We would like to dedicate this work to those persons who helped and inspired us in making this Research possible.
– To our loving and very supportive parents who helped in financial matters and who did not leave us throughout the course of this study.
– To those students out there, especially the Liceans, to serve as their reference for the future years.
– And last but not the least, we are offering this work foremost to the Father Almighty, our God, who gave us the courage and strength in pursuing this Research work.
The Researchers would like to extend their deep gratitude and express their sincere and warm thoughts to those people who became helping instruments to this Research work.
To their classmates who served as one of their inspirations and for giving them words of encouragement and praise.
They would like to show how grateful they are to their school librarian, Mrs. Minnie Codera for letting them consult the library anytime they need to.
They also want to give appreciation to their family who helped them in their financial expenses and supported them in everything they do.
They would like to gratify Mr. Sonny Lim for giving them friendly advices and techniques to make this research easier to finish.
They would also like to thank Ms. Maria Crissei H. Caluza for having her thesis borrowed by the Researchers as a mean of example and that served as their guide and reference while making this research work.
Also, they would like to recognize their adviser, Mrs. Maria Maida J. Caballero for giving them useful ideas and sharing them her thoughts about this study.
And lastly, to their Religion and Research I teacher, Mr. Lucien E. Ansay for not leaving them in spite of his busy calendar, for giving them outburst considerations and pouring backgrounds and notes about this research work. And also, for providing them lashing advices, total guidance, and full-length patience in correcting, modifying, and revising their works.
This study is aiming to seek if lemon and aloe vera extracts are comparable to the commercially made soap. The study wants to make less expensive but more effective soap out of the materials that are cheaper, convenient, and more natural. In order to find out if lemon and aloe vera extracts can be used to make soap and if it could be compared to Dove® soap, several tests will be conducted. Then, the researchers will choose different persons to examine the two products. After quite a few observations and experiments, a computation of the results and its approval rating will be released. CHAPTER 1
PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Filipino women are well-known for their unique and extraordinary beauty. They possess outstanding characteristics that are very different from women all over the world. From physical to mental to social, these girls are very different and pleasing. Foreign men tourists are usually looking forward for a vacation here, in the Philippines because those foreigners want to make friends with Filipinas.
Women in the Philippines are very practical in regards with their hygiene regimen. They use natural means like herbals and organic materials for their cosmetics. But as time passes by, many different products are released country by country and company by company. Little by little, natural cosmetics faded. People preferred to buy processed products because it’s more instant and easier to use.
The researchers want to find out if an alternative moisturizing soap, a cheaper and more effective one can be made from lemon and aloe vera extracts and can adapt to the standards of other processed soap.
Lemon contains enzymes which help remove dead skin cells. It is a natural ingredient that has proven its effectiveness as a beauty care product. Its fruit extract is one of the most potent skin bleaching ingredients. Aside from whitening and beauty care, it can also be used as a health care regimen. Lemon extract can be also used to cleanse skin after a very long pollution-filled day. It has astringent properties, hence can be used to bleach and whiten the skin. It can also help smoothen the skin, keep it moisturized, and control skin oiliness. Lemon is rich in Vitamin C and can boost up your immune system. Its additional effect is that its aroma helps uplift spirit and calm nerves, helping to feel at ease and comfortable. Lemon, indeed, is really a versatile beauty product.
Aloe vera is usually the answer to the interjection “Burn! Burn!.” Why? Because it has inflammatory properties such as gibberlin and polysaccharides which effectively decrease inflammation and promote wound healing. But the common skin benefits of aloe vera extracts include moisturizing dry skin, maintenance to healthy skin, and heal pimples and acnes. It can penetrate several layers of tissues and has the ability of destructing and digesting dead cells. The lignins penetrate the skin and deliver the healing effects into the wounded area. It also helps to reduce scar.
This research is aiming for an alternative moisturizing and antibacterial soap with the presence of aloe vera and lemon extracts as the primary ingredients versus the commercially prepared and well-processed soap. The researchers are also aiming to put the soap not only in the Health Care sections of supermarkets but also in the Fashion and Lifestyle sections. Background of the Study
The population of the Philippines grows at an average of 1.7 million each year. One of the concerns that go with population increase is the problem on people’s health. The high cost of medicines, beauty products and treatments will result in the growing of self-meditating people. In these situations, demands for natural products will grow. Aside from financial considerations, people opt for natural products because they have become concerned of what they use as food and medicines. Medicinal plants are easily accessible and more affordable compared to synthetic drugs. There are many medicinal plants that are scientifically validated to ensure safety and efficacy. By this idea, lemon and aloe vera extracts will be examined to contribute in the population and human’s daily needs.
