Translation shift is common occurrence that we can find in translation. This thing happens because whole languages in the world have different grammatical structure. According to Peter Newmark “’shift’ (Catford’s term) or ‘transposition’ (Vinay and Darbelnet) is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL”. (Newmark, 1988:85). A translator has to has skill to translate from Source Text (ST) and Target Text (TT). If they did mistake in translation, it will be a wrong assumption for the reader. The message from the ST can not be understand by the readers or other people. Because between ST and TT must be equivalence each other. Problem in equivalence is a part of translation theory (Barnstone, 1993 via Nababan, 2008 : 93). No one translator who translates a text perfectly but, at least the message from the ST is able to understood by the TT. The translator uses so many kinds of translation. Their kinds are like translation of form, content, literal and free, dynamic, pragmatics, linguistics, semantics, and communicative.
The translator often changes the structure of the ST so that the message from the ST can be accepted for TT. The shift in translation is not a mistake in the world of translation because it just to make easy the TT understanding the message. So, the shift in translation can not be avoided. Translation shift is included form of words, phrases, and clauses. Word can be a phrase or a phrase can be a word. Shift also occurs on the higher levels such as: text, genre, and discourse. This is often happened in translation that caused by different type of grammatical structure. On this chance the writer tries to find translation shift in the song lyrics of Westlife that he finds on the site Westlife album that translated from English to Bahasa Indonesia with the title Flying without wings, Soleda, and I Lay my Love on You. When we saw the result of translation we can find some of structure changes in the lyrics. There many different grammatical structure from English and Bahasa Indonesia. But, the writer aims to show some of translation shift from words, phrases, and clauses.
1. Shift of words
Word is one of important thing in linguistics which its position higher than morpheme although there is high intense debate among linguists in the world about definition of word and morpheme. Word consists of one morpheme or more than one morpheme. According to traditional linguist word is unity of language which has one meaning, or word is sequence of letter that located between two spaces and it has one meaning. (Chaer, 2007: 162). But, in this change the writer does not discuss it more. We can discuss it later about word more comprehensive. In translation, shift of words is often happened from ST to TT. A translator does it because sometime if the words did not this thing, the message from ST is difficult to understand. The change of it we can see at these some of song lyrics below: * Word becomes phrase
There are many of words become phrases in translation from English to Bahasa Indonesia. In the lyric as this following, word “some” as a word in English becomes “beberapa orang” as a phrase in Bahasa Indonesia. Some find it sharing every morning (Flying without wings)
Beberapa orang menemukannya saat berbagi setiap pagi
Word “some” at above as an indefinite pronoun can be presented in English but, when we translate it with “beberapa”, the message on the word can not be understood by the TT because there is an ambiguity in Bahasa Indonesia. When we say “beberapa”, we will be confused with the word. We can assume “beberapa hewan”, “beberapa manusia”, etc. If we saw in this situation the word “some” can be accepted in English but, in Bahasa Indonesia the “beberapa” can not be accepted although depend on this situation. So, the translator needs more word to translate it with additional of word “orang” to deliver to meaning on that word. “Some” in English becomes “beberapa orang” can be accepted in Bahasa Indonesia. * Plural becomes singular
Some of plural noun in English add morpheme –s or –es at the end of word although there are others additional for some words. Look at this sentence at below. Places you never knew it could be (Flying without wings)
Tempat yang tak pernah kau duga
The word “places” in English is a plural noun that added with morpheme –s at the end of word “places”. Plural is Bahasa Indonesia can be sighted with repeating the noun. At the sentence above word “places” is translated in Bahasa Indonesia as “tempat” that is singular noun. Translation shift like this type is right in certain situation. But, if the translator translated plural noun to singular noun is wrong in this situation. They have different meaning and sense from St to TT. The word “places” means many places meanwhile “tempat” means just one place.
From the analysis the writer assumes that the translator makes mistake in translation. The translator does the wrong translation because between plural noun becomes singular noun have different meaning from ST to TT. The word “places” in English is translated as “tempat” can not be accepted by TT.
* Adjective becomes verb
Adjectives are words that modify a noun; they either name an inherent attribute of a thing. (Verspoor, 2000: 92). Adjective in English usually is located before noun to modify it. In translation world, adjective in ST becomes verb in TT is a normal phenomenon. To make it clearer, look at this below: One thing that makes it all complete (Flying without wings)
Sesuatu yang sempurnakan hidup
Since the day that you were gone (Soleda)
Sejak hari saat kau pergi
Just a smile and the rain is gone (I lay my Love on You)
Hanya dengan senyumanmu dan hujan pun berhenti
From the three of translations at above, there are three of adjectives in English become verbs in Bahasa Indonesia. The word “complete”, and “gone” as an adjective are translated become “sempurnakan” and “pergi” as a verb. If we translate the first sentence word by word “satu hal yang membuat semuanya sempurna”. This is caused by creativity of translator. Each translator has different skill in translation. When we translate word by word, the meaning is still able to understand and it was acceptable by the TT. Beside, the translator adds word “hidup” although there no equivalent word on the ST.
