Stages of gratification, and if those stages involve too much or too little gratification, fixation would occur. This is when behaviors from an earlier stage are seen later in life as a result of unresolved conflict. The assertion that children go through stages resulting in personality is not research based. (Feldman, 2014) Therefore, while Freud is an icon in growth and development theorists, his claims are questioned.
Research is suggesting that spiritual development is important and connected to physical, emotional and social development. Fowler asserts that spiritual development occurs simultaneously with brain development. Just as there are stages of development physically, emotionally and socially, there are stages of spiritual development (Roehlkepartain, King, Wagener, & Benson, 2014). All areas of human development are interconnected. The Bible teaches, “When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things (1 Cor. 13:11, King James Version). As we grow, we develop as physical, emotional, social and spiritual beings.
Feldman, R. S. (2014). Development across the life span (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Roehlkepartain, E., King, P., Wagener, L., & Benson, P. (2005). The handbook of spiritual
development in childhood and adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.