Transportation Planning Essay Sample

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The efficient movement of both people and goods is essential to the economic health of any urban area. Comprehensive Community Planning gives consideration to the interaction of land development and transportation facilities and promotes the most desirable pattern and character of urban growth.  Transportation planning is a preparation planning to move/transfer human, animal or other item to some place to another place. This planning is related to the operation of the highway system, geometry, and operation of traffic facilities.  Transportation planning, or transport planning, is involved with the evaluation, assessment, design and siting of transport facilities (generally streets, highways, bike lanes and public transport lines).  Urban Transportation Planning is the process that leads to decisions on transportations policies and programs. In this process, planners develop information about the impacts of implementing alternative courses of action involving transportation services such as new highways, bus route changes, or parking restrictions. This information is used to help decision makers (Elected Officials or Representatives) in their selection of transportation policies and programs.

TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AFFECTS: Policies Choices among alternative strategies Priorities Funding allocations Urban planning

IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING 1. Efficiency To achieve efficient management and better management of existing resources Effective use of transportation system Uses of technology Land use and resource controlling Quality To reduce a negative impact to the traffic that produce a pollution Equity to meet travel demand and response for all communities

TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PERIOD Short Term (Action Plan) o Review matters that can be completed within three years and involve high costs. o Example: program of engineers to optimize the use of existing transportation systems by installing various traffic control devices such as signs and signals.

Long Term ( ≥ 5 years) o This type of planning is more structured and complicated and it must be designed better than short term planning o Urban transportation planning process involves planning the next 20 to 25 years.

TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS (URBAN)

1. Organization o This phase of the planning process ensures efficient direction from public officials and guidance from the citizens of the study area. o Designed to ensure that all available inputs are used to the fullest extent possible to organize planning to meet the needs, goals and objectives of the community. 2. Planning Work Programs o Developed to make sure that the planning is conducted efficiently and comprehensively, and that it addresses all pertinent issues. Two Parts: Prospectus o Establishes a multi-year framework for the planning process. o It summarizes the planning procedures, discusses the important issues that will be addressed during planning, describes the responsibilities of each agency that is participating in planning, and describes the status of all elements in the planning process. Unified Planning Work Program o It describes all urban transportation and transportation-related planning activities that are anticipated over the next year or two. o It documents work to be performed with federal planning assistance.

3. The Transportation Plan o There are two elements in the preparation of a comprehensive transportation plan to guide improvements to the transportation system. Two Elements: Transport System Management (TSM) element o Concerned with making existing systems as efficient as possible and with making provisions for an area’s short range transportation needs. BASIC CATEGORIES OF ACTIONS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SYSTEM Actions to ensure the efficient use of existing road space. These actions include measures to manage and control the flow of motor vehicles. Installing reversible lanes to accommodate rush-hour traffic is one example. Actions to reduce vehicle use in congested areas. Encouraging carpooling and other forms of ride-sharing are examples. Actions to improve transit service. People can be encouraged to use transit by such actions as providing park-and-ride services from fringe areas to the central business district. Actions to improve internal transit management efficiency. Developing management tools, such as information systems or marketing campaigns might be considered, for example.

Long-range element o Identifies facilities to be constructed, major changes to be made to existing facilities, and long-range policy options. o This element of the transportation plan might, for example, consider adding a highway link, installing a busway system, or future land development policies. 4. Plan Refinement o The plan refinement stage, the corridors in which improvements are planned might be studied in detail, along with studies of various types of technology, e.g., buses vs. rapid transit, and studies to determine the proper staging (scheduling) of the planned projects. 5. Transportation Improvement Program o This program ensures that the transportation plan will be implemented in an orderly, efficient manner.

