We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Essay Sample

essay
The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues.

Get Access

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Essay Sample

A non-invasive method of studying the human brain using magnetic fields. An electrical current is passed through a wire coil placed near the scalp. The current induces a magnetic field which produces an electrical field in the brain. This creates a depolarization of nerve cells, causing changes in brain activity. The skull is a good insulator so other attempts to change the activity inside it have been less successful – such as electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). TMS allows magnetic fields to be changed very quickly – it can give a pulse every 3 seconds, and this stimulates a part of the brain such as a motor area. rTMS (rapid rate) can give up to 50 pulses per second.

The shape of the coil determines the properties of the magnetic field along with the way TMS is applied and where on the scalp. Either round of figure-of-eight coils are used.

Applications of TMS

Cortical stimulation such as of the motor cortex is possible with TMS, and is easy to study because the output is easily measurable – twitches in muscles. The Motor-evoked potential in the muscle produced by a stimulus (TMS) can be measured with electromyographic equipment.

Connectivity between areas of the brain can be studied, for example transcallosal inhibition (TCI) – an inhibitory signal from site of stimulation to motor cortex via the corpus callosum. It has been shown to need intact pathways in the corpus callosum. Also, connectivity between motor cortex and the cerebellum can be studied for example.

Cortical plasticity (the way the brain responds to repeated stimuli) can be studied with TMS, for example by looking at motor areas used for activation of a muscle and then studying the changes with exercise – this is useful in looking at stroke recovery.

TMS can be used to investigate cognitive functioning – such as enhancing functions – an increase in object naming has been seen with stimulation of auditory temporal cortex; motor reaction time when cortex is stimulated on the side of the movement etc. Other studies involve temporary ‘virtual’ lesions and disrupt notmal brain functioning, such as stimulation of frontal cortex disrupting memory and recall; temporal cortex disruptions cause language related disruptions; the parietal lobe with visual processing etc.

TMS can be used in a therapeutic way for example in altering mood and depression – TMS has been found to alter mood, and some studies have found stimulation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) improved patients’ mood ratings.

Animals can be used to study the effects of TMS on altering depression and mood – recent work with rats using rTMS has shown increases in coping strategies for stress. However studies with TMS on altering mood are not conclusive in that they often use small sample sizes, little evidence and lack of detail.

Safety

TMS is generally shown to be a safe and relatively painless procedure. Som seizures have been found in epileptic patients but not normal ones – but a few have been found in normal patients using rTMS. However this depends on many variables e.g. intensity, and guidelines have been produced for safety which reduces risk. Few side effects have been seen apart from mild headaches, and there have been no adverse effects on brain structure, hormone levels etc.

Combination with other methods

Combining TMS with EEG (Electroencephalogram) recording can recorde cortical potentials induced with TMS and look at sprerad of activity. It can also be combined with fMRI and PET – for example to look at activation of areas during stimulation to provide information about connectivity.

Disadvantages

Effects of TMS appear to be short-lived so repetitive treatment is necessary (when aiming to treat disorders). There can be side effects but these are mild and can be treated.

Advantages

Better than lesion studies which depend on many factors – chance lesions created by accidents etc., or using animals; there are not many studies and these cannot be repeated; lesions may cause other brain problems; comparisons can only be made to healthy control subjects; the lesions are non-reversible so the ‘before’ state cannot be compared.

TMS reduces these problems by using normal subjects. Stimulation is focussed and so this reduces global impairments. Studies can be repeated.

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Peculiarities of various assignment types

The educational process is diverse and full of interesting writing tasks which help students develop their academic abilities. Different assignments types are created by professionals in order to enhance students’ level of analytical, critical and writing skills and to vary the learning process. As a student, you will encounter numerous tasks of diverse complexities throughout your student life. Sometimes, maybe, too complicated! They have different peculiarities, structural...

Making decisions in health and social care

Critically analyses the concepts, features, and importance of costs and accounting in making decisions in health and social care Cost accounting is a method used in accounting to capture a company’s or organisation’s production costs. It assesses the input costs of every step in production, fixed costs like depreciation of capital equipment. Cost accounting measures and records costs individually then compare the input results via...

Сhildren development

Physical development 7-12 years By the age of 7 a child enjoys things such as bike riding and rollerblading they are now able to tie and untie shoelaces without adult help, they are now starting to understand what rules are and are able to follow simple rules. At 8-12 years a child improves the physical skills that they have already developed and start to see...

Forex international trading market

Introduction Forex exchange is on the rise in Namibia; resulting in more people wanting to learn how to trade to try to increase their income so that they can enhance their standard of living. Forex Foreign exchange identifies the process of converting domestic currency into international banknotes at particular exchange rates (Bofah, 2017, para.1). As the number of foreigners in Namibia is increasing, more Namibians...

Aristotelian idea of God

This image produced in 1544 shows emerging's of the Judeo-Christians and Aristotelian's traditions. Aristotle was very interested in the idea of motion and said “The world is in a constant state of motion and change”. An example of how the world is changing is the growth of trees and plants. Aristotle believed in a prime mover, which is the being which creates change in the...

Get Access To The Full Essay
icon
300+
Materials Daily
icon
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
icon
Free Plagiarism
Checker
icon
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.
Sorry, but only registered users have full access

How about getting this access
immediately?

Become a member

Your Answer Is Very Helpful For Us
Thank You A Lot!

logo

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Couldn't Find What You Looking For?

Get access to our huge knowledge base which is continuously updated

Next Update Will Be About:
14 : 59 : 59
Become a Member