In the world we’re living in now, globalization processes have been supported by improvements in transport technology. Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the worldviews, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. Speed is one of the big factors that relates to the increase speed of many transport modes. The distance decay suggested that areas that are closer together are more likely to interact, whereas further away countries will less likely interact. Some modes of transport are more competitive over a certain distance. For example, ocean transport is very competitive compared to other transport over long distance, due to very low operating cost. Using air transport would have an advantage of being faster over long distances, there will also be limited congestion and it is also a good for high value transport, such as, high technology industries and urgent cargo.
Since the start of air transport, the coverage and number of destination have increased rapidly and massively. In year 1914, the first flight was launched and carried only a few passengers; it went across the bay from Tampa and St. Petersburg (in Florida, USA), which was only distance around for 25km. After World War 1, the first international passenger air transport service was launched in between England and France. European government also established passenger airlines. The American government wanted to contribute in airmail and to encourage its use to other countries, this was the first commercial use of air travel and it linked cities and towns together due to the many destinations. America airmail has then developed into the first major American airline. Before World War 2 happened, the first airplane was built (Douglas DC-3) which could fly profitably without any government contributes, making it vital in the development of air transport coverage. Long haul flying boats were used during World War 2 to fly across intercontinental routes, however, they had a huge disadvantage in being too slow and expensive for civilian use.
The first ever flight by the Wright Brothers in 903, but it could only hold and carry a single passenger, but since then the capacity of air travel has greatly increased. In year 1928, the Ford 5AT could take up to 15 passengers on flights, the capacity has increased to 21 passengers on long-range overland flights. Planes were built in the 1960s were capable of carrying over 100 passengers, the planes we are using now are commonly used for air travel and can carry over 500 passengers. With the slight increase in the number of passengers, which can be carried in one flight, the amount of goods that can be transported by air travel has also greatly increased.
In the most recent years, airplanes had to gain much more in size as travellers and workers are taking airplanes more. The busiest airport in the world is now Atlanta, which in 2007 had just shied of 1 million aircraft movements. Since then, airplane size has grown in size when compared to the smaller and older aircrafts from past/ olden days.
Whilst aircraft improved and gained much more in size, ocean tankers have also become larger. Ship transport is watercraft carrying people or cargo. Sea transport has been the largest carrier of freight throughout recorded history. Even though the importance of sea travel for passengers has decreased die to aviation, it is effective for short trips and pleasure cruises. Ship transports include ship, sailboat or barge, over oceans and lakes, through canals or along rivers. Shipping may be for commerce, recreation or the military.
Propulsion, size or cargo types can distinguish types of ships. Recreational or educational craft still uses wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers (jet boats). Some modern merchants ships like, Bulk carriers, such as, Sabrina I, are cargo ships to transport bulk cargo items like ore or food staples (rice, grain) or any similar goods. The large box hatches can recognize it on its deck, designed to slide outboard for loading. A bulk carrier can be either dry or wet, most lakes are too small to accommodate bulk ships, but a large fleet of lake freighter has been plying the great lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway of North America for over a century.
Ships like tankers are cargo ships for the transport of fluids, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas and chemicals, also vegetable oils, wine and other liquids. The tanker sector comprises one third of the world tonnage. The capacity of ship transport is getting bigger every single year, the needs of goods is increasing rapidly in the past few years. However, shipping has two major drawbacks. It can be very slow, with speeds at sea averaging 15 knots (26km/hour); there is a very limited route to deep-water ports where it can get very difficult in high season. Also, shipping can cause environmental problems like pollution.