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What Infuences Blood Pressure Essay Sample

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What Infuences Blood Pressure Essay Sample

Hypothesis

Obesity is one of the factors influencing increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Nowadays, obesity is a big problem among mankind especially in well-developed countries. The statistics show that in this countries (e.g. USA, UK) majority of people faces cardiovascular problems.

Is it rather due to unhealthy lifestyle or inappropriate diet? This question is difficult to answer, but probably the mixture of these factors causes so many diseases. The earliest the disease is determined, the greater chances of total healing. So, to investigate cardiovascular problems measuring of blood pressure is in order. Than, further investigations or therapy can be subscribed to individual beings.

These problem is no longer typical for elderly but to youth as well. The teenagers should also visit doctors and check their health conditions.

Theoretical background

Blood pressure is the force developed by blood pushing against the blood vessels. The systolic pressure is produced by contraction of ventricles ( the closer of bicuspid valves) and the diastolic is the pressure in arteries (after closing of semi-lunar valves).

The normal pressure for a healthy young person is 120 over 80 mm Hg.

The pressure is affected by:

– cardiac output,

– resistance to blood flow,

– general state of blood vessels and heart.

Narrowing and hardening of arteries, weakening of artery walls, damage of kidneys are examples of problems. There are many factors that influence state of cardiovascular system.

For example obesity causes narrowing of lumen of blood vessels, due to accumulation of cholesterol. But, how to determine who is obese? The Body Mass Index is to help, due to determined intervals of appropriate ratio of mass divided by square of height. The formula is given below:

The good ratio value is between 19-25. If someone exceeds 25, than there is higher probability of obesity and cardiovascular problems. The value below 19, on the other hand means that someone has underweight.

These intervals are presented on the graph 1, and there is also small table nr1. below.

Graph 1. The presentation of Body Mass Index intervals showing some tendencies.

Table 1. BMI values and their interpretation.

BMI

General characteristic

The risk of a disease

Below 18,5

Underweight

Low

18,5 – 24,9

Norm

Average

25 – 29,9

Excess weight

High

30 – 34,9

Excess weight I degree

Higher

35 – 39,9

Excess weight II degree

Very high

40 and more

Excess weight III degree

The highest

The other way to determine obesity is to measure the waist size. Size greater than 102 cm signifies as well the obesity, hence possible health problems. But these indicators vary for males and females. Females have lower value (circa 85 cm), and males have more than 100, as it was given above. Also the waist size that vary in each BMI interval for people can increase blood pressure. Hence the waist size should e analyzed in the BMI intervals.

However, there are also other factors causing cardiovascular problems. Drinking great amounts of alcohol, smoking or drinking coffee.

Coffee increases blood pressure, as it was found out. But, the constant high pressure is unhealthy due to intensive heart work. And the heart problems are more possible.

Smoking a cigarette, on the other hand, can repeatedly produce an immediate, temporary rise in the blood pressure of 5 to10 mm Hg. Steady smokers, however, may have a lower blood pressure than nonsmokers. The reason for this is that the nicotine in the cigarettes causes a decrease in appetite, which leads to weight loss, lowering the blood pressure.

Alcohol, in same way increases blood pressure from 2 to 5 times more than without drinking.

Although in case of each factor it is impossible to determine the amount required to cause a disease or just problems. In most cases there are so many disease causing factors mixed that the amount can not be determined.

Taking the young group of people has many motives. First of all, if any changes or problems occur we may still help them. Secondly, the problems with addictions as well as obesity begin usually in teenage years. Hence, the more the youth know about the problem the greater chances they will stop it.

Predictions

– The obesity increases blood pressure,

– The smoking increases blood pressure,

– Body Mass Index shows correct tendencies,

* INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

* Blood pressure,

* Weight,

* Waist size,

* CONSTANTS

* Height,

* CONTROLLED VARIABLES,

* Number of blood measurements,

The equipment required to carry out experiment:

– sphygmomanometer,

– pen,

– piece of paper,

– weight,

– measure line,

– tape measure,

Procedure:

1. Select large group of people on the same age (100 or more), for example 18 years old,

2. Measure their blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) in rest twice by using sphygmomanometer,

3. Record all obtained results, subscribing each person to the number,

4. Take the body measurement (height, weight, waist size) and write them down in appropriate places in the table,

5. Check whether people smoke or not,

6. When having mass and height, calculate body mass index,

7. Compare the blood pressures of groups of smokers with non-smoking,

8. Check whether the obesity influences the blood pressure (BMI calculation as well as waist size are useful and it is good to compare them).

The procedure allows us to measure all variables however we do not influence them. It is difficult to determine them, while we do not change anything. We are just to record the blood pressure and some measurements.

Procedure

* The group was from one school only, hence some common habits, e.g. smoking, etc.

The best was to choose people from many different surroundings. So that, maybe 20 people from many schools in different parts of city.

* What is more, narrowing the investigation only to one age group 18-years old people does not show the tendencies among Polish teenagers completely.

There should be many age groups chosen and investigated. Begining with kindergarten.

* The data was not recorded at the same day, but in 1 week period, which false results due to different atmospheric conditions as well as patient’s conditions.

The collection should be made during one day only and probably in similar hours.

* Everyone should participate in blood pressure measurement before the meals.

So that, real state of organism can be presented.

Results

* The 1st measurement is bigger in many groups of pupils that were investigated, perhaps due to physical effort connected with school architecture and the classroom where blood pressure was investigated.

After coming to nursery’s room everyone should rest at least 5 minutes before 1st measurement. So that, both measurements are to be similar, hence more accurate and probable.

* Choosing of uniform group in the same age caused no correlation between waist size in the BMI intervals and blood pressure to reveal. Only in one case, the scientific data was confirmed.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books:

* D.J.Taylor, N.P.O. Green, G.W.Stout, 1997, 3rd edition, ‘Biological Science 1&2’, Cambridge University Press,

Websites:

– http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=20340

– http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Body_mass_index_chart.svg

– http://webcenters.netscape.compuserve.com/homerealestate/package.jsp?name=fte/waistsizepredicts/waistsizepredicts

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