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Gender And Woman Development Essay Sample

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Introduction of TOPIC

* First Principle: “Respect should be given to the sacredness of human life in all stages.” * Second Principle: “Marriage and the marital act have two aspects: the unitive and procreative” * Third Principle: Directly willed abortion, the use of abortifacients, sterilization and contraception are wrong in themselves. * FifthPrinciple: the Church advocates natural family planning as the only morally acceptable way. * Sixth Principle: the Church rejects the contraceptive mentality. * Seventh Principle: the Church teaches that the decision on the number of children lies solely on the Parents. * Eighth Principle: Hence the Church is against any coercion exercises on couples to pressure or force them to limit or increase the number of their children. * Tenth Principle: “because the Church regards artificial contraception as wrong itself, the Church will object to their dissemination as we. * Eleventh Principle: The Church acknowledges religions freedom of conscience.

=Scope and Sequence on Pop Ed=
1) Responsible sexual Behavior
2) Wholesome family Relationship
3) Every Child is a Wanted Child
4) Artificial Methods of Family Planning
5) Women as a Potent Force in Development
6) Population & Sustainable Development

Volume 2 – Gender Development
* Women in Development
By Pop Com
Source: The Philippines: Country Reports on Population
pp. 13-15

* (PWDP) Philippine Women Development Plan or (R.A. 7192) was intended to promote the integration of women as full and equal partner of men development & nation building.

* Population & the status of Women
By Popcom
Source: Philippine Population Management Program Briefing Kit, Paper Numbers

* Pregnancy/Childbirth complication
is one of the 10 leading causes of female death in the Philippines.

=The Status of Women in the Philippines
By DOH

* 22 years old Average Filipina Women marry at this age

=Education for Women –A must

* Senesa Falls Convention in New York State in 1940
the first women’s right meeting delegates declared that “all men and women are created equal.”

=The Forgotten Women=

R.A. 7432 declares that the state aims “to encourage their families and the communities they live with to reaffirm the valued Filipino tradition of caring for the senior citizens.

R.A. 7876 which provides for the establishment of a senior citizens center in all cities and municipalities. * Barriers to Formal Education
1) Cultures and Traditions tend to Perpetuate Stereotype
2) Opportunity Costs of Education
3) Location of School
4) Quality of Education

=Gender Issues and Girls Education=
By MargueriteAppel
Source: Integration of gender concern in Pop. Education and IEC Program: Practical Approaches, 1994

* Gender is a set of characteristics, defining people as masculine or feminine. “Gender relations are socially constructed as a result of the behavior of women and men themselves.

=Issues Affecting Women=
By UNESCO
Source: Integrating Women Loves into Pop Education: Handbook on Women’s Issues and Population Education. Pp. 1-8

* Sri Lanka was the first Asian country in which women were granted the right to vote. * “Education” According to Nafis Sadik is perhaps the strongest variable affecting the status of women. * Nafis Sadik UNFPAS’S Director

* Adolescent mother run a greater risk of;
a) Anemia
b) Toxemia
c) Miscarriage
d) Obstetric complication
* “Maternal mortality among mothers aged 19 and under is also much higher compared to women aged 20-24

=Gender Concern=
By PopCom
Source: Commission on Population Annual Report 1994,
pp.22-24

* Population Commission has launched more vigorous such as;

1.) Women’s Health day
2.) March Women’s month
3.) March 8 Women’s Day

=Gender and Development: Equity for All
By: Aileen Conway and Yiana Lambrou

* Nairobi Forward – Looking Strategies on Women
Issued from the Third world Conference on Women in 1985.
First document of global significance to call attention to genderis critical importance in balancing the requirements of development and environment.

* Joachim Voss says that “The Philippines is one of the gender-equal patrs of the world.

= Girl’s and Women’s Education, Women Empowerment and Population Issues = By UNFA
SOURCE: Population Eduaction Newsletter and Forum 1994.
Pp.1-2

* Benefits of Educating Girls and Women.
1.) Improve Overall Social and Economic Development
2.) Smaller Familysize and reduced Child Morality
“Educating girls is three times more likely to loewr familysize than eduycating boys. 3.) Improved Quality of Life and Family
4.) Greater Economic Productivity

* NGO Programs
(DIWA) Development Institute for Women in Asia-Pacific addressess issues of sexism and women’s discrimination.

(MAKASAMA)
Makabayang Kababaihan ng Masa
Conducts feminist literacy programs for the city’s poor.