One of human’s daily requirements to be able to survive is a sanitary environment taking account of the person’s own spotlessness. With that idea, it means that daily bathing is a must. Knowing that the equipment needed in taking a bath is a complete kit containing different kinds of soap used in the various parts of the body. But, how can a person achieve a high standard, dirt-free life if he cannot afford himself a good enough soap?
This particular topic has been chosen because of its positive effects that can help other people. This study targets to Lemon and Aloe Vera soap to Dove® moisturizing soap. People who are less fortunate will be able to buy cheaper but high quality soap. This can also help office workers and students to have a relaxation after a very tiring day. The consumers will benefit more than enough if they bought a soap like this one because it is cheaper and contains antibacterial, inflammatory, and moisturizing agents that are usually contained in expensive, synthetic cosmetics.
Moreover, this study would be useful to everybody because soap is always in demand in every day’s life. In a way, this serves as a help to the world’s top crises nowadays. Statement of the Problem
The general purpose of this study is to produce an anti-bacterial and moisturizing soap from lemon and aloe vera extracts, to test its acceptability as a soap as evaluated by ten (10) respondents with regards to its effectiveness as well as to the sensory qualities. The research sought to answer the following questions:
1. What was the total cost to produce a soap of:
a. Dove® Moisturizing soap
b. Lemon and Aloe Vera soap
2. How much time would it take to moisturize the skin with:
a. Dove® Moisturizing soap
b. Lemon and Aloe Vera soap
3. What was the approval rating from ten (10) persons of:
a. Dove® Moisturizing soap
b. Lemon and Aloe Vera soap
In terms of:
4. Was Lemon and Aloe Vera soap comparable to commercially made soap? Significance of the Study
This study of Lemon and Aloe Vera soap will benefit the following:
This study will profit the students to enhance their learning capabilities in the sense of discovering something new from locally available resources.
This research will serve as a guide for them whenever they needed to teach something related in soap making and its other associated studies.
The product of this research work will help housewives afford cheaper yet high quality and efficient soap.
This study will aid some manufacturers for they will have an alternative anti-bacterial and moisturizing soap that is cheaper for branded and expensive soap with the same effectiveness that will surely catch the necessities and desires of the society.
This paper will aid a number of researchers because this can serve as their reference for some related studies and experiments. Scope and Limitation
This study focuses on lemon and aloe vera extracts as an anti-bacterial and moisturizing soap, as an alternative for making the skin healthier and glowing and for treatment to skin diseases like sunburn or rashes. This study will be conducted in Liceo de Pila with its population. The study involves interviews and surveys on the students as the respondents and observations of their activities and the effectiveness of the homemade soap that may contribute to their lifestyle and other existing problems. The study aims to lower the number of people having unhealthy skin and people who buys expensive products or treatments for skin diseases. Because of the increasing number of people’s unhealthy skin and skin diseases because of the severe weather changes in the Philippines, this study will help them lessen their risks of having more complications of skin diseases and drop the chance of purchasing luxurious products for their skin health.
The selection of the respondents are only limited to Liceo de Pila Family, specifically, students and teachers. The complainants are those who have experiences and knowledge about having unhealthy skin or skin problems for the sake of the accuracy and rapidity of the release of the study’s findings. Respondents having or who have experienced irritated skin, inflamed skin, very dry skin, and pale and itchy skin are part of the respondents that have to be observed.
The Researchers’ study does not offer a treatment for the problem. It will only help reduce chances of having skin problems and diseases.
This chapter contained the research framework, hypothesis and definition of terms. Research Framework
Fig. 1 Paradigm of the Research
The independent variables in this research were the kinds of soap, the primary ingredients in making the soap, and the persons involved in the test. The kinds of soap were Dove® and Lemon and Aloe Vera soap. The primary ingredients were lemons and aloe vera extracts. The persons involved or the respondents were students and teachers from Liceo de Pila. The dependent variables were the total time and cost in making the soap; the sensory qualities like the appearance, scent and texture; the effectiveness; and the approval rating.
This research hypothesized that lemon and aloe vera extracts can be used to make a cheaper and an alternative anti-bacterial and moisturizing soap that is comparable to Dove® Moisturizing soap. The Researchers also believe that Lemon and Aloe Vera soap is highly accepted in terms of its sensory qualities and effectiveness as rated by ten (10) respondents from Liceo de Pila.
