, the hospitality industry should provide proper training for line employees who require customer interactions during their routine jobs in addition to managers who deal with employee promotion and corporate culture. Such training encourages understanding about differences and acceptance of the multicultural work environment and helps create and retain effective work teams and expertise in dealing with multicultural management.


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