Types of NGOs can be understand by their level of orientation and level of cooperation . 1. Types of NGOs by the level of orientation.
It has further types as under,
i. Charitable orientation.
It often involves a paternalistic effort with little participation by ’’beneficiaries’’. It includes the ngo,s which directed the people towards meeting the needs of poor and help them by gaining them food, clothing,medicine,provision of housing etc.such ngo,s may also undertake relief activities during natural or man made herds. ii. Service orientation.
It includes with ngo,s with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services. in which the program is designed by the ngo,s and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the services. iii. Participatory orientation.
It is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly for example in the implementation of a project in any village by contributing,cash,tools,land,materials and labor etc. this type is basically cooperation based and on limited scale. iv. Empowering orientation.
The aim of these NGOs are to help poor people an d develop a clear understanding of the social, political and economic factors which are effecting their lives, and aware them how can they solve their problem by using their resources and purpose to mobilize the people or self mobilization. In any case there is maximum involvement of the people with NGOs acting as a facilitators. 2. Types of NGOs by the level of operation.
It has further types which are as following.
i. Community based organization(CBOs)
When people start feelings that what are their needs and how can they fulfill them. These NGO,s arise out of people’s own initiatives. These can includes sports clubs women organizations neighborhood organizations, religious and educational organizations. Some supported by NGO,s ,national and international NGO,s and other independent outside help. Some are devoted to raising the consciousness of urban poor or helping them to understand their rights in gaining access to needed services while others are involved in providing such services. ii. Citywide organizations.
These NGO,s are organized for some major or personal purpose. For example cambers of commerce and industry,coaliation of business, educational group. Some exist for other purposes and become involved in helping the poor as one of many activities, while others are created for the specific purpose of helping the poor. iii. National NGOs.
It includes organizations such as the Red cross,YMWCAs,YWCAs,professional organizations etc.Some of these have state branches and assist local NGOs. iv. International NGOs. These range from secular agencies such as REDDA BARNA and save the children organisation,CARE,UNDP,UNICEF. Their activities vary from mainly funding local NGOs institutions and projects and implementing the projects themselves. 20th century transferred the number of issues to its successor with regard to social sector. Perhaps among those most discussion able and dispersing one is “The Role of NGO, s in the Development” particularly with regard to third world having mushroom growth largely depending upon the contribution made by the socially developed countries, which on its turn also exalted a number of issues lying under the generous contribution made, by the developed world.
But as far as our concern, the presentation contains in itself the evolutionary development of the concept both theoretically and practically emerging the various types of NGOs i.e. charitable organizations, national organizations, community organization boards and international NGOs etc. The objectives of these NGOs as relief welfare, community development, sustainable system and people’s participation are also considered in this work. The role of NGOs which are common for almost all the Ngo, s with regard to development in different fields as in education, health, women welfare etc are mostly sponsored by international NGOs. NGOs also contribute their due share in the development sector of Pakistan and the facts about their activities funds and utilization of funds is also considered in this presentation. The NGOs are also working in rural areas of Pakistan and their programs in these areas are also under the consideration of our paper. so, all the presentation will provide the knowledge and basic facts about the role of NGOs in development both at national and international level, their types, work ability and objectives and some fact about their weaknesses.
The term NGO seems to be deceptively simple. It may overlook the enormous variety and differential capabilities of different NGOs.In fact, NGOs offer a kaleidoscopic collection of organizations varying in origin, size, programmes, ideology, role strategy, funding, linkages evaluation, problem etc. NGOs embrace a bewildering group of organizations varying in terms of innumerable parameters. No standard definition can include all organizations working at present under the title of NGO, originally voluntarism was a doctrine which held that the will is dominant factor or it is a principle relying on one’s own free will for an action. The definition of NGOs vary as: 1. According to Asian Development Bank the term non-governmental organization refers to organization o Not based in government.
o Not created to earn profit.
2. United Nations defines it “NGOs are private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interest of poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services or undertake community development” BACKGROUND OF NGOS IN DEVELOPMENT
Although NGOs have recently emerged into the development limelight but they are not a recent phenomenon. They were the earliest form of human organizations. Long before the governments, people organized themselves into group for mutual protection and self help.
First, there were farmer’s organizations as in Japan in 1868; such organizations played a vital role in agricultural movement. Traditional self-help associations have also a long history in Africa and Asia.
During the 18th and 17th centuries in particular there has been an explosion in the number of NGOs and an upsurge for the realistic answers to problem over a king of neglected issues related to ecological degradation, rights of people and other common property resources appropriate technologies, health, safety, gender and equity.
The institutional forms to such organizations can be traced back in late 19th and early 20th centuries particularly in west world where the history of social organizations seems to have been largely influenced by “laissez fair” movement based on a more planned way. NEW TRENDS IN NGOS ACTIVITY (people participation)
New trends emerge in NGOs activities from 1950 to 1960 when it start to work in field of development. Similarly, the concept of people’s participation does not have a long history. It reflects partly the failure of the” trickle down” model of economic development advocated after World War II .In 1980,s NGOs become a major phenomenon in the field of development. Tvedt analyzed NGOs “as an outcome of complicated processes where factors like international ideological trends, donor policies and agenda interacts with national historical and cultural conditions in a complex way. On the whole these organizations are commanding growing attention as possible alternative to government in addressing the needs of vast of population.So,we can summarize NGOs development in three stages. • Social and cultural in
• Community services and development in intermediate stage. • More recently target oriented activist groups.
NEED FOR NGOS
There is none the less a single answer to question why NGOs are formed? How they are given meaning and how they operate? One cannot perceive NGOs as entities but we have taken into account the notion of multiple relation. The entry of NGOs in the field of development process thus represents important response to the need resulted due to the overburdened government, the hesitant private sector and underutilized people power. These are appeared to compose of overlapping social networks.
