Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste is used to promote oral hygiene: it serves as an abrasive that aids in removing the dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists in suppressing halitosis, and delivers active ingredients (mainly fluoride) to help prevent tooth and gum disease (gingivitis). Most of the cleaning is achieved by the mechanical action of the toothbrush, and not by the toothpaste. Salt and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be substituted for commercial toothpaste. Toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed, but is generally not very harmful if accidentally swallowed in small amounts.
History of toothpaste
The Greeks, and then the Romans, improved the recipes for toothpaste by adding abrasives such as crushed bones and oyster shells. In the 9th century, the Persian musician and fashion designer Ziryab invented a type of toothpaste, which he popularized throughout Islamic Spain. The exact ingredients of this toothpaste are unknown, but it was reported to have been both “functional and pleasant to taste”. It is not known whether these early toothpastes were used alone, were to be rubbed onto the teeth with rags, or were to be used with early toothbrushes, such as neem-tree twigs and miswak. Toothpastes or powders came into general use in the 19th century.
Tooth powders for use with toothbrushes came into general use in the 19th century in Britain. Most were homemade, with chalk, pulverized brick, or salt as ingredients. A 1866 Home Encyclopedia recommended pulverized charcoal, and cautioned that many patented tooth powders that were commercially marketed did more harm than good. Arm & Hammer marketed a baking soda-based toothpowder in the United States until approximately 2000, and Colgate currently markets toothpowder in India and other countries. Modern toothpaste
Modern toothpaste gel
An 18th century American and British toothpaste recipe called for burnt bread. Another formula around this time called for dragon’s blood (a resin), cinnamon, and burnt alum.
By 1900, a paste made of hydrogen peroxide and baking soda was recommended for use with toothbrushes. Pre-mixed toothpastes were first marketed in the 19th century, but did not surpass the popularity of tooth-powder until World War I. In 1892, Doctor Washington Sheffield of London manufactured toothpaste into a collapsible tube, Dr. Sheffield’s Creme Dentifrice. He had the idea after his son traveled to Paris and saw painters using paint from tubes. In York in 1896, Colgate & Company Dental Cream was packaged in collapsible tubes imitating Sheffield. The original collapsible toothpaste tubes were made of lead. Fluoride was first added to toothpastes in the 1890s. “Tanagra”, containing calcium fluoride as the active ingredient, was sold by Karl F. Toellner Company, of Bremen, Germany, based upon the early work of chemist Albert Deninger. An analogous invention by Roy Cross, of Kansas City, Mo., was initially criticized by the American Dental Association (ADA) in 1937.
Fluoride toothpastes developed in the 1950s received the ADA’s approval. To develop the first ADA-approved fluoride toothpaste, Procter & Gamble started a research program in the early 1940s. In 1950, Procter & Gamble developed a joint research project team headed by Dr. Joseph Muhler at Indiana University to study new toothpaste with fluoride. In 1955, Procter & Gamble’s Crest launched its first clinically proven fluoride-containing toothpaste. On August 1, 1960, the ADA reported that “Crest has been shown to be an effective anticavity (decay preventative) dentifrice that can be of significant value when used in a conscientiously applied program of oral hygiene and regular professional care.” The amount of fluoride in toothpastes varies from country to country.
In 2006 BioRepair appeared in Europe with the first toothpaste containing synthetic hydroxylapatite as an alternative to fluoride for the remineralization and reparation of tooth enamel. The “biomimetic hydroxylapatite” is intended to protect the teeth by creating a new layer of synthetic enamel around the tooth instead of hardening the existing layer with fluoride that chemically changes it into fluorapatite. In June 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration and similar agencies in Panama, Puerto Rico and Australia advised consumers to avoid certain brands of toothpaste manufactured in China after some were found to contain the poisonous diethylene glycol, also called diglycol or labeled as “DEG” on the tube. Striped toothpaste
The red area represents the material used for stripes, and the rest is the main toothpaste material. The two materials are not in separate compartments; they are sufficiently viscous that they will not mix. Applying pressure to the tube causes the main material to issue out through the pipe. Simultaneously, some of the pressure is forwarded to the stripe-material, which is then pressed onto the main material through holes in the pipe. Striped toothpaste was invented by a New Yorker named Leonard Lawrence Marraffino in 1955. The patent (US patent 2,789,731, issued 1957) was subsequently sold to Unilever, who marketed the novelty under the ‘Stripe’ brand-name in the early 1960s. This was followed by the introduction of the ‘Signal’ brand in Europe in 1965 (UK patent 813,514). Although ‘Stripe’ was initially very successful, it never again achieved the 8% market share that it cornered during its second year.
