* Attitudes: Relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs, and behavioral intentions toward specific objects, people, or institutions. * Work-Related Attitudes: Attitudes relating to any aspect of work or work settings. * Job Satisfaction: Positive or negative attitudes held by individuals toward their jobs.
* Most people are quite satisfied with their jobs.
* Levels of job satisfaction, however, vary by country
* Overall levels of satisfaction have been dropping in recent years What kinds of workers tend to be more satisfied?
* White-collar personnel
* Older people
* People with more experience on their jobs
* Men and members of majority groups
Measuring Job Satisfaction
Job Descriptive Index:
* A rating scale for assessing job satisfaction. Individuals respond to this questionnaire by indicating whether or not various adjectives describe aspects of their work.
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire:
* A rating scale for assessing job satisfaction in which people indicate the extent to which they are satisfied with various aspects of their jobs.
Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire:
* A questionnaire designed to assess employees’ level of satisfaction with various aspects of their pay. Critical Incidents Technique
* A procedure for measuring job satisfaction in which employees describe incidents relating to their work that they find especially satisfying or dissatisfying.
* Questioning people in person about their attitudes in order to explore them more deeply. Two-Factor Theory
* A theory of job satisfaction suggesting that satisfaction and dissatisfaction stem from different groups of variables (motivators and hygiene factors, respectively). Value Theory of Satisfaction
* A theory suggesting that job satisfaction depends primarily on the match between the outcomes individuals value in their jobs and their perceptions about the availability of such outcomes. Consequences of Job Satisfaction
* Employee Withdrawal
* Task Performance
Employee Withdrawal: Actions such as chronic absenteeism and voluntary turnover (i.e., quitting one’s job) that enable employees to escape from adverse organization situations. Task Performance
* The relationship between satisfaction and performance is positive, but it is not very strong.
* In many work settings, there is little room for large changes in performance. * Job satisfaction and performance may not be directly linked. Any direct relationship between them may stem from the fact that both are related to a third factor – receipt of various rewards. Promoting Job Satisfaction
* Make jobs fun
* Pay people fairly
* Match people to jobs that fit their interests
* Avoid boring, repetitive jobs
Job Satisfaction in Tough Times
* Be open and honest about the company’s financial situation. * Spend time with your best workers, helping them develop their careers. * Break assignments into manageable chunks.
* Pay people what they’re worth.
* The extent to which an individual identifies and is involved with his or her organization and/or is unwilling to leave it. * Being committed to an organization is not only a matter of yes or no, or even how much. * Distinctions an also be made with respect to “what kind of commitment” * Continuance Commitment: The strength of a person’s desire to continue working for an organization because he or she needs to do so and cannot afford to leave. * Affective Commitment: The strength of a person’s desire to work for an organization because he or she agrees with its underlying goals and values. * Normative Commitment: The strength of a person’s desire to continue working for an organization because he or she feels obligations from others to remain there. Why Commitment Matters
* Committed employees are less likely to withdraw.
* Committed employees are willing to make sacrifices for the organization.
* Make jobs interesting and give people responsibility.
* Align the interests of the company with those of the employees.
* Enthusiastically recruit new employees whose values closely match those of the organization.
* Listen to your employees.
Prejudice vs. Discrimination
Negative attitudes toward the members of specific groups, based solely on the fact that they are members of those groups (e.g., age, race, sexual orientation). Discrimination
The behavior consistent with a prejudicial attitude; the act of treating someone negatively because of his or her membership in a specific group. Some Bases for Prejudice
* Physical Condition
* Race and National Origin
Does Discrimination Exist?
* A survey of American workers shows that racial discrimination is believed to be common in many forms. Its main victims, African Americans, tend to be more aware of discrimination than those who are least affected by it, white Americans. Major Approaches to Diversity
* Affirmative Action Plans: Diversity programs designed to respond to affirmative action laws, which are legislation designed to give employment opportunities to groups that have been underrepresented in the workforce. * Diversity Management Programs: Programs in which employees are taught to celebrate the differences between people and in which organizations create supportive work environments for women and minorities. * Awareness-Based Diversity Training: A type of diversity management program designed to make people more aware of diversity issues in the workplace and to get them to recognize the underlying assumptions they make about people. * Skills-Based Diversity Training: An approach to diversity management that goes beyond awareness-based diversity training and is designed to develop people’s skills with respect to managing diversity.
* Focus on a range of differences between people
* Managers should not treat someone as special because he or she is a member of a certain group.
* Managing diversity requires total managerial support.
* Actively pursue the best people.
* Make sure that people are accepted and fit in.
* Educate everyone.
* Assess how you’re doing.
* Pay attention to details.
* Plan for the future.