1. – Describe how social, economical and cultural factors can impact on the outcomes and life chances of children and young people. Social Factor
Lack of social/friendship groups
Possible Impact: Children who don’t socialise a lot tend to become isolated and therefore isolate themselves more. They may suffer insecurities about themselves and be withdrawn and shy. They struggle to communicate, share and understand the needs and feelings of others. They will lack confidence to find it hard confide in other people or seek out help and advice. This can also lead them to be drawn into ‘the wrong crowd’ because these people seem welcoming and as a result find themselves being manipulated. They can also feel pressurised by their ‘peers’ into experimenting with drugs and alcohol at a very young age. They wouldn’t have the confidence to stand up for themselves. As they get older their insecurities may lead to self harm and possibly developing some form of addiction. They would also find it difficult to maintain any long term relationships.
Poor parental supervision/ neglect.
Possible Impact: Without guidance from parents or carers, most children do not learn the correct ways to behave. This can cause them to come into conflict at school or unexpected situations because they do not know or understand acceptable boundaries. They may believe that they are allowed to act any way they want because they are never prevented or taught any acceptable moral behaviour. These lacks of boundaries could result in them becoming involved in crime and anti-social behaviour. Neglect could lead to other health problems i.e. malnutrition, if they are not getting the correct nourishment needed for a growing child. Poor hygiene could also lead to bullying and teasing by their peer group, causing them to withdraw and become isolated. ‘This could affect dietary needs of children, clothing, customs or other aspects of their lives.’ (CYPW, pg 186).
Possible Impact: ‘A family living on low income might not be able to provide for their children as hoped. Accommodation may be more which can have an effect on the mental and physical health of children and their parents.’(CYPW, pg 186) Children in poverty can be vulnerable and prone to illness or disability due to things such as malnutrition from a poor diet lacking in nutrients as a result of their parents being unable to afford quality food. This could also mean the parents are not able to buy medicines when required. Malnutrition also results in lack of concentration or poor performance at school or college. This will impact on the young person when they do not achieve good enough grades to become employed. They may then become involved in drug addictions and or criminal activities as a way of escaping from their problems. They may be the subject of bullying as a result of their poor clothing because they do not have the latest ‘must have’ accessories.
Lack of academic achievement
Possible Impact: If a child’s parents may show little or no interest in their education and as a result they, the child, may also loose interest. The parents may not attend school meetings so they will have little understanding of their child’s achievements and therefore the child will not receive praise and encouragement to continue. If the child is not receiving praise and encouragement from parents, the child will develop low self esteem and believe that they are incapable of achieving. If the parents struggle to support the child in homework and coursework and the child will therefore also struggle. The child will then not complete or hand in work on time. This will cause them to get in trouble as a result of uncompleted assignments or homework. They might ‘fail’ in their education, as a result, and struggle to get employment as an adult.
Religious beliefs and customs
Possible Impact: Children may have to attend a school associated with their religion, and may therefore receive a less balanced education. They may struggle to understand other people’s religion or lifestyle choices, if it goes against what they are taught. This may leave them confused or feeling isolated and struggling to interact with the wider community. They may also experience or witness abuse on the grounds of their religious beliefs and customs, leaving them not only confused and isolated but fearful. This can cause the young person to have trust issues as they’re fearful of everyone. They will then not want to join in with activities which will lessen the chance of expanding their friendship group. Religious beliefs can affect a child’s life experiences, especially with school as the parents of the child may not allow for the child to join in with religious education. This means the child will not be able to learn about different cultures and could also affect their grades in that subject. Cultural Factor
Possible Impact: The impact of a temporary lifestyle for a child could be very drastic. If child and their family move around frequently, as they may come from Gypsy Roma Traveller community or even the family just may never feel settled, this can affect the child. Their education will be inconsistent and constantly interrupted. This can cause them to receive poor grades or in some cases none at all. This will also lead then to unemployment due to not meeting the job criteria. They will be unable to form close friendships and lack a support network outside their close family and community. This can cause them to be short of trust in people. Although dealt with separately, many of these factors above are connected such as unemployment or low income can lead to poor housing. Poor housing can lead to health problems, which can lead to frequent school absences. They will not only affect the child’s present lifestyle and health, but also their future.
