!. Understand theoretical approaches to child and young person development
1.1 Explain different theories and frameworks of child and young person development
There are several different theories and frameworks relating to child
development, these are as follows: Theories:
Cognitive: This theory describes the basic stages of development that a child will go through from birth and how these can have an impact on the rest of their life. these are:
The sensor motor stage: this is a period of time between birth and the age of two, during this time an infant’s knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities, Behaviours are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. The concrete operational stage: This is a period between the ages of seven and eleven during which children gain a better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. The formal operational stage: This is a period between age twelve to adulthood when people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning and systematic planning also emerge during this stage. Psychoanalytic -This is a theory by Freud, which is based on how the human mind functions. Freud believed that there were factors outside of the individual person’s awareness (unconscious thoughts, feelings and experiences) that influence their emotions, behaviour and actions, and that their past experiences/feelings shape their future.
The Psychoanalytical theory highlights the importance of the unconscious mental processes and childhood development issues as they relate to childish impulses, childish wishes and juvenile desires. Humanist -The humanistic perspective was developed by Key therapists Maslow 1994 and Rogers 1954 and focuses on the positive image of what it means to be human. Human nature is viewed as basically good, and humanistic theorists focus on methods that allow fulfillment of potential, this approach is at times referred to as child centered or student centered approach. Social Learning-The social learning theory was developed by Albert Bandura (1977), he thought that behaviour is learned from the young persons environment through the process of observational learning, meaning a child will observe the actions or behaviours of the people around them and may choose to copy or imitate these behaviours, also this can be reinforced by other peoples’ reactions to their behaviour, for example if a young child is cuddling a doll and an adult or a person of influence or importance to them gives them verbal
praise by saying “oh you are a caring girl” then the child is likely to display this behaviour again.
Operant conditioning -Operant conditioning is termed as use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form behaviour. Meaning that behaviour that is followed by pleasant consequences tends to be repeated and thus is learned. Behaviour that is followed by unpleasant consequences tends not to be repeated and thus not learned” (Alberto & Troutman, 2006). Operant conditioning is specifically limited to voluntary behaviour, that is, emitted responses, which distinguishes it from respondent or Pavlovian conditioning, which is limited to reflexive behaviour (or elicited responses). Behaviourist -This theory focuses on how environmental interaction influences behaviour and are based upon the theories of theorists such as John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov and B. F. Skinner. These theories refer only to observable behaviours. Development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishments, stimuli and reinforcement.
This theory differs considerably from other child development theories because it gives no consideration to internal thoughts or feelings. Instead, it focuses purely on how experience shapes who we are. Attachment -The attachment theory refers to the bond between an infant and an adult who is special to them and identifies that they are central to a child’s well-being, this concept was explored in depth by John Bowlby in the 1940’s and is Known as the ‘Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis’ , during this study he claimed that an early attachment to a mother was vital for a child’s emotional stability. Framework
Social Pedagogoy-Social pedagogy is a concept which is widely used in European countries such as Germany, Denmark and Sweden and originated from the Greek word ‘paidago-geo-’ in which ‘paíd’ means ‘child’ and ‘ágo’ means ‘lead’ or ‘teach’; and in turn pedagogy means ‘to lead/teach the child’. The aim of pedagogy is to combine theory and practice and to encourage ‘learning by doing’ (Smith, 2009). However pedagogy is now not only used for working with children, but is used when working with a wide range of people – from the elderly to people with disabilities – not just children and young people.
The Children’s Workforce Strategy (2005) states that social pedagogy is ‘a development in Europe of a new “model” for workforce change’. In my house we work within a person cantered framework to ensure that we are working as to the needs of the young people.
1.2 Explain the potential impact on service provision of different theories and approaches
Each of the theories can have different impacts on the young people as they all have different beliefs to what the best care can be for the young people. If they were to be followed then professionals and the staff team would have a better understanding of the young people in the way they act in different situations. Some professionals may see this as an excuse for certain behaviours and this could mean that vital stages of the Childs development could be missed and then this would have a bigger impact further on in that young persons life. At the home I managed we don’t work to just one theory as one theory wouldn’t work for every young person in my care and so try different theories so that the young people receive the best care possible.
