We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Grammar and sentence structure Essay Sample

essay
The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all the help you need with your essay and educational goals.

Get Access

Grammar and sentence structure Essay Sample

Part 1: Grammar

a) When I arrived at the cinema, the film had started. (intermediate)

Meaning

We use the past perfect to talk about the relationship between events in the past. The past perfect indicates that an incident happened further back in the history than another game.
In this grammar and sentence structure ‘the film had started’ means that this action happened before the other actors ‘I arrived at the cinema.’

Concept Questions:

Are we talking about the past? (Yes)
How many actions are there in the past? (Two)
Did both activities happen at the same time? (No)
Did one response happen before the other? (Yes)
Which action occurred first? ( The film started)
Was I there when the movie started? (No)

Teaching contexts: e.g., A story about a girl going to the party late and missing many events that happened before her arrival.

Form

The film had started
Subject + had + past participle of the verb
Had is an auxiliary verb
Contraction is ( ‘d)

Pronunciation:

/ wen ˈaɪəˈraɪvdətðə ˈsɪnəməðə fɪlm həd ˈstɑːtɪd /
The weak form of had/həd/ is used.

Anticipated problems and solutions

  1. Problem: Students may confuse the past perfect with the present perfect tense.
    Solution: Draw a timeline displaying both tenses and ask CCQs to compare them.
  2. Problem: Students may perceive the past perfect as a difficult one and avoid using the auxiliary ‘had’ and say: ‘When I arrived at the cinema the film started.’
    Solution: Use timeline as a clarification to show the difference between the past perfect and the simple past tense. Create more teaching contexts so that they can practice it more.
  3. Problem: Students may think that the past perfect is used for ‘the distant past’ while the simple past is used for ‘the recent past.’
    Solution: Use CCQs and refer to the other example sentences from the text or context used to show that past perfect refers to the action that happened earlier among two activities.
  4. Problem: Students may emphasize the ‘had.’
    Solution: Mark the weak form and stress on the board. Model and drill.

    e.g., The film had started

b) I should have studied harder. (upper intermediate)

Meaning

In this grammar and sentence structure ‘ ‘should have studied’ means that I didn’t study hard enough in the past and I regret it now.
Concept Questions:
Do I refer back to past time? (Yes)
Did I study hard enough? (No)
Am I criticising myself? (Yes)
Am I upset because I did not study harder? (Yes)
Do I regret now? (Yes)

Teaching Contexts: e.g., Past Criticism: Now you are left alone since you have been very selfish to everyone around you.

Form:

Subject + modal verb (should) + have (auxiliary verb)+ past participle

Pronunciation:

I should have studied.
Should /ʃʊd/: It has one syllable.
Have /həv/ : It has one syllable.
Should’ve / ’ʃʊdəv/ : Contracted form. The stress is on the first syllable.
Studied /ˈstʌd.ıd/ : There are two syllables, and the stress is on the first syllable.
Sentence stress is placed on ‘should,’ and ‘studied.’ ‘Have’ is unstressed.

Anticipated problems and solutions

  1. Problem: Students may think that the action was done as the sentence is affirmative.
    Solution: Use CCQs and provide students with a list of scenarios that people regret not doing.
  2. Problem: Students might tend to use the bare infinitive form of the verb instead of using past participle.
    Solution: Write example sentences on the board with should and infinitive forms, cross out infinitive and write past participle form instead.
  3. Problem: Students may pronounce silent ‘l’ it should.
    Solution: Write ‘should’ on the board. Cover ‘l’ then model and drill.

Part 2: Vocabulary

a) I went to our local library yesterday vs. I went to our local bookshop yesterday. (elementary)

Meaning

Library: a room or building that contains a collection of books and other written material that you can read or borrow
Bookshop: a shop that sells books

Concept Questions:

Library: Can I keep the books? (Yes)
Do I have to return the books? (Yes)
Do I have to pay for the books? (No)
Can I read the books there? (Yes)
Bookshop: Can I keep the books? (Yes)
Do I have to return the books? (No)
Do I have to pay for the books? (Yes)

Teaching contexts: e.g., Comparing two students: One of them has money in his/her pocket and leads to a bookshop while the other one has no money and goes to a library.