2. – Explain the important and impact of poverty on outcomes and life chances for children and young people. ‘Poverty is on the agenda of the Every Child Matters framework, with one of the five outcomes stating that every child should ‘achieve wealth and economic well being.’ This means is it is important that children experiencing poverty have the same opportunities as their peers.’(CYPW, pg 186/187) Poverty can impact on children’s life chances and outcomes. Poverty can result in unemployment, parental separation, illness or disability, addictions, or criminal activities. Children may suffer malnutrition or a poor diet as a result of their parents being unable to afford quality food. This could result in lack of concentration or poor performance at school. One of the side effects of poverty is poor housing. People on low income are often dependent on local authority housing.
This may result in overcrowding, for example being located in a bed-sit or home with not enough bedrooms. This means the child has no privacy, or personal space. This can lead to them struggling with homework and course work because of the lack of a quiet space in which to complete it. This can affect the child by receiving poor grades. The housing provided may be of a poor quality. The house could suffer from damp or be in poor condition. This could have a severe effect on the child’s health. This can cause asthma or frequent colds and coughs. If a child is always ill this will mean frequent absences from school also disrupting chances to go place with them and receiving the help they need to complete work. If a child is living in this way, they are unable to achieve the five outcomes from the Every Child Matters, Being Healthy and Economic well-being.
3. – Think about the children you work with, and have the children you have worked with. Describe the impact their experiences may have on their outcomes and life chances. Give two examples. ‘ Article 13: The child shall have the right to freedom of expressions; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child’s choice.’ (Every Child Matters) One example of the choices that children and young people will make throughout their lives is whether to eat healthy or unhealthy An early years setting should encourage healthy snacks and encourage parents to supply healthy balanced lunchboxes. The setting should involve the children in activities and discussions about the importance of healthy living but there will come a point where the children can choose for themselves. If a child/young person chooses to eat unhealthily this will have a negative impact on their wellbeing, which can affect their future.
They could become overweight, develop diabetes and it could exclude them from taking part in activities. This could continue causing them to suffer low self esteem and become withdrawn from social situations. Another example of the choices that children and young people will make throughout their lives is whether to play violent computer games. A child may be raised in an environment where they are allowed to play these types of games or have families who are in trouble with the police. This means they’re regularly exposed to violence and see it as a normal everyday occurrence. These experiences could have a negative impact on the way the child/young person develops and integrates into society. They may choose to act the same way and get in trouble. This can then affect their life experiences because if they receive a criminal record, they won’t be able to work in many places or go to other countries. If the child does not like what they have experienced and choose not to follow the same path as their family, it’s more likely that they will be able to do what with their life and have a better chance to succeed.
2.1 – Complete the table below listing five positive outcomes for children and young people that you should be striving to achieve and give a brief description of each one. Positive Outcome: Healthy Choices
Description: “Enjoying good physical and mental health and living a healthy life style.”(Every Child Matters) This can mean to make sure children get enough exercise and that they’re provided with healthy meals and snacks. It can also mean to make sure they’re aware of drugs and that they’re able to make sensible choices about their personal health. Positive Outcome: Stay Safe
Description: Being protected from harm and neglect and growing up being able to look after themselves.”(Every Child Matters) This means to look after the welfare of children and have policies and actions for health and safety. Positive Outcome: Enjoy and Achieve
Description: “Getting the most out of life and developing broad skills for adult hood.”(Every Child Matters) This can mean to make sure that every child has equal opportunities to succeed and achieve. Also have good rewards and praises as this will help encourage children to push themselves further. Positive Outcome: Make a positive contribution
Description: “To the community and to society and not engaging in anti-social or offending behaviour.”(Every Child Matters) This can mean to support good behaviour by being a good role model. This also can apply to school settings or nurseries as you can support them and represent them in a good manner. Positive Outcome: Economic Well-being
Description: “Not being prevented by economical disadvantage from achieving their full potential in life.” (Every Child Matters) This can mean to raise money for projects and resources in schools or nurseries. Also we could show children how to deal with money problems to make them understand the value of it and many other things.