Marraffino’s design, which remains in use for single-color stripes, is simple. The main material, usually white, sits at the crimp end of the toothpaste tube and makes up most of its bulk. A thin pipe, through which that carrier material will flow, descends from the nozzle to it. The stripe-material (this was red in ‘Stripe’) fills the gap between the carrier material and the top of the tube. The two materials are not in separate compartments. The two materials are sufficiently viscous that they will not mix. When pressure is applied to the toothpaste tube, the main material squeezes down the thin pipe to the nozzle. Simultaneously, the pressure applied to the main material causes pressure to be forwarded to the stripe material, which then issues out through small holes (in the side of the pipe) onto the main carrier material as it is passing those holes. In 1990 Colgate-Palmolive was granted a patent (USPTO 4,969,767) for two differently colored stripes.
In this scheme, the inner pipe has a cone-shaped plastic guard around it, and about half way up its length. Between the guard and the nozzle-end of the tube is then a space for the material for one color, which then issues out of holes in the pipe. On the other side of the guard is space for second stripe-material, which has its own set of holes. Striped toothpaste should not be confused with layered toothpaste. Layered toothpaste requires a multi-chamber design (e.g. USPTO 5,020,694), in which two or three layers then extrude out of the nozzle. This scheme, like that of pump dispensers (USPTO 4,461,403), is more complicated (and thus, more expensive to manufacture) than either the Marraffino design or the Colgate design.
HISTORY OF SENSODYNE
Sensodyne is an oral health brand that offers a range of toothpastes plus other oral care products suitable for people with sensitive teeth, or dentine hypersensitivity.
Sensodyne was first marketed in 1961 as the first desensitising toothpaste based on a strontium chloride formulation. About 20 years later, in 1980, Sensodyne toothpastes containing a new potassium nitrate formulation were launched. Besides being a leader in treating dentine hypersensitivity, the Sensodyne brand expanded in 2006 with the launch of Sensodyne Pronamel to help protect against the effects of dental erosion. Sensodyne is globally recognised as a specialist toothpaste for sensitive teeth. In addition to being a global brand, it is the first brand whose core equity was built on the recommendation of dentists. With over 45 years of proven pain relief heritage, it is the desensitising toothpaste most frequently recommended by dental professionals and the leader in the desensitising toothpaste category. About Sensitivity
Sensitivity is a common dental problem. It’s a condition that can develop over time due to common factors such as receding gums, over vigorous tooth brushing and tooth grinding. Most sufferers are between 20 and 50 years old. Some people can even experience tooth sensitivity when brushing their teeth, particularly if rinsing with cold water, and 51% of people experience a twinge or pain when breathing in cold air. Causes of Sensitivity
Tooth sensitivity is caused by the gradual exposure of the softer part of the tooth that lies under the tooth enamel, called “dentine”. Dentine has tiny tubes (‘tubules’) running through it that lead to the nerve and are filled with fluid. Eating or drinking foods and drinks that are hot, cold or sweet is believed to cause a change in fluid movement within these tubes. This fluid movement can cause the nerve endings to react in response, triggering a twinge of discomfort or a short, sharp pain. Some of the most common dental conditions that can cause sensitive teeth include: brushing too hard, teeth grinding, gum disease (gingivitis) and receding gums.
Whitening Treatments and Sensitivity
80% of patients who undergo a professional teeth-whitening treatment will experience sensitive teeth. Sensodyne is a good choice for use before, during and after tooth-whitening treatments. It’s safe to use and it can make a noticeable difference in the amount of post-whitening treatment sensitivity and discomfort. Managing Sensitivity
For sensitive teeth, there are several simple but important treatment steps that can be taken: * Practice good oral hygiene, including proper brushing and flossing to prevent conditions such as periodontal disease, which can cause receding gums. * Don’t brush too hard or more frequently than recommended by the dentist. * Use a softer toothbrush, preferably one suitable for people with sensitive teeth. * Take care while consuming acidic foods that can wear away tooth enamel, such as fruit juices, wine, vinegar salad dressings and soft drinks. * Use fluoridated dental products, including toothpaste and mouthrinse, to help strengthen enamel. * Avoid the grinding of teeth or clenching during the day. A dentist may recommend a mouth guard for nighttime use. * Have regular dental visits for professional tooth cleaning, dental care recommendations and advice on treating sensitive teeth. How Sensondyne Works
Sensodyne toothpastes work in one of three ways to relieve the pain of sensitive teeth*. Depending on the product’s active ingredient – Potassium Nitrate, Strontium Acetate, or patented NovaMin® technology. Potassium Nitrate: The potassium ion in Sensodyne is believed to sooth the nerves inside the teeth. Clinical studies show potassium nitrate progressively reduces the pain of sensitivity over a period of weeks. As long as a toothpaste with potassium like Sensodyne is used twice daily in brushing, the nerve response will gradually be reduced and sensitivity pain is relieved. Strontium Acetate: Sensodyne Rapid Relief contains strontium acetate. Strontium is an element similar to calcium.
