Yo Yo Honey Singh Essay Sample
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Introduction of TOPIC
“Axis of the Faith”) was a Turkic king of Northwest India who ruled from his capital in Delhi where he built theQutub Minar and the Quwwat Al Islam mosque. He was of Turkic descent from central Asia(modern day Aybak, Samangan, Afghanistan), the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Ghulam dynasty (Mamluk Sultanate) of India. He ruled for only four years, from 1206 to 1210 AD. He died while playing polo in Lahore. Qutb-ud-din Aibak ruled for four years until he had a fatal accident while playing chaugan(polo). His horse fell and he was impaled on the pommel of his saddle. His early death prevented him completing his plans for organizing his kingdom and establishing a sound administration. Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (Hindi: अलतामश/AlTaMash/Iltutmish)(Persian شمس الدین التتمش) (r. 1211–1236) was the third ruler of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi of Turkic origin. He was a slave of Qutb-ud-din Aibak and later became his son-in-law and close lieutenant.
He was the Governor of Badaun when he deposed Qutub-ud-din’s successor Aram Shah and acceeded to the throne of the Delhi Sultanate in 1211. He shifted Capital from Lahore to Delhi, remained the ruler until his death on May 1, 1236. Iltutmish introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital-the two basic coins of the Sultanate period, with a standard weight of 175 grains. He introudced Iqtadari system: division of empire into Iqtas, which were assigned to the nobles and officers in lieu of salary. He built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli In 1236 Iltumish died, and buried with the Qutb complex in Mehrauli. Southern Bihar was captured by Iltutmish in 1225-26. Lakhnauti was captured in 1226. Revolts continued until the Khalji Maliks of Bengal were reduced to complete submission in the winter of 1231. Ala-ud-din Jani was appointed Governor of Lakhnauti On his accession, Iltutmish faced a number of challenges to his rule. In the aftermath of Aibak’s death, the Ghurid dominions in India had divided into four. Iltutmish controlled Delhi..
The new Sultan first suppressed a rebellion of the Amirs in the plain of Jud near Delhi, and then brought under his control the different parts of the kingdom of Delhi with its de
pendencies like Badaun, Benares and Siwalik. In 1215-1216, Elduz, who had been defeated and expelled
But the Muslim nobility had no intention of acceding to Iltutmish’s appointment of a woman as heir, and after the sultan died on April 29, 1236, Razia’s brother, Rukn ud din Firuz, was elevated to the throne instead. Ruknu On November 9, 1236, both Ruknuddin and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated after only With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultan of Delhi. She dressed like a man and sat in open durbar. She was an efficient ruler and possed all the qualities of a Monarch. six months in power. ddin’s reign Even before she became Sultan, she was reportedly preoccupied with the affairs of state during her father’s reign. was short. A shrewd politician, Razia managed to keep the nobles in check, while enlisting the support of the army and the populace.
Her greatest accomplishment on the political front was to manipulate rebel factions into opposing each other. At that point, Razia seemed destined to become one of the most powerful rulers of the Delhi Sultanate. Razia Sultan has been the subject of many legends. A piece of historical fiction entitled ‘Razia: Queen of India’ based on the Sultana’s life written by Rafiq Zakaria in 2000. The Sultana also has her own title in the Indian comic book series, Amar Chitra Katha. More recently, she was the subject of Razia Sultan, a 1983 urdu film, written and directed by Kamal Amrohi, starring Hema Malini as Razia and Dharmendra as Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut. Khalji dynasty:
Jalaluddin Khalji original name is Malik Firuz. He was appointed by Sultan Qaiqabad to the fief of Baran and the command of the army. Soon, Sultan Qaiqabad suffered from a paralytic stroke and Firuz marched towards Delhi. The nobles placed Kayumars, the three-year-old son of Qaiqabad on the throne. But the sons of Firuz dashed into the city and carried away the infant Sultan, defeating a force sent in pursuit of them. Most of the Turkic nobles now submitted to Firuz. Qaiqabad was put to death and his corpse was thrown into the Yamuna. On 13 July 1290 Jalal-ud-Din Firuz was enthroned in the palace of Kalughari.He was made a slave from there. ————————————————-
Juna Khan Khilji, commonly known by his title as Ala-ud-din Khilji (علاء الدین الخلجی; died 1316), was the second ruler of the Turko-Afghan Khilji dynasty in India. He is considered the most powerful ruler of the dynasty, reigning from 1296 to 1316. He was a brilliant strategist and an outstanding military commander who commanded forces across the Indian subcontinent. Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji is also noted in history for being one of the few rulers in the world to have repeatedly defended his empire againstMongol invasions. He defeated large Mongol armies and then launched punitive expeditions against them in Central Asia, around modern-day