1.3 Critically analyse the move towards outcomes based services for children and young people
This has been embraced by a lot of the social services that place young people at the home. They see this as a positive move for young people as it helps them to be more accountable for their actions.
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2. Be able to lead and support developmental assessment of children and young people 2.1 Support use of different methods of developmental assessment and recording for children and young people
The home that I managed has a number of different ways in the methods of recording for the young people this includes: daily observations – this will outline everything the young person has done that day. The way they have been feeling, how education went, and appointments. The daily logbook is used to log everything that happens at the home through out the day. This will include all visitors to the home, the whereabouts and what the young people are up to including their mood.
The young people also have a daily chat meeting which is a group meeting each day where they can express how they are feeling and how there day has been. This is like a house meeting and this takes place twice a week where there is more of an agenda set by the staff and the young people with anything that need to brought up. Where possible we encourage the young people to host the meetings so that they can take more part in the decision making of the home. The young people are allocated a keyworker when arriving at the home. The keyworker will then carry out weekly meetings where staff will set agenda and the young person will make one as well. This will then be written up about what has been talked about in this meeting. I will then review the minutes of this meeting to make sure that I know how the young person is feeling and that their needs are being met at all times.
When an incident occurs at the home a significant form will need to be completed by the staff, which are on duty. This would explain what had happened, what behaviour had been, what led up to it and what the outcome was. The outcome could be that the young person may have been sanctioned for the behaviour, which would then need to be logged in the sanction book. In the sanction book it would explain whom the sanction was for, why the sanction was in place, the young persons comments, what the sanction was, effectiveness of the sanction. This would then be signed by the member of staff placing the sanction and I would then sign to say I had been notified. Once this was all complete I would then notify the social worker by email, telephone to let them know what had happened. This can sometimes depending on severity of the incident involve a strategy meeting where myself, keyworker and social worker will meet and look at different strategies to prevent this kind of incident from happening again.
2.2 Work in Partnership with other professionals in assessing development of Children and young people.
As the manager when a young person is placed in the home I work with the placement team, social worker and family to make sure that everything possible is put in place for the young persons care needs. When a young person is placed a 72 hr placement meeting takes place where the young persons needs will be discussed and a care and placement plan will be drawn up. This may involve looking at external agencies like CAMHS so that they can get more support. If this was the case then I would make a referral to CAMHS or any other agencies then the staff would support the young person with any appointments or meetings.
2.3 Develop strategies to encourage child or young people and carers participation in developmental assessment
The young people that are placed in my care are all encouraged to have a say in their developmental needs. The way in which we do this is, is through keyworker meetings to discuss any concerns and needs they may have. Also the day to day working with the staff and young people to build positive relationships help the young people to be able to trust adults and talk about what there needs are more freely. The staff will then make sure that this is logged and past on to myself so this can be put into their care plans. I will also talk about this in the staff meeting so that all staff is aware of any changes in each Childs development. Also when an incident has occurred with a young person I will carry reflection with that young person and staff members. When I talk to the young person regarding the incident I will encourage him to talk about ways we can help so that it doesn’t happen again. This might involve some anger management through external agencies or extra therapy session with the therapist so that the young people can talk about there feelings.
2.4 Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to encourage child or young person and carers’ participation in developmental assessment
In the home all the young peoples views are encouraged regarding their care plans and placements plans so that they have a say in theory developmental needs and care. When a care plan is drawn up for a young person myself and the keyworker will explain what this means and encourage them to identify any needs or wishes they may have. This might be working towards a goal like going back to their family or going into a foster family. At LAC reviews the young people are encouraged to take part in their LAC review.
The young person will also be asked to take part in writing the LAC report so that they are aware of what will be brought up and any of there wishes or concerns can be put into the report as well. Once the report has been written by the keyworker, the young person will see this report before the meeting takes place. All staff at the home must have read the care and placement plans of each of the young people so that they know what there wishes and views are and how to care for the young people each day. This will also include a behaviour management plan which the young people will help to write with there keyworker so that they can understand about their behaviour.