The strontium in Sensodyne Rapid Relief replaces some of the calcium lost from the dentine and blocks the exposed tubules in the dentinal tissue. This helps prevent the movement of the fluid within the tubules in response to a sensitivity stimulus that could otherwise cause tooth pain. Sensodyne Rapid Relief provides clinically proven rapid relief for sensitive teeth. It relieves sensitivity pain when directly applied to the sensitive area of a tooth with a fingertip for one minute. This is because it is formulated to create a physical seal against sensitivity triggers. When used twice daily, it also provides long-lasting protection from sensitivity. NovaMin® Technology: NovaMin® technology is a patented technology that is is scientifically proven to repair** the sensitive areas of the teeth by forming a tooth-like layer over exposed areas. NovaMin® technology is included in Sensodyne Repair & Protect.
SWOT ON SENSODYNE
* COST ADVANTAGES * HIGH R&D * INNOVATION * LOYAL CUSTOMERS * STRONG BRAND EQUITY * SUPPLY CHAIN * PRICING * UNIQUE PRODUCT| * LOW R&D * LOW MAEKET SHARE * NO ONLINE PRESENCE * NOT INNOVATIVE * POOR SUPPLY CHAIN * WEAK,DAMAGED BRAND| * INNOVATION * ONLINE * PRODUCT AND SERVICE EXPANSION * TAKEOVERS| * COMPETITION * CHEAPER TECNOLOGY * ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN * EXTERNAL CHANGE * EXCHANGE RATE FLUCTUATION * PRICE WAR * PRODUCT SUBSTITUTION
HISTORY OF COLGATE
Colgate (sub-brand of Colgate-Palmolive Company) is an oral hygiene product line of toothpastes, toothbrushes, mouthwashes and dental floss. *
Colgate Toothpaste Pump Dispenser
Duraphat is a professional-strength paste intended for the treatment and prevention of dental caries. The toothpaste is ideal for the management of high-risk patients such as those with rampant, early, existing or recurrent coronal or root caries. The prime constituent is sodium fluoride and it is sometimes prescribed as part of a program of fluoride therapy. It is available as a prescription-only product. Colgate Total
Colgate Total contains the anti-microbial ingredient triclosan, which reduces the bacteria that cause gingivitis, cavities and halitosis. Colgate Cavity Protection
Although most Colgate toothpaste brands use sodium fluoride, the Colgate Cavity Protection variety instead contains sodium monofluorophosphate as the active ingredient. Colgate Simply White
A whitening toothpaste that is “Clinically proven to whiten in 14 days”. Its whitening ingredient is hydrogen peroxide, which gradually bleaches the teeth. Simply White utilizes two separate chambers that contain a whitening agent and cleaning gel. Colgate My First Toothpaste
A new product launched by Colgate in 2012. The product does contain fluoride, at a lower concentration so that it poses less of a hazard to children. The product was recently awarded a Best New Product Award for ‘Best toothpaste’ as well as the ‘Best in Show’.
1915 magazine ad
In the past, Colgate has developed an animated mascot; a bipedal, anthropomorphic rabbit dentist named Dr. Rabbit; as a means of educating young children in the benefits of oral hygiene and of advertising their dental products. The character has starred in two educational animated videos designed to encourage dental hygiene, “Dr. Rabbit’s World Tour” and “Dr. Rabbit and the Legend of the Tooth Kingdom”; however, he has gained infamy as a popular internet meme. “Gardol” was actually their trademark for the ingredient Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate, which today is an ingredient in Arm & Hammer’s “Advance White” toothpaste.