Major Elements: a. Staged Multi-year element o Describes the general aspects of the program over the next 3-5 years. o Indicates priorities among the projects identified for implementation, groups projects into appropriate staging periods, and makes estimates of costs and revenues for the program period. b. Annual element o Identifies the details of projects that will be implemented within the next year. THE CONTINUING PROCESS o Ensures that the transportation plan will respond to the area’s transportation needs, needs that are constantly changing. Transportation studies have been made of all areas with population of over 50,000. Planners have made inventories, of the characteristics that affect travel in urban areas. These inventories, which make up the data base, include: 1. Population 2. Land Use 3. Economic Activity 4. Transportation Systems 5. Travel

6. Laws and Ordinances 7. Financial Resources 8. Community Values

PLANNING TOOLS
TRAVEL DEMAND MODEL This phase is important to be in transportation planning to: o o o o provide new transportation system improve the existing system build highways, transit systems and other determine the number of trips that will use the existing transportation system trips taken in the form of vehicle / non-transport and private vehicles and public transport.

1. Trip Generation Is the process of determining the number of trips that will begin or end in each traffic analysis zone within a study area. To develop a relationship between trip end production or attraction and land use. To use the relationship to estimate the number of trips generated at some future date under a new set of land use condition. 2. Trip Distribution trip distribution is a process by which the trip generated in one zone are allocated to another zones in the study area. These trips may within the study area (internal – internal) or between the study area and area outside the study area (internal – external) To get a travel/traffic pattern (in/out) in a zone 3. Modal Split Modal Split is that aspect of the demand analysis process that determines the number (or percentages) of trips between zones. Depends on factors such as the traveler’s income and the availability of transit service limited to public and private vehicles only. 4. Traffic Assignment The final step in the forecasting process To determine the actual street and highway routes that will be used and the number of vehicles that can be expected on each highway segment to give a traffic direction to which road in road/transport network.

TRANSPORTATION STUDIES IN PLANNING PROCESS 1. Origin and Destination study (O-D) -To show the pattern and nature of daily trips made by the residents -The main purpose of O-D study is to plan the transportation in urban city especially the type of land use, road/traffic network and public transportation system. Application: Determine the traffic flow – if traffic congestion occurs, a short cut must be plan to give a comfortable travel to road user. Determine whether the existing road system is adequate or not Determine the suitable/best position of a bridge or new transport terminal to be constructed. Built a transportation models to make sure the transportation planning will be more easier and also make a prediction about the traffic pattern in the future.

2. Traffic Volume Studies To collect data on the number of vehicles / pedestrian that pass a point during a specified time period. To know whether the existing road can accommodate the vehicles that using a road.  To ensure the smooth movement of vehicles and traffic safety Application: Design for road rehabilitation Study the traffic at intersection Study of traffic control systems Forecast/predict traffic volumes Study of traffic accidents Analysis of costs – benefits for highway projects

3. Spot speed studies Conducted to estimate the distribution of speeds of vehicles in a stream of traffic at particular location. Carried out by recording the speed of a sample of vehicles at specific location Will be valid only for the traffic and environmental conditions that exist at the time of study.

Application: Establish parameter for traffic operation such as speed zones, speed limits, and passing restriction Evaluate the effectiveness of traffic control devices such as variable message sign at work zone. Evaluate /determine the adequacy of highway geometric characteristic Evaluate the effect of speed on highway

Determine speed trends.

4. Travel time and delay studies travel time study determines the amount of time required to travel from one point to another on a given route. Information may also collected on the location, duration, and causes of delays. data also aid the traffic engineer in identifying problems at the location.

Application: Determine the efficiency of a route with respect to its ability to carry traffic Identification of locations with relatively high delay and the causes for those delay. Determine the traffic times on specific link for use in trip assignment models Performance of economic studied in the evaluation of traffic operation alternative that reduce travel time. To evaluate the change in efficiency and level of service with time.

5. Parking studies The need of parking spaces is usually very great in the areas where land uses including business, residential and commercial activities. Providing adequate parking space to meet the demand for parking in central parking district may affect the level of service.

Application: To get the valid information (before and latest) To know whether it is adequate parking or not To provide information needed to enable the implementation of payment by the parties involved.