I find that these methods do work as the young people we have had at the home have developed and have carried out the goals that were set when the young people arrived at the home.
3. Be able to develop and implement programmes with children or young people requiring developmental support 3.1 Support use of assessments to develop programmes of support
When a young person arrives at the home, I will receive referral paper work regarding the history of the young person. With that information I will complete a basic placement plan, which will contain the basic information, I have received from the placement team. A 72 hr placement meeting will then take place where I will meet with the social worker and talk about a short-term plan and receive any more information they may have on the young person. I will also talk to the social worker regarding how the young person has settled in the home. Once this meeting has taken place a 21-day assessment is then carried out which will allow staff to monitor and record any significant information about the young person. This information will then be used including the young persons wishes and feelings to make up their care and placement plan. With regards to any behaviour difficulties during the 21-day assessment this will then be put into a behaviour management plan which will show any triggers, de-escalation techniques and ways to help the young person when they feel angry.
Me being the manager must make sure that these are completed correctly and contain as much detail as possible so that each staff member can make sure that the best care possible is carried out for each young person in my care. Young peoples paper work is reviewed regularly and amended where changes are needed.
3.2 Explain circumstances where referrals to other agencies may be required.
The home I manage due to the young ages of the young people we take I find that no assessment has been taken before as they have either come from their family or from a foster placement. In the initial 21-day assessment the team and myself will look at the needs of the young person and consult the social worker with any previous history to help with the assessment. Where a young person may be struggling with their anger and behaviour we would look at a possible referral to CAMHS so that the young person could receive anger management if that’s what we felt was needed. Where a young person was struggling to build positive relationships we would look at local clubs or even sometimes an independent visitor so that they can build positive relationships with people.
3.3 Explain how referrals to other agencies are managed
When referring a child to an outside agency I would gather the information in m assessment and contact the social worker and family depending on the young persons status. I would then explain what I was asking for. In the case of a referral to CAMHS I would seek the social workers views as well and explain the reasons. This may require a meeting being set up with the social worker or talked about a LAC review where everyone is present so a decision can be made. Once the decision had been made the social worker would make the referral, I would then be requesting a regular update on the progress by email and telephoning the social worker. I would then keep all the correspondence as evidence in case Ofsted required this.
3.4 Support use of early interventions to promote positive outcomes for children and young peoples development
As a manager I see that the 21-day assessment is so important as this can help with early interventions with each young person as the needs can be assessed early on. This will then help to work out the developmental age of the young person so to put in the right care needs for this age. This will then prepare the young person for later life as much as possible. Having a care and placement plan that is regularly reviewed and updated is vital for the development of each young person in the home. This will also show the progress of the young person.
3.5 Lead the implementation of a personalised programme of support for children or young people
When the young person arrives at the home, the information I receive from the placement team will be put into a placement plan and then reviewed by a 21-day assessment this will be completed by the staff team and myself. Also a young persons passport will also be completed which will include personal details, family contact, GP, Dentist, Opticians, family contact, medical info, The placement plan will be updated after the 21 day assessment with any information gathered over those days, also this will updated continually with in changes especially at LAC reviews. A behaviour management plan will also be completed so that all staff is aware of how to care for the young person and to know any triggers there may be and how to manage them.
Risk assessments will be completed which will explain the areas of risk to the young person and others. When it comes to activities these will be completed each time before a young person attends the activity. Sometimes the young people will come into my care without education. I will look at the history of the young person and discuss with the social worker and the young person the sort of education needed. I will then look at the different schools in my area and take in to account if the young person has a statement of education and then fed this back to the social worker so that she can liaise with the schools. I will ask for regular updates by email and phone. The young person will do education at the home while a school is found which the staff on duty will help with each day.