The development experience of 1970s and 1980s have raised more and more critical concerning as growing awareness about the widening gap between very few rich and the vast majority of poor in developing countries. This has also given a momentum to search for a more adequate and appropriate strategy for improving conditions. So, strategies constitute basic elements of the development of a number of NGOs throughout the world, which get people’s participation. recent, global transformations and the search to a variable new option for supporting grass-root development presently provide quite significant opportunities for a rapid development of NGOs in the decade of 1980s in following consideration:
I. Growing interest among donors and national governments in strengthening the development roles of institution outside the public sector. II. The demonstrated capacity of some non-governmental organizations to reach the poor more effectively than public agencies. III. A sharp decline in public development resources, necessating a search by government for more cost affective alternatives to conventional public services and development programs. IV. Ability to carry out programme on national scale and influence national policies and agencies. Today, the NGOs address every conceivable issue and they operate virtually in every part of the globe. Though international NGOs activity has grown steadily, most NGOs operate within a country and frequently they function properly. According to one estimate some 25000 NGOs now qualify as international NGOs up from less than 400 a century ago.
ROLES OF NGO ACCORDING TO THE EXPECTATION OF PEOPLE
NGOs play a critical role in all areas of development. People and policy makers are agree on one thing that NGOs play a very important role in development. Role of NGOs vary over the years as the policy of government changes. NGOs are almost dependent on polices of government. Socio economic development is a shared responsibility of both i.e. government and NGOs. Role of NGOs are complementary but vary according to polices of government.
If we closely pursue the voluminous literature on NGOs many roles can be found according to the expectations of people. The major development roles ascribed to NGOs are to act as:
• Planner and implementer of development programmers,
• Mobiliser of local resources and initiative,
• Catalyst, enabler and innovator,
• Builder of self reliant sustainable society,
• Mediator of people and government,
• Supporter and partner of government programme in activating delivery system implementing rural development programmes, etc.,
• Agents of information,
• Factor of improvement of the poor, and
• Facilitator of development education, training, professionalisation, etc. Basically NGOs role is to prepare people for change. They empower the people to overcome psychological problem and opposition of oppress. Its role cannot be denied. problem solving. NGOs, then, are a indispensable organ of international importance.
India & NGOs
India has a long tradition of social service, social reform and voluntary agencies. NGOs emerged in India soon after Independence when Mahamata Gandhi made a plea for dissolving the Indian National Congress (the political party which came into power upon Independence), and transforming it into a Lok Sevak Sangh (Public Service Organization). This plea was, however, rejected; nevertheless, it did not halt the formation of non-governmental organizations in India. Many Gandhi followers established voluntary agencies to work closely with the governmental programs on social and economical issues. These agencies organized handicrafts and village industries, rural development programs, credit cooperatives, educational institutions, etc. The second stage of growth of NGOs in India was around 1960 when many individuals noticed that the governmental programs seemed to be inadequate to deal with the deprived sections of India.
These groups formed organizations that worked on behalf of the poor, the landless, the tribals, the bonded labourers, and many other social groups that were being discriminated against by the policies of the state and social structure. These grass roots organizations work at the micro-level and work with limited resources and lack of coordination. Since Independence in 1947 until around 1980 there was little effort on the part of the Indian Government to define the role of a voluntary agency or to recognize its importance. In 1980, however, with the Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-1985), the government identified new areas in which NGOs as new actors could participate in development. These areas included:
1. Optimal utilization and development of renewable source of energy, including forestry through the formation of renewable energy association at the block level
2. Family welfare, health and nutrition, education and relevant community programs in the field
3. Health for all programs
4. Water management and soil conservation
5. Social welfare programs for weaker sections
6. Implementation of minimum needs program
7. Disaster preparedness and management (i.e. for floods, cyclones, etc)
8. Promotion of ecology and tribal development, and
9. Environmental protection and education.
This plan, nevertheless, was to become the first of a series. Under the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990) the Indian government envisioned a more active role for voluntary organizations to aid in making communities as self-reliant as possible. These groups were expected to show how village and indigenous resources could be used and how human resources, rural skills and local knowledge, grossly underutilized at present could be used for their own development. NGOs because of their situation and interaction with local people can be very effective in bringing change since they are able to address issues that governments are often not able to comprehend. That is, because these organizations work at the grass roots level they are able to sense the urgency of issues and prioritize into the problem solving mode at a quicker pace. This advantage has also been noticed by the Indian government. In the Eight Five Year Plan the importance of NGOs is further enhanced, paying particular attention to the role of these agencies as participants in rural appraisal for drawing up development plans at a very low cost and involving the rural community.
The plan document states, “A nation-wide network of NGOs will be created. In order to facilitate the working of this network, three schemes relating to the creation, replication, multiplication and consultancy development have been worked out by the Planning Commission.” Today, India has a vigorous NGO sector. Although there has been no complete census of NGOs, it is estimated that about 25,000 to 30,000 are active in India. In fact, as of December 31st, 1989, there were 12,313 NGOs registered with the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA) 1976; furthermore, 726 NGOs are unregistered but under the prior permission category.
One problem with NGOs in India, as with NGOs anywhere else in the world, has been the increasing dependency on governmental funds or donations from external (foreign) donors like the World Bank. This dependent relationship has resulted in a lack of flexibility on the part of NGOs to pick their missions and objectives since many are expected to perform certain tasks in return for funding. But, further still, it has also created structures that have become more bureaucratic in nature and, hence, less effective in development. Nevertheless, NGOs are here to stay and will continue to work in India on political, economical or social issues, the task before before them is how they will manage to produce change will keeping track for governmental documentation.