THE WOMEN’S LEGAL BUREAU
a feminist legal source which fights for and protects women’s rights through the creative use of the law.

Center for Legislative Development
Provides training and research on women’s particifation in politics. It serves as a link between women’s organization. And women public officials in legislative ageda setting implementation.

THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL STUDIES AND ACTION
consults with NGO’s on women legislative and administrative advocacy ageda, and links key people, and organization for action.

* R. A. 7192
An act promoting the integration of Women as Full and Equal part6ners of men in Development and Nation building and for other purpose.

= Women’s perpective on Resproductive Health & Rights = By Morag Humble
SOURCE: Planned Parenthood Challenges
Pp. 27-31

* Motherhood is percieved as a blessed stake through which women earn societal recognition and protection as well as personal identity and fullfilment.

= Aids & Human Rights =
By Michael Kindly

* Basic Human Rights
* Right to life
* Rights to health
* Rights to liberty and security of the person
* Freedom from imhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
* Rights to freedom of movement
* Right to privacy
* Right to marry and found a family
* Right to work
* Right to social security, assistance and welfare.

= Framework for Analysis of Ethical Issues in ReproductIVE Health = By Ruth Hacklin
SOURCE: Integrating Ethics into Reproductive Health Care, Law, Education Policy, Researchs, Pp. 6-9, 11-21

* Ethical Dilemmas A situation in which a moral agent-one who is calleds upon to act morally or act in a moral situation-has two or more coyrses of action, none of which is perfectly okay or free of problems.

* Ethical Principles in Bioehtics

1.) Respect for person
2.) Non-maleficience
Is the principle “do no kharm.”
3.) Beneficence
4.) Justice

* Commodification
which means treating the human body as a commodity on the market or as a market exchange is now being used and it covers a lot of other things.

Issue to Human Reproduction
* Moral Status of the Fetus and the embryo
* Maternal-featal Conflict
* Patient as teaching maternal
* Choice of contraceptives

= Concern for the Quality of Life =

* Human Rights, Ethics and Law
* 1968 International Conference on Human Rights in Tehran recognazed that parents have a basic right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children.

= Violence against Women =
By NCRFW
SOURSE: Philippine Development Plan for Women

* Rape leagally, it is defined as a heterosexual offense characterized by forced genital copulation. * Domestic Violence
includes spouse assault or
a.) Sibling abuse
b.) Trafficking of babies
c.) Domestics-help abuse
d.) Child-parent abuse
* Sexual Harassment
consists of unwanted and inappropiate personal remarks about a person’s appearance and/or sexual activities which affects, directly or indirectly, ine’s job performance, promotion or evaluation. * Incest

It is the presence of carnal relations beteen sibl;ings, between parents and children, and/or between blood relatives to the 4th degree of consanguinity. * Prostitution it is the barter of sexual services for material consideration in the form of cash. * Pornography it refers to any printed audiovisual materials or to any product or presentatrion which seeks to sexually stimulate the viewer or consumer by depicting degrading and/pr violent acts, with or without the consent of the subject/s. * Medical abuse it involves sexual assault in the form of unnecessary physical examination and questionable procedures in olinics and hospitals.

=Opportunities for Change =
By UNFPA
SOURSE: Women, Popilation and development
Pp.7-13
Women’s health, particularly their reproductive health is fundamental to the success of population, environment and development initiatives, yet it is often neglected.

* Economic Life
Increasing women’s participation in the labour force often brings multiple benefits.

= Excerpts from Philippine Country
Report on Women 1986-1995
By NCRFW
SOURSE: Philippine Country report on Women 1986-1995
Pp.5-6, 8-11
* GAD (Gender and Development)
encourages increased participation for women, paving the way toward proportional gender representation in development programs, and accelerate in the pace of gender equality.

* RA 7192 (Women in Development and Nation Building Act)
provides equal opportunities for women in all military schools of the Armed force and the Phil. National Police.

* Psychological Incapacity
it did not provide for divorse but allowed the termination of marriages by providing for a declaration of nullity of marriage.

* R.A. 6949
declared March 8 as “National Women Day”

* R.A. 7160 ( Local Government Code)
has been amended to provide seats for women in all of the 1, 600 local legislative assembles nationwide.

* R. A. 7877
made sexual harassment unlawful in the employment, education or training environment.

* EQUADS
(Equality Advocates)
Offices of the Civil Service Commission in 14 regions hear out compliants allerging gender-based discrimination, such

as sexual harassment. * R.A. 6972 provides for a day care

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in each village or barangay.