Definition of Terms
Dove® Soap- is one of the top manufacturers and distributors of soap products in the Philippines and international. Lemon and Aloe Vera Soap- the homemade anti-bacterial and moisturizing soap that was compared to Dove® soap. It is an herbal soap made with lemon and aloe vera extracts intended to help moisturizing and disinfecting the skin, and heals wounds and burns. Lemon Extract- is a sweet-scented, sour juice that pours out when a lemon fruit was squeezed. It is rich in Vitamin C and has anti-bacterial, astringent and bleaching agents. Lemon extract is one of the primary ingredients in making Lemon and Aloe Vera soap. Aloe Vera Extract- is a slimy juice that can be found in an aloe vera leaf. It is usually used as prevention to burn-swellings. Aloe vera is one of the primary ingredients in making Lemon and Aloe Vera soap. Students- were some of the respondents of this study coming from Liceo de Pila. Teachers- were some of the respondents of this study coming from Liceo de Pila.
Sensory Qualities- the total appearance of the product perceived by the senses of sight, smell, taste, and touch. Appearance- was one of the sensory qualities that were being observed by the senses. It is the exterior of the product in the form of shape, color, size or it refers to the attractiveness of the product. Appearance can also be the outside presentation of the finished product. Scent- was also one of the sensory qualities that were being observed by the sense of smell. It refers to the odor or fragrance of the product. Texture- was another sensory quality that was being observed by the sense of touch. It is the roughness or the smoothness, the coarseness or the fineness of the product. Effectiveness- was the main basis of this study to know whether this research was accepted or rejected. It is the efficiency of the product according to what it promotes. Approval Rating- like the effectiveness, the approval rating is also one important basis to know whether this research was accepted or rejected as an alternative soap that will meet the requirements of the people. CHAPTER 3
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Below are the related literature reviewed by the Researchers to conceptualize the inquiry on how to produce a soap product out of lemon and aloe vera extracts.
Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occurring fatty acids. Air bubbles added to a molten soap will decrease the density of the soap and thus it will float on water. If the fatty acid salt has potassium rather than sodium, a softer lather is the result. Soap is produced by a saponification or basic hydrolysis reaction of a fat or oil. Currently, sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide is used to neutralize the fatty acid and convert it to the salt. (http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/554soap.html)
Soap is a chemical compound resulting from the reaction of an alkali (commonly sodium or potassium hydroxide) with a fatty acid. When mixed with water during bathing or washing, they help people and clothes get clean by lowering the chance of dirt and oil to get to the skin or fabric. Soaps are made from animal fats or vegetable oils. There are two basic steps in making soap. They are called Saponification and Salting-out of soap. Soap cleans very well in soft water. It is not toxic to water life. It can be broken down by bacteria. However, it is slightly soluble in water, so it is not often used in washing machines. It does not work well in hard water. It cannot be used in strongly acidic solutions. Many soap experts say that soap can be made in many ways.
Man has used soap-like things for at least 4000 years. The earliest recorded evidence of the making of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon. A recipe for soap having water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) looks like that ancient Egyptians bathed commonly and had animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to make a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents say that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. (http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap)
Soap is a cleaning or emulsifying agent usually made from fats by saponification. It consists of a mixture of alkali metal salts of fatty acids, soluble in water, and various additions such as perfume or coloring agents, disinfectants, etc. (The New Lexicon, Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1991 Edition)
The lemon (Citrus × Limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and the tree’s ellipsoidal yellow fruit. The fruit’s juice, pulp and peel, especially the zest, are used as foods. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives lemons a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemon)
The leading acid citrus fruit, because of its very appealing color, odor and flavor, the lemon, Citrus Limon is known in Italy as limone;
in most Spanish-speaking areas as limón, limón agria, limón real, or limón francés; in German as limonen; in French as citrónnier; in Dutch as citroen. In Haiti, it is limon France; in Puerto Rico, limon amarillo. In the Netherlands Antilles, lamoentsji, orlamunchi, are locally applied to the lime, not to the lemon as strangers suppose. The lemon is not grown there.
Lemon (citrus Limon, fam. Rutaceae) is a tree, probably native to S.E. Asia that is widely cultivated in Mediterranean countries and the southern U.S.A. its yellow, oval fruit having a thick rind and terminal nipple, the acid juice of which is used as a drink and in flavoring while the rind is a source of pectin and an essential oil. (The New Lexicon, Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1991 Edition)
Aloe vera is a species of succulent plant that probably originated in northern Africa. The species does not have any naturally occurring populations, although closely related aloes do occur in northern Africa. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing or soothing properties. There is, however, little scientific evidence of the effectiveness or safety of A. vera extracts for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes, and what positive evidence is available is frequently contradicted by other studies. Medical uses of aloe vera are being investigated as well. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_vera)
Aloe vera’s use can be traced back 6,000 years to early Egypt, where the plant was depicted on stone carvings. Known as the “plant of immortality,” aloe was presented as a burial gift to deceased pharaohs.