GENERAL POLICY OF TRANSPORATION PLANNING 1. social aspects improve the social aspects as can be done safely and comfortably 2. economic aspects with the existence variety of travel pattern, activities such as employment, population and household income will be increase. 3. physical aspects create an efficient transportation system because there are various modes of transportation introduced in an effort to reduce traffic congestion in urban areas, the following elements have been introduced 4. capacity widening access, traffic lights, sidewalks, traffic lights, parking (cars, motorcycles, bicycles) 5. priority

priority to bus routes, truck, space is limited (pedestrian), parking 6. restraint access control, incentives to use public transport, car sharing, land-use policy.

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN METRO MANILA or MEGA MANILA Rapid Population growth and urbanization in Metro Manila and adjoining areas has brought about pressure on the existing public transport system.  Metro Manila o Center of all Economic activities o The metropolitan region  Mega Manila o A term used to refer the continuous expansion of Metro Manila along with high rates of Sub urbanization at adjoining municipalities. o Greater metropolitan region

Public Transportation System (Metro Manila) Road Based Public Transportation Rail Based Public Transportation

MAJOR ISSUES:  Public Transportation System of Metro Manila o Uncontrollable number/types of PUV’s o Traffic Congestion  Urban Pattern o Fringe areas due to suburbanization  Budgetary Constraints o Lack of Modernization/Rehabilitation

Integrated Public Transport Concept o Generally defined as a system that provides door-to-door public transport services for passengers (Janic and Reggianni,2001). On the other hand, the “intermodal transport” is commonly used for the transport of goods. o The objective of this type of system is to achieve a high transit modal share with a seamless service using two or more modes. o Result of Urban Fringe Five Categories: 1. Physical Integration o the close proximity and ease of access at mode interchanges will greatly enhance public transport services. Walkways should be carefully designed for passengers to change mode. Passengers should be within a short walking distance from their residences to a transit stop. 2. Network Integration o bus and rail systems should be an integrated network in their own right and these separate networks should further complement one another. Feeder services using buses, trams or light rail should be designed to maximize the patronage of the trunk routes.

Network integration is closely linked to physical integration and both contribute towards the integration of infrastructure. 3. Fare Integration o a single fare card for multiple transit services will facilitate the transfer between modes. Rebates can be implemented as an inducement for those who transfer from one mode to another. 4. Information Integration o a comprehensive, easy-to-use passenger travel guide is critical to successful multi-modal travel. The signage at rail and bus stations should be properly designed to convey effective information to travellers. Information Technologies (IT) and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) can play important roles in integrated transport in general and information integration in particular. 5. Institutional Integration o a common institutional framework is better able to undertake land-use planning, travel demand management and integrated public transport services. In the absence of such common framework, cooperation and coordination amongst government agencies, and between the private and public sectors, become vitally important.

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN METRO MANILA: POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS (FROM 8 LAWS THAT WILL MAKE PHILIPPINES BETTER THROUGH TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION 1. HIGH – LEVEL POLITICIANS TAKE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ONCE A WEEK 2. A CENTRAL MASS TRANSIT PLANNING GROUP FOR THE PHILIPPINES 3. NO MORE PRIVATE-OWNED PUBLIC UTILITY BUSES 4. VERY LIMITED CAR USE IN THE CITY

INFRASTRUCTURES
Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. It can be generally defined as the set of interconnected structural elements that provide framework supporting an entire structure of development. It is an important term for judging a country or region’s development. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, bridges, water supply, sewers, electrical grids,telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as “the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions.”