4. Be able to evaluate programmes for children or young people requiring developmental support 4.1 Review Programmes of developmental support
there are many programmes of developmental support but I have looked at the Healthy child program (HCP), produced in 2009 by Lisa payne, this document is public health program that has produced for young people and families and focuses on early intervention and prevention and will cover screening tests, immunisations, developmental reviews and offer information to young people and families regarding healthy choices and aims to identify families who may be in need of additional support or are at risk of poor health outcomes. This consists of three documents, these being:1 healthy child program: to cover pregnancy and the first five years of a child’s life, 2 healthy child program: the two year review and 3 healthy child program: from 5 to 19 years of age The document is aimed at Primary care trusts, local authorities, practice based commissioners and service providers and focuses on developing evidence for meeting public service agreements for improving the health, well-being and safety of children. The HCP states that if effectively implemented in terms of overall aims, this should lead to the following. • Strong parent-child attachment and positive parenting, resulting in better social and emotional well-being in children
• Care that helps to keep children healthy and safe
• Healthy eating and increased activity, leading to a reduction in obesity
• Prevention of some serious and communicable diseases
• Increased rates of initiation and continuation of breastfeeding
• Readiness for school and improved learning
• Early recognition of growth disorders and risk factors for obesity
• Early detection of – and action to address – developmental delay, abnormalities and ill health, and concerns about safety
• Identification of factors that could influence health and well-being in families
• Better short- and long-term outcomes for children who are at risk of social exclusion.
After I have looked at this I find that this is a good way to work as covers all the developmental areas that young people need. It will also pick identify any early warning signs of not getting the developmental needs and will be able to put different strategies in place to help young people. This could be by using different agencies so that the young people get the support they need.
4.2 Implement strategies for improvement for programmes of development support
Each young person in the home has a personalised care plan. The way in which we right these care plans is by using the history of each young person. Sometimes we will have to hypothesis regarding their developmental stage as history can’t be vague. Also when writing the care plan the views of the young person will also be taken into account and they will help to write the care plan by setting goals and saying how they feel in certain situations. When a young person arrives at the home they are immediately registered with the local GP, dentist, opticians and any other professional they may need. The young person will also have a yearly LAC medical where they will review the health and development of each young person. Any health concerns will be noted and referred to right outside agency. As the young people develop we will implement different plans with the views of the young person, social worker and health professionals involved to make sure that the young person develops in the best way possible. The care plan is reviewed and updated monthly due to the ages of the young people will look after there is continual change in their care.
5 Be able to lead and promote and support for children experiencing transitions 5.1 Explain how effective based practice can be used to support children and people experiencing transitions
I feel by knowing and having the history of each young person in as much detail helps to give best practice as we can learn how to deal with the transitions and to keep it as minimal as possible where they may find it difficult. This will then help us to learn strategies and support to be put in place so when a transition comes up in the young persons life it can be dealt with effectively.
5.2 Lead and implementation of evidence based practice to support children and young people experiencing transition
A the home I manage the way we help young people preparing for transitions in their life, this could be moving on from the home or even into a new school. The young person must be kept fully informed at all times of what is happening as trust is a big factor to the young people in the home. Using the history of the young person can also help with knowing what has worked or hasn’t worked in the past. The young people must feel fully supported by all the staff in the home especially the keyworker and myself. If it was a transition into a new school I would make sure that the keyworker or myself took them to school to have a look and be the one who is taking them and picking up from school on there first day. Giving as much information about what is happening is so important and making sure that it is explained in a way that the young person understands. A lot of young people I find struggle with change so it must be explained in positive ways and explain the gain from doing these transitions so that the young person feels supported.
The staff at my home must attend training courses especially therapeutic training as they will then understand strategies and development of each young person in the home.
5.3 Evaluate the implementation of evidence based practice to support children or young people experiencing transitions
By having the evidence of practice around the young people this works as a very good tool as this can help with knowing what steps need to be taken place and any strategies that need to be put in place. This can then be recorded so that any future plans for the young person can be reviewed and decisions can be made from the history. I will also consult any professionals or family involved with the young person to help make decisions on transitions for the young people and also the young person views in ways they would be able to coup better. There will have been many transitions in the young people I care for already and there will have been mistakes made. This is why it is so important that the history of the young person is reviewed so that these mistakes aren’t made again and again.
6.1 Support use of evidence based practice with children and young people to encourage positive behaviour
In the home I manage we have a number of ways to encourage positive behaviour this could be just by praising and spending quality time with the young person which every young person wants. There are also incentives in the home where weekly goals are set and each day they will be given ticks and will be rewarded each week with extra money on top of their pocket money. This works well for most young people but a week can be a long time for some so this may be set day to day. Also sometimes having weekly goals for money for the younger children doesn’t work.