In the second and the third sentences, there is also shift from adjectives to verbs. The word “gone” may become verb or adjective, but in the lyric it is an adjective marked by auxiliary verb before. From the second sentence is translated as “pergi” and in the third sentence is translated as “berhenti”. Two difference words are translated in Bahasa Indonesia from word “gone”. It may meant habis(adj); hilang(adj); lenyap(adj), pergi(v); jalani(v); enyah(v). But, in the last sentence it is translated to be “berhenti”. So, when we translate the word “gone” to Bahasa Indonesia depend on situation. We have to see whole the sentence from beginning to the end and we can not translate it word by word. The translator uses free translation theory to send the meaning to TT.
2. Shift of Phrases
Among the historical linguistics study, phrases term has many of definitions. Phrases are grammatical unit group of word that are unpredicted or commonly said as group of word that filling one of syntaxes function in a sentence. (Chaer, 2007: 222). A phrase can consist of one word or more words. (Verspoor, 2000:118). Translation shift of phrase is often happened in translation practice. There many phases become word when they are translated. Especially, from English to Bahasa Indonesia because in Bahasa Indonesia there are too much words that used. Some of texts at this below will explain the case why it is happened in translation. * Phrase becomes possessive pronoun
This case is rare happened in translation from phrase to possessive pronoun because every word that is possessive pronoun can be understood if we translated to Bahasa Indonesia. There are two possibilities why it is happened whether the translator has a little skill or the translator uses free translation. Look explanation at this below! Everybody’s looking for that something (Flying without wings) Semua orang mencarinya
The phrase “that something” should be translated “sesuatu itu”, but in fact the translator makes it becomes a possessive “-nya”. There is no referent from the possessive pronoun will make confused the reader as TT. So, this translation is caused by lack of skill from the translator. The texts can not be accepted by the TT because there is still ambiguity from the possessive pronoun. The translator should be translated literal translation becomes “semua orang sedang mencari sesuatu itu”.
* Phrase becomes word
Phrase becomes word is one of occurrence that is happened in translation. The translator does it because most of phrase is an expression that rare not related with the real word. But, phrase is different with idiom although sometimes we are difficult to differ both of them. As we know before that phrase consist of more than one word. At this below there are two type of phrases become word in translation. The kind you cherish all your life (Flying without wings)
Persahabatan yang kau kenang seumur hidupmu
The phrase “the kind” can be as a noun or an adjective. At this case “kind” of course is a noun because there is modifier “the” before it but, the problem is in the meaning. “The kind” as a noun has several meaning in Bahasa Indonesia like jenis; macam; tipe; bagai. The phrase “the Kind” is translated as “persahabatan” that away from original meaning. Can’t believe just what an empty place (Soleda)
Tak dapat kupercaya betapa hampanya
The phrase “an empty place” at above has three words. In TT consists of one word or it becomes a word. This case is happened because the words in English have one meaning in Bahasa Indonesia. So, the translator should not use translate it word by word, but translate the word in one word “hampa”.
From the case above the writer assume that shift in phrase caused two factor. The first caused the translator has a little knowledge in translation. The second caused the words in ST have relation with others that have one meaning in TT.
There are so many translation shifts in the lyric at above from ST to TT. Translation shift can be divided in shift of words, phrases, and clauses. Shift of words consist of word becomes phrase; Plural noun becomes singular noun, and adjective becomes verb. The shift of word is happened because the translator wants to find equivalence meaning between ST and TT so that the message can be accepted well. Translation shift of phrase consist of phrase becomes possessive pronoun and phrase becomes word. Shift of phrase is happened because each words in the ST has relation that have one meaning in TT.
D. DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Azar, B. Schrampfer. 1999. Understanding And Using English Grammar, Third Edition. Longman: USA Chaer, Abdul. 2007. Linguistik Umum. Rineka Cipta: Jakarta Chaer, Abdul. 2009.Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. Rineka Cipta: Jakarta Murphy, Raymond. 1998. English Grammar in Use: A Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Students, 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press :United Kingdom Nababan, Rudolf. 2008. Teori Menerjemah Bahasa Inggris. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Newmark, Peter. 1988. A Textbook of Translation. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press: Hongkong Verspoor, Marjolijn and Kim Sauter. English Sentence Analysis. John Benjamins publishing Company: Amsterdam