2.2 – Explain why it is so important to design and provide a service that responds to the needs of children and young people. The principle of designing services around children and young people is to improve their outcomes and meet all their needs. It is so important because the child needs be encouraged to meet their full potential. The 5 outcomes of the Every Child Matters provides a requirement for settings to aim high for the children in their care ensuring they have the opportunity to achieve each one of them and this must be followed. Firstly you need to recognize that every child is unique. You need to establish what their care needs are so you are able to respond to them correctly. This can be done by discussing needs and interests with parents/ careers also with other connected professionals also working with the child. If the service such as out of school care clubs and social activity clubs, is meeting the individuals needs, the parents/ careers will have no reason to be unhappy with the service provided and the child should remain in the setting. This can build the child’s self esteem, confidence and even make stronger friendship groups.
2.3 – Why is it important that children and young people participate in the decisions that affect their lives? It is important that children and young people participate in the decisions that affect their lives because this helps them to achieve the full potential of their education and learning. The child-centred approach is where a child or young person is listened to where their opinions are valued. Their own personal individual needs are accounted as it is vital for them to be able to benefit fully. By engaging children and young people and supporting those to have an input with decisions will help them to make further decisions later on in life. Working with children and young people to suit their individual needs will also support and boost confidence and self-esteem. This is important as they can grow and develop being able to survive making decisions eventually on their own becoming independent. If we support children in this way helping them to contribute to decisions and be involved, then they will achieve this and be successful later in life.
2.4 – Give three examples of how you supported children/young people according to their age, needs and abilities to make personal choices and experiences that have a positive impact on their lives. One example of how I have supported children/young people according their age was setting activities that will allow them to make decisions and make choices. I did this by setting out a sticking and gluing activity. I allowed the children to make personal choices of what they wanted to stick on their paper and what colours they wanted to use. I gave them accessible resources and recourses to meet individual interests. This also allowed them to express how they were feeling at the time without being restricted. Another example of how I have supported children/young people according the child’s needs is by being there to support them when things may go wrong. In my setting a child has behavioural difficulties, the child tends to find it difficult if something he does goes wrong. When I set out a paint activity for the child, he used a different coloured paint than he wanted to.
The child then began go get angry and frustrated and I supported the child and ensured that it was not a big issue and it eased them. By supporting the child this way, it will boost self confidence and self belief that they can achieve. This will have a positive affect on the child behaviour in the future as he will be able to control his anger. One example of how I have supported children/young people according the child’s ability was by offering constructive and fair advice. In setting a child wanted to climb on to the top of the toy box. The child was clearly too small and unsteady on their feet to climb on the toy box and be able to stay there without falling. I advised the child to come away from climbing and explained that it would be unsafe. I then explained that if they were to fall they would hurt themselves. The child then stopped what they were doing and listened to the fair advice that was given. This will help the child in the future to accept constructive advice and also know their own limits.
3.1 – Give three examples of the potential impact of disability on the outcomes and life chances of children and young people. If a child was suffering from a severe physical impairment, there are many different impacts that this could have on the child. If the child is in need of physiotherapy everyday, then this means they will be spending a lot of time off school. This will be disrupting learning and can affect their grades. This can affect the child’s life chances because if they do not achieve suitable grades, this may effect them going into further education. Also if they are physically impaired, getting a job later on in life will be tough as company’s may discriminate thinking they’re unable to do anything. This can lower self esteem, causing them to give up on themselves. If a child was suffering from a speech and language impairment, there are many different impacts that this could have on the child that will affect their chances in life. When a child suffers from this type of impairment, a lot of help is given to support the child to improve their speech.
This means the child will attend speech and language specialists on a regular basis. If the child is at the specialist regularly, then this will be disrupting both school education and also their social life. The child may be getting teased as they cannot speak the same as their peers or because they may be at the specialist when their friends are socialising. This can cause the child to be self conscious and also isolate themselves as they’re embarrassed of their speech. Another example of disability that could affect a child’s life chances could be deafness, a sensory impairment. This can cause social and emotional development difficulties. They may struggle with interaction with other people their age, causing them to find it difficult joining social circles. Deafness can cause the child to feel paranoid, worthless and unvalued. This can affect different aspects of their life including their education, home life and their behaviour. “Families with a disabled child often experience financial difficulties which may restrict children’s opportunities in life” (CYPW, pg 198)
3.2 – Why are positive attitudes towards disability and specific requirements important? It is important to have a positive attitude towards children and young people with a disability and specific needs as this can damage the child’s attitude towards how they feel towards themselves and it can also damage their social life. When a child has disability and a specific requirement, a positive attitude needs to be kept at all times as they can feel embarrassed and even humiliated. This can lead them to isolate themselves and feel a range of emotions such as sadness, frustration and anger. If a child/young person is being underestimated, then this can cause the child to loose the sense of wanting to achieve. This can them have negative affect such as failing school work and not achieving good grades. Another example is if a child is being teased or bullied because they have a disability or specific need such as they may need extra help in school. This can cause the child’s self esteem to lower to a point were they begin to feel unloved and unvalued.