Colgate was the first toothpaste in a collapsible tube, introduced in 1896, when it had previously been sold in glass jars since 1873. Present in India since the 1930s, Colgate is almost synonymous with toothpaste in the Indian market. It is accepted well both in the rural and urban areas. It has been ranked as the 17th most trusted brand in India by The Brand Trust Report 
SWOT ON COLGATE
* FOCUS ON INNOVATION & NEW PRODUCT LAUNCH * MARKET LEADERSHIP POSITION ACROSS A RANGE OF GEOGRAPHICS * DIVERSIFIED BUSINESS OPERATION| * PRODUCT RECALL| * RESTRUCTING INITIATIVE * COLGATE BUSINESS PLANNING INITIATIVE * GROWING GLOBAL AND HYGIENE MARKET| * THERATS OF FAKE PRODUCTS * CHANGES IN RETAIL SCENAMIC GLOBALLY * GLOBAL ECONOMIC CONDITION|
OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARH
1. To study the current Indian market for Shampoos.
2. To analyze the relationship between a specific brand and its buying behavior. 3. To assess whether advertising is influencing the buying behavior of the consumers. 4. To study the impact of the seals of clinical laboratories on the consumers buying behavior.
1) DO YOU HAVE SENSITIVITY PROBLEM?
2) DO YOU PREFER SENSITIVITY TOOTHPASTE?
3)WHICH SENSITIVITY TOOTHPASTE YOU PERFER?
* NOT ANY OF THESE
4) FROM YOUR POINT OF VIEW WHICH TOOTHPASTE IS MORE SUITABLE FOR SENSITIVITY PROBLEM?
5) WHY YOU PREFER “COLGATE”?
6) WHY YOU PREFER “SENSODYNE”?
7) DO YOU REALLY GET RELIFE FORM SENSITIVITY PAIN BY USING “COLGATE”? * YES
8) DO YOU REALY GET RELIFE FORM SENSITIVITY PAIN BY USING “SENSODYNE”? * YES
9) DO YOU SWITCH TO OTHER TOOTHPASTE?
10) WHETHER YOU HAVE TO CONVINCE CUSTOMER TO PURCHASE COLGATE? * YES
11) WHETHER YOU HAVE TO CONVINCE CUSTOMER TO PURCHASE SENSODYNE? * YES
12) HOW FAR DO YOU THINK SENSODYNE HAS CAPTURED MARKET OVER COLGATE? * ON A SMALL SCALE
* ON A LARGE SCALE
13) HOW IS THE DEMAND OF SENSODYNE?
* VERY GOOD
14) HOW IS THE DEMAND OF COLGATE?
* VERY GOOD
1. Which sensitivity toothpaste do you prefer?
From the research and the survey taken on the basis of the sensitive toothpaste I Conclude that out of 20 people all of them have sensitivity problem and form them 13 of the prefer colgate to get relief from the sensitivity pain.
And 7 of them use sensodyne to get relief fron the sensitive problem
1. How far do you think that SENSODYNE has captured the market over COLGATE?
From the survey I conclude that from the survey taken on 20 people, 12 out of them consider that sensodyne has capture the market on a small scale. And 8 of them consider that sensodyne has capture the market on a large scale.
Toothpaste was made long ago. The most important ingredient in toothpaste is fluoride. There are lots of chemicals in toothpaste. The texture, fragrance, and color helps the toothpaste, because without these things toothpaste wouldn’t be as pleasing. If we didn’t have toothpaste, we would have bacteria , plaque and sensitivity. Our teeth would not be as strong and teeth would decay. So, you should be thankful because without toothpaste our breath wouldn’t be as fresh as it is now and sensitivity will be no longer a pain.
Target those people who use shampoo and trust the shampoo as their best solution for hair care. Develop quality and brand image so that by trial of your brand leaves with a good image and then followed by usage of bigger pack which then will be used by them. Identify the key benefits such as hair strengthening, Missing form shampoo and makes them the USP of new brands. The USP could be rebuilding damaged hair, shiny and healthy hair. Look for different problems for which people use shampoo for hair care, falling hair and dandruff’s etc. And deliver the same of high quality and at the same time positioning the brand as solution for your hair problem and which also rejuvenate your hair, and keep your hair healthy to that target group. .
Use country wide sampling activity to acquaint potential customers with the benefit of shampoo backing up the effort with advertising to convert intent to purchase. Offer value for money impetus for the decision to use the product more intensively .
Go for strategic sizing and pricing. Have those packs available in the market so that people have a wider option available and presence of your brand. After a gap of some time check which are the packs that are bought most and assure their availability. The advt. Slogan could be :
Expert care for every type of hair
Extra protection for your hair
Remove dandruff’s in sec’s
Healthy shiny u ever wanted.
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