1) The interval level of measurement used in this demograpic are age, income ($), length of labor (hrs), return to work (wks), number of hours working per week. 2) The type of statistics used to describe the length of labor in this study descriptive, this being represented by mean and standard deviation in the data. Yes,these are appropriate as they both can be calculated (varible n=30 and mean=14.63) at the interval level of measurements. 3) Nominal level data could be used to describe the length of labor. This would have done by using frequencies, percentages, and mode instead of using mean, range, and standard deviation 4) No, the distributions of scores were not similar for the two groups. Experimental group has slightly higher dispersion (n=30 and SD= 7.78) than control group (N=33 and SD=7.2). Standard deviation decreases with larger sample sizes. 5) Yes, Bottle-feeding was the mode for the experimental (53.1%) and the control (50%) groups since it was the most frequent type of feeding used by both groups. 6) The marital status mode for the experimental group was married as its frequency was 25 (78.1%).

The control group was married with frequency of 31 (86.1%). 7)Yes, a median be determined for the education data. Median for education for the experimental group is 34.4. Median for education for the control groups is 36.2. 8) No, the findings from this study cannot be generalized to Black women. The percentage of whites were higher in both experimental and control groups were higher which is 92% in experimental and 96.55% in control groups while the in the experimental group there were only 4% of black and in control group there were none. 9) Based on the “Note” at the bottom of Table 1, Numbers do not always total 32 for the experimental group or 36 for control group because of missing data. 10) The sample for this study is being adequately described. Because in this study the researchers presented the characteristics of their sample in a table format for the experimental and control groups. There were subgroups under race, marital status, education, type of feeding, and amount of household infant care responsibilities. Exercise 16: Mean and Standard Deviation

1) C.Interval/ratio

The researchers analyzed the data as though it were at the interval/ratio level since they calculated means (the measure of central tendency that is appropriate only for interval/ratio level data) and standard deviations (the measure of dispersion for interval/ratio data) to describe their study variables. 2)According to Table 2 the mean for the posttest empowerment scores is 97.12. 3)The experimental group subjects scored lower on the depression posttest (mean = 13.36 vs. the baseline score of mean = 14.00), meaning that they were less depressed after the completion of the empowerment program. This was an expected finding, because the researchers hypothesized that the empowerment program would be beneficial to ESRD patients and result in a decrease in their depression scores. However, the difference in the depression baseline and posttest means for the experimental group was only 0.64, which is less than what might have been expected. 4)The mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group have no change and stays at 10.40.

These scores strengthen the validity of the research results because it shows that without the empowerment program, the control group’s depression has not improved. 5)The control group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion. Their depression baseline (SD=10.34) and posttest (SD=10.34) had no changes. 6)The self-care self-efficacy SD was higher than the empowerment group. The higher the SD the greater the dispersion. 7)The mean (x) is a measure of _central_ _tendency_ of a distribution while the SD is a measure of _dispersion_of its scores. Both x and SD are _descriptive_ statistics. 8) The mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects was 6.74. The dispersion of the renal disease severity scores was 2.97.

There were no differences in the severity between the control and experimental groups. Yes this is important. In order to have an accurate study, the severity of disease would need to be similar. 9) Depression was the variable that was least affected by the empowerment program. Since the program was about empowerment, it is expected that the empowerment and self-care / self-efficacy would be more affected with this type of program. 10) No, because the total means and SDs were not necessary to obtain the information to answer the questions above. The variable is relevant, the Totals’ are irrelevant.