We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

# Word Processed Practical Report Pendulum Essay Sample

The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC

Get Access

## Word Processed Practical Report Pendulum Essay Sample

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between the length of pendulum and the time it takes.
Theory:
Hence the gravitational acceleration “g” can be calculated by this equation: T=2πLg
T=2πLg

(T the period in seconds, l the length in meter and g the gravitational acceleration in m/s2)

Method:
As stated earlier in the introduction, it was decided to measure the time for 10 complete swings, in order to reduce the random errors. These measurements would be repeated two more times, and in total five successive lengths were used. We start from one metre, and decreasing by 20 cm for each following measurement, and the mass of metal bob doesn’t change all the time. According to pendulum is periodic. We will push it and record the period time of swinging (T) when it comes back. Then we can draw a diagram with data by Excel. The experimental set-up was equal to the diagram, shown in figure 1

Figure 1: Diagram of the set-up for this experiment

Results:
Choosing the data randomly then forming a diagram and a graph:

Length (m)| Time| Period (s)| Period2 (s 2)|
0| 0| 0| 0|
0.2±0.001| 9.12| 0.91±0.01| 0.83±0.02|
0.4±0.001| 12.71| 1.27±0.01| 1.62±0.02|
0.6±0.001| 15.62| 1.56±0.01| 2.44±0.03|
0.8±0.001| 17.9| 1.79±0.01| 3.20±0.03|
1±0.001| 19.81| 1.98±0.01| 3.92±0.04|
1.2±0.001| 21.72| 2.17±0.01| 4.72±0.04|

Sources of errors: The error in time was 0.01s because the watch is digital and measured to 0.01s. The error in reading ruler is 0.5mm, as the ruler is analogue and its smallest scale is 1mm. But the position of the mass was not clear so the error was made 1mm in length.

The graph of period versus length is as below:

We can see that the trend line of period against length is not a straight line.

The graph of period2 versus length is as below:

From the graph of Period2 versus length as above, we can see the gradient of period2 against length is 3.94s2/m, so the best-fit value of g is 9.92s2/m.

Discussion:
From the table and the equation, we can calculate the value of gravitational acceleration “g”: When L=0.2m, T=0.91s. Hence g= 9.53m/s2
When L=0.4m, T=1.28s. Hence g=9.63 m/s2
When L=0.6m, T=1.56s. Hence g=9.72 m/s2
When L=0.8m, T=1.79s. Hence g=9.84 m/s2
When L=1.0m, T=1.98s. Hence g=10.05 m/s2
When L=1.2m, T=2.18s. Hence g=9.95 m/s2

Then we can see
The maximum value of g is 10.05 m/s2
The minimum value of g is 9.53m/s2.

The best-fit value of g is 9.92s2/m, considering the maximum and the minimum value, we get the experimental value of g: g=9.92±0.4s2/m. It is similar to the known value 9.8s2/m. Comparing our calculated value for the gravitational acceleration ‘g’ with the known value, we can found some different. The systematic error and human error couldn’t be avoided in our experiment, but we can reduce these errors as many as we can. Maybe we should have measured the time for 20 swings, instead of 10 swings, which would also reduce our uncertainty in time. Also we need control the metal bob came from the same position or we shuold do this experiment under the vacuum condition, to reduce the effect of air resistance on this experiment.

Conclusion:
1. To a pendulum, the square of its period is proportion to its length. 2. The experimental value of g is 9.92±0.4s2/m. It is similar to the known value 9.8 s2/m. Allowing for experimental errors, the result was expected.

REFERENCES

The NIST Reference on Constants, Units and Uncertainty [Online] Available at: http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?gn
[Accessed 23 March 2013]
Practical Physics. 2009. The Swinging Pendulum [Online]
Available at http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_480.html [Accessed 23 March 2013]

We can write a custom essay

Order an essay

## You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Designing an Osmotic Potential Experiment with Potatoes

Osmosis is used throughout the kitchen in various countries. In France, aubergines and cucumbers are often soaked in salt to create a nicer texture, however chefs lack understanding of why this happens, as they would have forgotten about it after they finished school, they only know that it happens. Therefore, this experiment is designed to explain to the millions of chefs around the world why...

Investigating the Effects of Salt on Seed...

PROBLEM/RESEARCH QUESTION In this investigation, we are researching and investigating whether the concentration/percentage of NaCl (salt) in water affects the germination rate of seeds and if so, which concentration germinates the most seeds. We will formulate our research by conducting an experiment in which we will observe the germination of seeds in various concentrations of salt water and evaluate the results gathered. In particular, we...

Investigating the Effect of Sodium Fluoride on...

Graph Showing the effect different volumes of Sodium Fluoride has on the average rate of production of H+ ions as measured by the colour change of resazurine Comment on Graph: The graph depicts a positive trend, as the amount of Sodium Fluoride increases the average rate of H+ ions as measured by the colour change of resazurine also increases. This increase is consistent with each...

Effect of Salinity on Germination

Colour used to indicate the raw data used to calculate example mean Colour used to indicate the raw data used to calculate example standard deviation Raw Data table 2 showing the effect changing the salinity of water added to ten ungerminated Vigna radiate (mung bean) seeds has on the seeds ability to successfully germinate as determined by the visible presence of a radicle seven days...

To Investigate the Effect of Regular Mowing...

T Test A T Test has been conducted to determine whether there is a marked difference in the heights of white clover petioles in mown and unmown areas, Null hypothesis: there is no significant statistical difference between the heights of petioles of white clover in unmown and mown areas. Alternative hypothesis: there is a significant statistical difference between the heights of petioles of white clover...

### Essays 57,473

300+
Materials Daily
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
Free Plagiarism
Checker
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

Sorry, but only registered users have full access

immediately?

Become a member

Thank You A Lot!

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Couldn't Find What You Looking For?