3.3 – Look at the statements below and identify which represent the social model of disability and which represent the medical model of disability. Give reasons. Statement Social or Medical Why? ‘If he’s in a wheelchair, I’m sorry we will not be able He is not being taken on the trip as he to take him on the farm visit, we are going in staff Medical model is in a wheelchair and they won’t make cars and we just cant do it’ any reasonable adjustments. He is being left behind due to his disability. ‘All staff have learnt ‘makaton’ so we will be able to The staff didn’t see then child as a find the best way of communicating with Jane, don’t Social Model problem and it ensured the practice is worry!’ accessible. ‘I’m sorry but our staffs do not have the training to They are focusing on what the child administer the medication so we will be unable to give Medical model cannot do instead of what they can do. your child a place at the nursery.’ The staff are not willing to learn how to treat the child.
3.4 – Using the three examples of specific requirements listed below, give an example of at least two different types of support that should be available to children/young people, explaining what assistance they can be. Specific Requirements Support 1 Support 2 1. A child with autism 1:1 Support Healthcare and other outside agencies This can be inside the classroom to help them This is to help and support and give advice to learn and support their educational needs. parents and the school workers. 2. A young person with a hearing impairment. ‘Assistive technology’ Visual aides to teach and communicate with the A child could use a hearing aid. It gives the child/young person. child a sense of inclusion. 3. A child or young person who is visually ‘Assistive technology’ Sounds or physical aides to teach and impaired The child/young person could use software communicate. which reads text from a
4.1 – Write a definition of the following.
“Promote equality, diversity, and inclusion” (CYPW, pg 201) Equality: Opportunities to develop and learn, while their physical and emotional safety and well-being are protected. Diversity: Acknowledgement of and respect for their individuality. Inclusion: Access to appropriate settings and the experiences they offer. 4.2 – Outline what your Equality, Diversity and Inclusion policy says and give examples of how you put into practice. In my setting, some ways we put our policy in practice are making children feel valued and good about themselves. We do this by ensuring that all children have equal access to early learning and play opportunities. My setting shows diversity by acknowledging and celebrating a wide range of religions, beliefs and festivals. We also ensure that children whose first language is not English have full access to the early learning. My setting shows inclusion by making our environment as accessible as possible for all visitors and service users. We can also show inclusion by making adjustments to the environment and resources to accommodate a wide range of learning, physical and sensory impairments.
4.3 – Compare, giving examples, ways in which the two projects you have worked for take account of and promote equality, diversity and inclusion to promote positive outcomes for children/young people. To promote equality, diversity and inclusion it’s all about providing opportunities for the child to develop and learn by providing a safe and secure environment for their physical, social and emotional well being. In my setting I provide equality by treating all families equally. This is a positive impact on the child because they can see that their family is being respected and will raise the child’s self esteem. I provide and ensure diversity by my setting as we promote different cultures and religions every year. We celebrate the Chinese New Year by talking to the children about some of their traditions and making red dragons.
We also celebrate The Diwali festival and make lamps to place around the setting. I provide inclusion by adapting activities to meet the needs of the child. This can be things such as adapting ways of communicating including visual aids, body language, and speaking slower and face-to-face. By adapting activities to meet every individual need of the child/ young person with a disability, their parents/ carers will be confident in the setting that the practitioners are caring for their child correctly. We also have books and displays showing different cultures, religions, countries, people and abilities. We will do this regardless of gender, ethnic, race, colour, nationality, age or disability. My setting also provides an excellent range of equipment and resources to enable disabled children to be included in outdoor activities.
1. Level 3 Children & Young Peoples Workforce
Early Learning & Childcare
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2. Every Child Matters