Historically, aloe was used topically to heal wounds and for various skin conditions, and orally as a laxative. Today, in addition to these uses, aloe is used as a folk or traditional remedy for a variety of conditions, including diabetes, asthma, epilepsy, and osteoarthritis. It is also used topically for osteoarthritis, burns, sunburns, and psoriasis. Aloe vera gel can be found in hundreds of skin products, including lotions and sunblock. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved aloe vera as a natural food flavoring.
Aloe leaves contain a clear gel that is often used as a topical ointment. The green part of the leaf that surrounds the gel can be used to produce a juice or a dried substance (called latex) that is taken by mouth. (http://nccam.nih.gov/health/aloevera) Aloe vera is a member of Aloe, fam. Liliaceae, a genus of xerophytes having fleshy leaves with a waxy epidermis from which a juice is obtained. It is dried and used as a purgative. (The New Lexicon, Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language, 1991 Edition)
Dove is a personal care brand owned by Unilever. Dove products are manufactured in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey and United States. The products are sold in more than 35 countries and are offered for both women and men. The Dove trademark and brand name is currently owned by Unilever. Dove’s logo is a silhouette profile of the brand’s namesake bird, the color of which often varies. Products include: antiperspirants/deodorants, body washes, beauty bars, lotions/moisturizers, hair care, and facial care products. Dove is primarily made from synthetic surfactants, soaps (derived from vegetable oils such as palm kernel) and salts of animal fats (tallow). In some countries, but not UK, Dove is derived from tallow (like many soaps) and for this reason it is not considered vegan, unlike vegetable oil based soaps. Dove is formulated to be pH neutral, a pH that is usually between 6.5 and 7.5. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dove_(toiletries))
Dove is a personal care brand owned by Unilever. The product line is manufactured around the world and is sold in more than 35 countries. Products include antiperspirants/deodorants, body washes, beauty bars, lotions/moisturizers, hair care and facial care products. While the Dove beauty bar was initially marketed as a product for women, Dove now offers a line of skin care products designed for men. Dove’s logo is a silhouette profile of the brand’s namesake bird, the color of which often varies. Because Dove’s flagship product, the beauty bar, uses synthetic materials in formulation, it is not classified as soap, but as a synthetic detergent bar. The Dove beauty bar was first developed and introduced in the Netherlands in 1955 when Unilever purchased a Dutch soap factory. After the booming success of the product in Europe, it was brought to the United States in 1957. Dove proved successful by touting that it contained moisturizers. Dove continued to thrive in the 1960s as a niche skin care product before an advertising campaign in the 1970s won market share in the industry by publicizing dermatologist test findings that stated that Dove dried and irritated skin less than ordinary soap.
This campaign funnelled increasing interest in Dove and Unilever began manufacturing more products under the Dove brand. In 2004, Dove began promoting a “Campaign For Real Beauty” in an effort to tone down unrealistic depictions of women in advertising. The company also promotes the “Dove Movement For Self-Esteem”. Dove products are still widely recommended by dermatologists for those with sensitive skin. The brand’s flagship product, the Dove beauty bar, is primarily made from synthetic surfactants, derived vegetable oils and salts of animal fats. In some countries, Dove is directly derived from animal fats and is therefore not considered a vegan-friendly product, unlike other vegetable oil based soaps. (http://www.reference.com/motif/history/history-of-dove-soap)
The Dove white bar is made of sodium cocoyl isethionate, stearic acid, coconut acid, sodium tallowate, water, sodium isethionate, sodium stearate, cocamidopropyl betaine, sodium cocoate or palm kernelate, fragrance, sodium chloride, tetrasodium EDTA, trisodium etidronate, BHT, titanium dioxide, and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate. (Silly Language, http://www.ask.com/answers/95867741/what-is-dove-soap-made-of)
• Total time in making the soap
• Total cost in making the soap
• Sensory qualities of the soap
• Effectiveness of the soap
• The approval rating
• Kinds of soap
-Lemon and Aloe Vera soap
• Primary ingredients to be used
-aloe vera extract
• Persons involved in the test
-students from LDPila
-teachers from LDPila