So we look at actual items, which might be an Xbox game, which they can work towards as they can see it as a visual goal. There is also weekly activity money which the young people can work towards which can be used throughout the week with good behaviour. So this could be going to the cinema or bowling on an evening or going ice-skating at the weekend. I have found that using a visual goal where the young person can see their achievements and praised and rewarded for is the best. The goals set are to an individual young person as we have all different ages and some goals set may not be appropriate so this is reviewed regularly and the views of the young person are taken into account.
6.2 Critically evaluate different approaches to supporting positive behaviour
There are several different approaches to supportive behaviour, these being: Least restrictive principle, this refers to the use of the least restrictive practice of young people and also inclusion of all young people and their right to be given every opportunity and support required. Reinforcing positive behaviour: This refers to use of in-forcing positive behaviours through the use of boundaries with a desired reward as the outcome. For example a young person may be out on an activity with the house and may be displaying negative or disruptive behaviours, the reinforcing of positive behaviour could be used by informing the young person that his behaviour is not acceptable and reiterating what is expected of him at that time, also he could be informed of a reward or an activity that he wished to purchase or take part in and that by displaying negative behaviour he may not achieve this.
Also the young person may on the other hand be displaying positive behaviour which is required to work achieve there desired goal and by achieving this they may help then to understand that by displaying positive and appropriate behaviour he will receive rewards or achieve there desired goal, also if one young person within a peer group is displaying positive behaviour and the other are not, the ones that are not may see that the young person displaying positive behaviour has been rewarded for this and may make them want to change their behaviour and achieve their goals or rewards. Due to this is feel that reinforcing positive outcomes can work very well. Modelling/ positive culture: This refers to the need for positive role modelling from family members, friends and also from the staff team. Young person will copy behaviours that they have learnt or witnessed from someone they look up to whether this be a member of staff, family member or friend, if the young person has not experienced positive role modelling then they may mimic and display the negative or disruptive behaviours that they have learnt, where as if they have witnessed a positive role model then the likelihood is that they will copy these positive behaviours, so it is important that young people have a positive role model.
A good example of positive culture would if a young person was taking part in a young peoples’ house meeting and a young person was being rude or derogatory to another young person or member of staff and the rest of his peer group informed him that his behaviour was wrong and not except able without the staff member having to say anything, this would then be seen as a positive culture, this is good because if a new young person was move into the house and display negative behaviours the peer group inform him that this is not acceptable and that they do not behave in this manner. young people can develop self-worth, significance, dignity, and responsibility only as they become committed to the positive values of helping and caring for others (Harry H. Vorrath Larry K. Brendtro)
Looking for reasons for inappropriate behaviour and adapting responses: when a young person is displaying negative behaviour there is normally a reason for this, due to this I would always try to look behind the behaviours and try to determine what is driving the young person to act In this way. It may be in some cases that the young person may be displaying this behaviour do to their condition , for example the young person may be autistic or have a mental health condition, obsessive Compulsive Disorder which could cause the young person to have a disproportionate response to what most people would see as a normal situation or occurrence, for example if a young person had autism then if they are exposed to loud noises this may cause them to have a behaviour where as a young person without autism may not see this as a problem and would not display any behaviours, or a young person may be displaying a negative behaviour because they have learnt that this is the only way they are able to gain attention and would see negative attention better than no attention. Also in some cases young people may display or create very chaotic situations or behaviours because this is what they have been used to and will feel safe in this environment.