* R.A. 7365
allows married public health woirkers to work in the same municipality.

= Legal Aspects of Reproductives =
Health: Family Planning and the practices of Contraception, Sterilization and Abortion By: Perfecto V. Fernandez
SOURCE: THE JOURNA; OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH,RIGHTS AND ETHICS, Pp.42-46

* The practice of contraception using diverse methods may be justified for reasons of health

1. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases
2. Prevention of contraception
3. Prevention of conception

* “Family Planning program im support of spouses voluntarily undertaking family planning through the use of contraceptives.

= Law and Abortion or Voluntary Termination of Pregnancy =

* Art. 2 Sec. 23 of the Philippines Constitution declaring that the mother has an equal rights to life as that of the unborn child.

= The Legal and Constitutional Perspective on Abortion =
By Pacifico A. Agabin
SOURCE: THE JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVES HEALTH RIGHTS, AND ETHICS, VOL. 1 NO. 1, Pp. 83-92

Law on Abortion

1. International abortion under Art. 256
2. Unintentional abortion under Art. 257
3. Abortion committed by the woman herself under Art. 258 4. Abortion practiced by a doctor or midwife dispensing abortives under Art. 259

Art. 256 intentional abortion may be further subdivided:

(a) Abortion committed with violence on the pregnant women (b) Abortion committed withourt violence and without the consent of the pregnant woman (c) Abortion committed without violence but with consent of the pregnant woman

* R. A. 5921 Pharmacy Act
which prohibits the delivery or sale of drugs or devices capable of including abortion without medical

FAMILY

REVIEWER on FAMILY LIFE & RESPONSIBLE PARENTHOOD
Book Name: RESOURCE MANUAL FOR POPULATION
SOURCE: Preparing for responsible parenthood pp. 29-39 EDUCATION Filipino Family By : Ceferino A. Zaide Jr. (1997)
* The Filipino family is simple, nuclear or fundamental. p-1
* The filipino family has been invariably said to be patriarchal in authority. p-1

* The father-husband is the theoretical titular head of the family. p-1

* The mother is the foundation of love, care and affection in the Filipino Family. p-1

* The Filipino womwn seems to gave hear heart sen on being feminismo. p-4

* Feminismo characterized by a desire to get married, to have children, to be subordinate yet equal to her husband

* The males are expected to develop the “machismo”.

* Machismo that is showing sexual prowess and being dominant, showing virility, strength, courage and being adventurous. p-4

* Pamamahikan formal asking for the girls hand in marriage.

* Western Practice of Marriage consisting of bride, groom, marriage sponsor, best man, maid of honor.

* Requirements for Civil Marriage

1.) The legal capacity of the contracting parties.
2.) Their consent, freely giver
3.) Authority of the person performing the marriage
4.) A marriage license

* Family Code which took effect on August 4, 1988

* Art6. 7, Chapter 1 states that marriages may be solemnized by;

1.) Any incumbent member of the judicial within the carts jurisdiction 2.) Any priest, rabbi, imam, or minister of any Church or religious sect and registered with the civil register general. 3.) Any ship captain or airplane chief only in the cases mentioned in Art. 31 4.) Any military commander of a unit to which a captain is assigned, 5.) Any consubile general, consul or vice consul in the case provided in Article 10

* Incestous Marriage are not allowed in the Philippines

* The following marriage are considered incestous;

1.) Between assendants and descendants of any degree
2.) Between brothers and sisters, wherther of the full or half-blood

* Marriages considered as void;
1.) Between collateral blood relatives
2.) Between step-parents and step-children
3.) Between parents-in-law and children-in-law
4.) Between the adopting parent and the adopted child.
5.) Between the surviving spouse of the adopting parent and the adopted child.
6.) Between the surviving spouse of the adopted child and adopter.
7.) Between the adopted child and legitimate child of the adopter.
8.) Between adopted chilren of the same adopter.

* The following circumtances shall constitute fround or deceit that may annul a marriage; 1.) Non-disclosure of a previous conviction by final judgement of the other party of a crime 2.) Concealment by the wife of the fact that at the time of marriage she was pregnant by a man other than her husband 3.) Concealment of drug-addiction, habitual alcoholism, or homosexuality or lesbianism existing at the time of marriage 4.) Concealment of sexually transmitted disease, regardless of its nature, existing at the time of marriage.

