1. Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
Bacteria is something that we need some of, it needs a warmth, moisture, time and food in order to multiply, which in the right conditions they multiply quickly. Viruses need a living host in order to survive, they don’t respond to antibiotics and new strains of virus are developing all the time. Fungi are moulds and yeasts, they need a warm and damp environment to survive, much like bacteria. Parasites feed off the host it’s inhabiting, it uses the nourishment from the flesh to survive.
2. Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites
The condition is:
Description of illness:
Is it Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, or Parasite infections?
It can be spread in swimming baths, or communal bathrooms
Tiny blisters mainly found around the mouth
Painful stiff neck, and dislike of bright lights
Nits may be seen
Can live harmlessly in nose or mouth
Mild sore throat and headache
Resistant to penicillin type antibiotics
Sneezing and coughing
Flat red spots on the face
A bacteria passed on by sexual intercourse
3. Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonisation.’
Colonisation is when a microbe finds itself a host and a susceptible environment (for example; skin or an object) and then multiplies. Not necessarily threatening, but you then become the carrier. Infection is when normal functioning of the body is disrupted, it can be for a short period of time, but in more serious cases it can be for a prolonged amount of time.
4. Explain what is meant by ‘systemic infection’ and ‘localised infection.’
A systematic infection is when signs and symptoms affect the whole of the body, and you may have more than one symptom i.e. aching legs, headache, sore throat. A localised infection is when the infection only affects one part of the body and is localised to that area, for example, if you were to burn yourself on the iron and it became warm and red it may be a sign of infection.
5. Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection.
Poor hand hygiene;
Lack of domestic cleanliness;
Not using PPE;
Using PPE on more than one person at a time;
Lack of personal hygiene.
6. What are the conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms?
Most micro-organisms need moisture, warmth and a source of nutrition – some can survive without oxygen. They need a mode of spread and a vulnerable host.
7. What are the ways an infection might enter the body?
Where an infection may enter the body is called the Portal of Entry. An infection can enter the body via the following (to name a few): A cut (skin)
On food (through stomach)
Water (through stomach)
Urine (bodily fluids)
Faeces (bodily fluids)
8. Identify the common sources of infection.
Common sources of infection include food, water, people who are ill (flu or winter vomiting virus for example), animals and poor living quality (rats, mice etc.)
9. Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person.
Infective agents can be transmitted to a person in a few ways, by piercing the skin and letting germs enter through respiratory tract, by inhaling also. You can absorb some things through the skin, such as chemicals. Infected agents can be transmitted to an individual through having sex with infected individual. You can ingest something that has infectious germs.
10. Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur.
Key factors that make it more likely that infection will occur are: Poor hand hygiene
Poor understanding of infection control
Inappropriate use of PPE (re-using single use)