WHO Obesity and overweight Essay Sample
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WHO Obesity and overweight Essay Sample
This research will investigate to what extent is obesity related to unemployment. Obesity has become a major global issue in the last century since it has had an exponential increase throughout the world. In recent years, in fact, obesity rates have risen throughout the world, both in the developed countries and in developing countries, however with marked differences in the various countries and with the exception of Sub-Saharan Africa. Obesity has become for many countries the main health issue since it is continuously increasing.
Unemployment refers to all people that are actively seeking for a job but are unable to find one. High percentage of obesity in a country means that it will affect also the economy since the vast majority aren’t able to work or have difficulty in being hired. “Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. ” (World Health Organization). It is a very concerning issue since the number of obese individuals has more than doubled since 1980s. Data tells us that in 2014, 39% of people aged 18 or more were overweight and 13% were obese.
The country with the highest percentage of obesity in the world is Palau with 47. 10%, the countries with the lowest percentage are mainly African countries such as Zambia and Congo which face problems of malnutrition and lack of food. Obesity caused more than 4 million deaths in 2015 mostly because of cardiovascular problems. Obese people are usually discriminated in the workplace however there are many campaigns going against prejudice and discrimination such as an attorney for the EEOC stated: Employers cannot rely on unfounded prejudices and assumptions about the capabilities of severely obese individual.
Any notion that these individuals are not protected, based on the wrongheaded idea that their condition is self-inflicted, and is simply wrong and without legal basis. There have been many cases of obese individuals being fired from their work or not being hired only for prejudice and for the fact that it would implicate higher health insurances and less mobility at work. Obesity in Italy is becoming a wealth threat even though it is one of the European countries with the lowest number of obese people.
Italian nutrition is known as the Mediterranean diet that is supposed to be a very wealthy and balanced diet. However this diet is vanishing in time caused by economic problems. In Italy there is a large gap between rich and poor and the number of poor people is increasing caused by a decrease in the level of employment that cannot afford to spend on healthy food therefore there has been an increase in the consumption of fast food and low quality food that are the main causes of obesity.
Italy has the highest rate of two year olds obese in Europe reaching 42%. Obesity can cause many diseases and also reach mortality; in Europe nearly 8% of the deaths per year are related to obesity and overweight. This research will analyse the biological aspect of obesity looking at what is obesity, what causes it, and what are the consequences and it will analyse the negative effects that obesity has on employment. What is obesity?
Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by an excess of body fat that can cause physical, social, medical, psychological, and economic problems (World Health Organization). It is not considered as a single disease, but a condition that is produced from the union of factors such as genetic, nutritional, behavioural, environmental, socio- economic and cultural. It is considered the most common \”non-infectious disease\” of the third millennium, for this it has been considered one of the first health concerns in the world.
Today it is no longer affecting only developed economies, but its popularity is increasing also in the developing countries of the world, due to cultural, social and economic changes, with complex interactions between the easy availability of high calorie food and reduced energy expenditure required by the lifestyles of the modern world. The weight of a normal young man consists of 80-85% lean body mass and 15-20% fat mass such as tissue fat in which the energy reserves are stored in the form of triglycerides; in the normal young woman the fat mass accounts for 20-30% of the body weight.
If the increase in adipose tissue is such as to increase the ideal body weight between 10 and 20%, we talk about overweight; if over 20% we talk about obesity of diverse degrees. Using these evaluation criteria, according to World Health Organization estimates of 2003, it is believed that overweight adults in the world were at least one billion and one hundred million, of which at least 312 million were clinically obese. Obesity is measured with a coefficient called BMI (body mass index); it is calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms with the height in square metres.
An individual is considered overweight if their BMI is over 25 kg/m^2, and it is considered obese if it is over 30 kg/m^2. There are five different classification of obesity the first goes from a Body Mass Index of 30 to 35 kg/m^2, the second goes from 35 to 40 kg/m^2, the third goes from 40 to 45 kg/m^2, the fourth goes from 45 to 50 kg/m^2 and finally the fifth includes 50 and above kg/m^2. There is also a less common way of classifying obesity that is by measuring waist circumference. The circumference of female should not go over 89 cm; instead for men it should not overstep 101 cm.
What are the causes of obesity? This section will analyse what are the factors that caused an exponential increase in the number of obese people. Obesity is a disease with no effective treatments or cures and it is usually caused by a combination of different factors. “The fundamental causes of the increase in obesity are rooted in the nature of current western culture, in which incentives exist to live a significant portion of life in a sedentary manner and to consume a high-fat, energy-dense diet, while spending an ever smaller share of income on food. ”(Sam Gutterman, 2011, obesity: status and effects).
The most significant factor of obesity is genetics, propensity to obesity of genetic origin, according to estimates, would affect 25% of the cases. One of the determining causes for obesity is due to the leptin. Leptin is a hormone that regulates satiety at the cerebral stage. Individuals that are genetically predisposed to obesity don’t produce enough leptin, or are less sensitive to it causing the body never to feel full. The combination of a deficient production of this protein and an inadequate reception by the brain contribute to reducing metabolism, thereby favouring obesity.