HARD VS SOFT INFRASTRUCTURES “hard” infrastructure refers to the large physical networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industrial nation “soft” infrastructure refers to all the institutions which are required to maintain the economic, health, and cultural and social standards of a country, such as the financial system, the education system, the health care system, the system of government, and law enforcement, as well as emergency services 1. HARD INFRASTRUCTURES a. b. c. Transport infrastructure Road and highway networks Mass transit systems Railways, including structures, terminal facilities Canals and navigable waterways requiring continuous maintenance (dredging, etc.) Seaports and lighthouses Airports, including air navigational systems Bicycle paths and pedestrian walkways Ferries Energy infrastructure Electrical power network Natural gas pipelines, storage and distribution terminals Petroleum pipelines Specialized coal handling facilities Water management infrastructure Drinking water supply Sewage collection, and disposal of waste water Drainage systems Major irrigation systems (reservoirs, irrigation canals) Major flood control systems (dikes, levees, major pumping stations and floodgates)

d. Communications infrastructure – Postal service, including sorting facilities

Telephone networks (land lines) including telephone exchange systems Mobile phone networks Television and radio transmission stations Cable television physical networks Communications satellites Major private, government or dedicated telecommunications networks Solid waste management Municipal garbage and recyclables collection Solid waste landfills Solid waste incinerators and plasma gasification facilities Materials recovery facilities Hazardous waste disposal facilities

f. Earth monitoring and measurement networks – Meteorological monitoring networks – Tidal monitoring networks – Earth observation satellites – Global Positioning System 2. SOFT INFRASTRUCTURES Soft infrastructure includes both physical assets such as highly specialized buildings and equipment, as well as non-physical assets such as the body of rules and regulations governing the various systems, the financing of these systems, as well as the systems and organizations by which highly skilled and specialized professionals are trained, advance in their careers by acquiring experience, and are disciplined if required by professional associations (professional training, accreditation and discipline).

Unlike hard infrastructure, the essence of soft infrastructure is the delivery of specialized services to people. Unlike much of the service sector of the economy, the delivery of those services depend on highly developed systems and large specialised facilities or institutions that share many of the characteristics of hard infrastructure. Governance infrastructure The system of government and law enforcement, including the political, legislative, law enforcement, justice and penal systems, as well as specialized facilities (government offices, courthouses, prisons, etc.), and specialized systems for collecting, storing and disseminating data, laws and regulation Emergency services, such as police, fire protection, and ambulances, including specialized vehicles, buildings, communications and dispatching systems

Military infrastructure, including military bases, arms depots, training facilities, command centers, communication facilities, major weapons systems, fortifications, specialised arms manufacturing, strategic reserves

Economic infrastructure The financial system, including the banking system, financial institutions, the payment

system, exchanges, the money supply, financial regulations, as well as accounting standards and regulations Major business logistics facilities and systems, including warehouses as well as warehousing and shipping management systems Manufacturing infrastructure, including industrial parks and special economic zones, mines and processing plants for basic materials used as inputs in industry, specialized energy, transportation and water infrastructure used by industry, plus the public safety, zoning and environmental laws and regulations that govern and limit industrial activity, and standards organizations Agricultural, forestry and fisheries infrastructure, including specialized food and livestock transportation and storage facilities, major feedlots, agricultural price support systems (including agricultural insurance), agricultural health standards, food inspection, experimental farms and agricultural research centers and schools, the system of licencing and quota management, enforcement systems against poaching, forest wardens, and fire fighting

Social infrastructure The health care system, including hospitals, the financing of health care, including health insurance, the systems for regulation and testing of medications and medical procedures, the system for training, inspection and professional discipline of doctors and other medical professionals, public health monitoring and regulations, as well as coordination of measures taken during public health emergencies such as epidemics The educational and research system, including elementary and secondary schools, universities, specialised colleges, research institutions, the systems for financing and accrediting educational institutions Social welfare systems, including both government support and private charity for the poor, for people in distress or victims of abuse Sports and recreational infrastructure, such as parks, sports facilities, the system of sports leagues and associations

Cultural, sports and recreational infrastructure

Cultural infrastructure, such as concert halls, museums, libraries, theatres, studios, and specialized training facilities Business travel and tourism infrastructure, including both man-made and natural attractions, convention centers, hotels, restaurants and other services that cater mainly to tourists and business travellers, as well as the systems for informing and attracting tourists, and travel insurance

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