* There is no legal divorce in the Philippines and a husband or wife cannot put aside his spouse and contract another marriage
* Legal separation is recognized based on the following; p.5-6

1.) Respected physical violence
2.) Physical violence or more pressure to compel the petitioner to change religious or political affiliation
3.) Attempt of respondents to corrupt or induce petitioner, a common child or a child petitioner
4.) Final judgement sentencing the respondent to improvement of more than six years, even if pardoned
5.) Drug addiction or habitual alcoholism of the respondent.
6.) Lesbianism or homosexuality of the respondent
7.) Contracting by the respondent of a subsequent “bigamous marriage”
8.) Sexually infedility or perversion
9.) Attempt bu the respondent against the life of petitioner
10.) Abondonment of petitioner by respondent withoutr justificable cause for more than one year.

* Thomas E. Dohm Discover;

* 26.2 Men expected age in the Philippines to be married * 26.65 Ideal age for marriage p.6

* Among Filipinos the chief source of happiness is his family. couples entering marriage seek happiness and emotional security and satisfaction. p. 6

* The traditional Filipino family holds on certain custom such as;p.7

1.) Arranged Marriage
2.) Residence owith Parents
3.) Equality bteween husband and wife
4.) Rewsoect for Ekders and ancestors
5.) Women as housekeeper and family bursar

* The contemporary Filipino family is beset with problems like;p.7

1.) Separation and Desertion
2.) Abortion
3.) Illegitimacy
4.) Prostitution
5.) Drug Abuse

* Filipino children are well protected by laws and as such have certain legal rights.P.7
* Marriage among he Filipinos is haevily guarded by laws embodied in the Revised Civil Code of the Philippines. P.7

The family and Responsible Parenthood
By : Cusodia A. Sanchez
SOURCE: Population Education, pp.99-110
* The Family which is the oldest and the most universal institution is the basic social institution in m0ost societies and protected by the state.
* Function of the family
By: Cordere and Panopio

1. The family regulates the sexual behavior and is the unit for reproduction 2. The family perform the function of biological maintenance 3. The family is the chief agency in socializing the child. 4. The family gives its membres status

5. The family is an important mechanism for social control 6. The family is an important economic unit.p.10

* Espiritu et al state the problems that confront the Filipino familt today and the emerging trends as follows:

1.) Gambling
2.) Movies
3.) Lack of adequate preparation for married life
4.) Imprudent choice in marriage
5.) The effects of city life
6.) The practices of birth control and abortion
7.) The practice of divorce.P.11

Marriage: Custodia A. Sanchez
SOURCE: Populoation Education,pp.67-76

* Modern marriagecalls fpr more emotional maturity.

* Mixed marriage refers to marriage in which the husband and wife have a considerable or unusual gap in any of the following; intelligence & education.p.14

Family Needs and Resources
By: UNESCO
SOURCE: Family life Education.pp.75-78-82-84

= Family life events and resources=
1. Founding
2. Expanding
3. Schooling
4. Launching
5. Retirement

A. Demands on resources during the family early years of marriage are light B. The crouded years make haevy demands on the homemaker
C. The peak years are the years when the children go to school

* Why Small Families are Important
By: UNESCO-UNE-P
SOURCE: Human Population as a Global Change Issue,pp.34-37

* Disposable diapers ranks as the 3rd biggest source of minicipal solid waste.

* Responsible Planned Parenthood
By: CCeferino A. Zaidee Jr.
SOURCE: Preparing for Responsible Parenthood;pp.123,126-138

* family size increase, there is a corresponding decline in the quality and quantity of dictary intake (Concepcion, 1972)
* As family size increase, there is a corresponding decrese in the food, education and medical expenditures per capita, per family (Ibid) – (Concepcion, 1972)

* As family size increases, the bigger is the disparity between the family income and expenditures are usually higher than income. (Ibid.) – (Concepcion, 1972)

Marriage as Culture Infrastructure
By: Beth Day Romulo: Philippines Panoroma May 15, 1999
SOURCe:p.11

* David Murray an American Anthropologist
He came out with a proportion that societies that survive are those are built on the bonds of marriage

* Dr. Murray concludes, “Cultural infrastructure” is uniting strangers into supportive, constructive clans

Family Life Cycle
By: UNESCO
SOURCE: Family Life Education pp.65-70
= Family Life Cycle =

Stage 1: Begenning families
(no children)
Stage 2: Childbearing
(Eldest child birth -30 months)
Stage 3: Families with children
(ages 2 ½ yr – 6 yrs.)
Stage 4: Families with children
(ages 6 – 13 yrs)
Satge 5: Families with children
(ages 13 – 20)
Stage 6: Families with first born child
Satge 7: Families who no longer have children around or now reside with the children Stage 8: Families whose spouse have passed away.