I feel that due to all of the above reasons it is important for all staff and management working with young people to have the correct training to be knowledge to understand any conditions or disorders there young people may have and this intern will allow them to have more of an understanding why they may be displaying certain behaviours and be able to adopt their responses accordingly. Individual behaviour planning: In my role as deputy manager I would ensure that each young person has their own individualised behaviour management plan, which will detail all of their identified behaviours and identified triggers that have been known to cause behaviours and also how all staff should work with this young person if they display a certain behaviour. This ensures that all staff are working constantly and are giving the young person a clear view that the staff team or anyone that works with them are united in their boundaries and approach. I think that this is a positive tool when working with young people as this allows all staff to be aware of how to work with the young person even if they are working with the young person for the first time. Phased stages:
Planning interventions to reduce inappropriate behaviour: Planned interventions are useful when working with a young person that will display inappropriate or negative behaviours because this will allow for staff or anyone working with the young person to be aware of when they should intervene to prevent further negative behaviours, for example if a young person has a known warning sign that they may display before displaying further negative behaviours then this would allow staff to intervene and offer solutions to the problem before this develops into a more negative behaviour. De-escalate and diversion: It is important that all staff are fully trained and aware of the uses of de-escalation and diversion techniques as these can be applied to all situations to avoid or prevent a situation from progressing into an incident.
De-escalation and diversion can take many forms and different things will work better with some young people than with others and will require the staff team to be aware of what works best with each young person, or this may have the reverse effect , for example humour may work well with a young person as a de-escalation technique, but another young person may be offended by this and in turn may fuel the situation. Containment: This can take two different forms, it may be that a young person is contained in a secure training unit and have no choice but to comply with what is being asked of them as they are not able to leave and in turn may make positive changes to their behaviour and in turn their life, but in some cases this can will only last for the period of time that they are contained for and after this they may revert back to their previous behaviours, this is normally due the young person feeling unsafe outside of the contained environment so they will revert to past behaviours or recreate situations that they feel safe within as this is what they have been used to in the past (learnt behaviour)
Also containment may take the form of a young person being placed in home or unit, but the young person does not want to be there and will not engage with the staff, in this case it is very difficult for any work on the young persons’ behaviour or any other issues to be carried out and due to this the young person is often just contained with no positive outcomes or until they break the placement down in order to get themselves moved to another home, which they may continue with their negative behaviours. Following management plans: it is important that all staff are aware of and follow all management plans such as placement plans these will detail how staff are to work with the young person, what there long term plan is and any goals they may wish to achieve, Behaviour management plan. Also staff should be aware and follow behaviour management plans to allow all staff to be aware of how to work with the young person and how to manage their behaviour.
All management plans are important to ensure that all staff are working constantly we the young people, to create a safe and secure environment. It is important that all planes regarding the young person are regularly reviewed to ensure that they contain up to date information as if this is not the case this could cause further behaviours. Boundary setting and negotiation: It is important that all young people have boundaries as this has been proven to create a safe and secure environment for young people, which can allow them to develop. When any young person is admitted to my house they are informed of the house rules and the car rules, to ensure that they are aware of the boundaries of the house. Following an incident, for the majority the young person will be given a sanction for their negative behaviour. Supporting children and young people’s reflection on and management of own behaviour:
Following an incident a young person would always receive a key working meeting to allow for staff and the young person to discuss their behaviour and future coping strategies they may be able to use to better manage their behaviours also this is a chance for the young person to be able to reflect on their behaviour and see that perhaps they could have acted very differently to the situation and by doing this may have given them a more positive outcome or could have even prevented the incident in the first place. I think reflection is a powerful tool when dealing with behaviours as this can allow young people to analyse their behaviour and may chance how they would react to similar situations in the future, but this is only likely to work if the young person is willing to engage or wishes to make positive changes to their life or behaviour. Anti-bullying strategies:
In my home we have a zero tolerance to bullying behaviours and all young people are made aware of this upon arriving at the home. Staff will discuss bullying and the effects of bullying during residents meeting to allow all young people to be educated as to bullying, as bullying can take many different forms and can affect young people in a variety of different ways. This is all reoriented during key working meeting. If bullying does take place within the home then the young people involved will be spoken to staff and management and what bullying and the effects of bullying will be reiterated again, also the young people or person involved will be provided with relevant literature regarding bullying. In the majority of cases any issues between the young people will be resolved by way of a three way meeting and a written agreement as to their expected behaviour will be produced which both young people will have to sign, we have found that the written agreement works well with our young people as they need to be able to physically see in writing what they are expected to do or not to do. Also in some cases the young person will only accept this from the manager as they see them as a person of authority.