Form

library : noun [ C ] , libraries (plural)
bookshop: noun [ C ], bookshops

Pronunciation

library /ˈlaɪbrəri/
bookshop: ​ /ˈbʊkʃɒp/

Anticipated problems and solutions

  1. Problem: Students may confuse the meaning of a library with the bookshop.
    Solution: Show their pictures. Create more teaching contexts and elicit answers by CCQs
  2. Problem: Students may mispronounce library as /lıbrarı/ or /lıbrærı/
    Solution: Model and drill it.

b) He gave up smoking. (pre-intermediate)

Meaning

Give up (sth): to stop the habit. If you give up a pattern such as smoking or give up something unhealthy such as alcohol, you end up doing it or having it:
Concept Questions:
Did he smoke in the past? (Yes)
Did he stop smoking? (Yes)
Does he burn now? (No)

Teaching contexts: e.g., A conversation between two old people who are talking about the lousy past habits that they gave up.

Form:

Subject + Verb + Particle + object
To give up sth: Phrasal verb (Verb + Preposition)
The gerund must be used when a verb comes after the preposition ‘up.’

Pronunciation:

Gave up /geivΛp/
The stress falls on the proposition ‘up.’

Anticipated Problems and solutions

  1. Problem: Students might tend not to use gerund form after the phrasal verb.
    Solution: Elicit and write the form on the board. Provide more examples based on students’ prior knowledge. (e.g., I am interested in playing the guitar. / I am good at cooking.)
  2. Problem: Students may place the stress on the verb gave instead of the preposition up
    Solution: Drill the sentence through the back-chaining. Start with the last word smoking and add up, gave and he.

(intransitive) To admit defeat, capitulate
OK, I give up, you win.

To stop trying to do something. They gave up without a fight. She doesn\’t give up easily. I give up—tell me the answer.

​References

  • Scrivener, J. (2010)Teaching English Grammar: Macmillan Publishers Limited
    Aitken R. (1992) Teaching Tenses: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd
  • Workman G. (2005) Concept Questions and Time Lines: Chadburn Publishing

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Peculiarities of various assignment types

The educational process is diverse and full of interesting writing tasks which help students develop their academic abilities. Different assignments types are created by professionals in order to enhance students’ level of analytical, critical and writing skills and to vary the learning process. As a student, you will encounter numerous tasks of diverse complexities throughout your student life. Sometimes, maybe, too complicated! They have different peculiarities, structural...

Making decisions in health and social care

Critically analyses the concepts, features, and importance of costs and accounting in making decisions in health and social care Cost accounting is a method used in accounting to capture a company’s or organisation’s production costs. It assesses the input costs of every step in production, fixed costs like depreciation of capital equipment. Cost accounting measures and records costs individually then compare the input results via...

Сhildren development

Physical development 7-12 years By the age of 7 a child enjoys things such as bike riding and rollerblading they are now able to tie and untie shoelaces without adult help, they are now starting to understand what rules are and are able to follow simple rules. At 8-12 years a child improves the physical skills that they have already developed and start to see...

Forex international trading market

Introduction Forex exchange is on the rise in Namibia; resulting in more people wanting to learn how to trade to try to increase their income so that they can enhance their standard of living. Forex Foreign exchange identifies the process of converting domestic currency into international banknotes at particular exchange rates (Bofah, 2017, para.1). As the number of foreigners in Namibia is increasing, more Namibians...

Aristotelian idea of God

This image produced in 1544 shows emerging's of the Judeo-Christians and Aristotelian's traditions. Aristotle was very interested in the idea of motion and said “The world is in a constant state of motion and change”. An example of how the world is changing is the growth of trees and plants. Aristotle believed in a prime mover, which is the being which creates change in the...

Get Access To The Full Essay
icon
300+
Materials Daily
icon
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
icon
Free Plagiarism
Checker
icon
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.
Sorry, but only registered users have full access

How about getting this access
immediately?

Become a member

Your Answer Is Very Helpful For Us
Thank You A Lot!

logo

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Can't find What you were Looking for?

Get access to our huge, continuously updated knowledge base

The next update will be in:
14 : 59 : 59
Become a Member