= Stages of Family Life =

1.) Founding stage this stage covers the period marriage till the birth of the child. 2.) The Expanding Stage this is a period of childbearing and chilkd rearing. 3.) Schooling Stage the schooling stage refers to the time when the children start going to the elementary school and ends they are ready to take a job. 4.) Launching Stage this stage covers when the children marry and bulid their own families. 5.) Retirement StageThe retirement stage starts when the children leave their parents. Enter period od recovery.

= Family Planning Method =
A. Folk Methods
1. Postcostal Douche or Douching
this is done by flushing out the vagina with a medicated solution immediately after intercourse to remove or destroy the sperm 2. Prolonged Lactation
Proloned breastfeeding of babies is an ancients practice of contraception to delay ovulation.

B. Behavioral Method
1. Rhythm Method
the rhythm method is not really a frorm of contraception, but is a system of periodic abstinience. 2. Ovulation Method
this technique, as advocate by Dis. John & Ly Billings, observes the muscucs discharge from the vagina as a sign of an impending ovulation and therefore is the beginning of the unsafe preiod. 3. Withdrawal or Coitus Interruptus

Withdrawal of the penis from the vagina juust prior to ejaculation is also a highly unreliable method of prtegnancy control.

C. Mechanical Contraceptives
1. Condom
is a protective shealth made of rubber or thyin animal skin, which is worn over the erect penis during sexual intercourse. 2. Diaphram
A diaphram is a shallow rubber cup with a flexible spring rim, which is compressed and inserted into the vagina so that it fits snugly over the cervix. 3. Cervical Caps
A cervical cap is made of rubber with a tapcring dome appearance, designed to fit snuglu over the cervix
D. Chemical Contraceptives
1. Vaginal Suppositories & Tablets
A suppository is small bullet-shaped substance similar to parffin or a piececandle, containing chemical capable of killing sperms. It is inserted into the vagina about 10-15 minutes before intercourse to allow it to melt. (NMPC, 1973)

A vaginal foaming tablet, is moistened with saliva or water and inserted into the vagina 10-15 minutes before intercourse. 2. Contraceptives Vellis, Creams & Vaginal Foams
a.) Contraceptive Jellies & Creams are inserted shortly before the sexual intercourse. b.) Vaginal foam is said to be the most effective spermicides because it covers the walls of the vagina quickly and evenly with a dense film of foam.

E. intraUterine Device
is a small plastic or metal object which is inserted into the uterus by a physician.

F. Pill
a) “Morning-after Pill
It is the ingestion of a high dosage estrogen compound within 3-5 days after intercourse to prevent the implantation of fertilized egg. b) Injectibles ( Depo-Provera)
it is similar to the pill but one injection lasts for 3 months. It is injected into the hip muscle and eliminates the dailyintake required of the pill

G. Sterilization or surgery is done with comparative ease and is virtually 100% effective. a.) Vasectomy
Is a relatively simple procedure in whichthe vas deferens, the tube through which sperms are transported is tied or cauterized. b.) Tubal Ligition

Is a major surgical p-rocedure in which the woman is put under general anaesthesia, a large abdominal incision is made, and the fallopian tubes are cut and tied off

Aborton
May be defined as the interruption of pregnancy before the fetus is mature enough to survive outside the womb (Perry, 1981)

Natural family Planning Methods
By: WHO
SOURCE: Natural Family Planning, pp. 10-18,22,24,26,28

* Reproduction depends on the fertilization of an egg by sperm. * In most cases, a single sperm can live for anywhere from 24 to 120 hrs. * The follicle that released the egg develops into the corpus luteum, which secretes estrogen and progesterone. *

* Endo metrium remain high for approximate 10-16 days before declining.

Woman’s Menstual Cycle.
(1.) Relatively Infertile phase that begins with menstuation. (2.) Fertile Phase which includes the day of circulation and those days immediately before and after the ovulation during which intercourse may result pregnancy. (3.) Post ovulatory Infertile phase, which begins when the fertile phase ends and lasts until menstruation starts.

= Male & Female Fertility =

* 24-120 hrs sperms live in this duration
* 12-24 hrs eggs live in this duration
* 2-6 days combined male and female fertility

= Description of Methods =
A.) Rhythm is one in which the probable of fertility rate are estimated from the cycle records of the 6-12 months. B.) Cervical mucucs method In order to use the cervical mucucs method.

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