Harvard Referencing Guide Essay Sample
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Harvard Referencing Guide Essay Sample
The Harvard system is a popular referencing system for academic works and is Ah( often referred to as the ‘author/date’ system, which distinguishes it from the Vancouver or ‘numerical’ system. To be more specific, it is a system: *…in which names and dates are given in the body of the text and the references alphabetically at the end of the paper’ (Royal Society, 1965).
Reference: British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations for Citing and Referencing Published Materials. BS 5605: 1990. London: British Standards Institution.
Why is it important to reference in an approved manner?
Referencing is a way of giving credence to the subject being studied. It enables the author to honour certain responsibilities that the process of communicating scholarly knowledge places upon him/her. In addition to the professional courtesy of acknowledging sources used, referencing allows the work to be checked and verified and prevents criticisms regarding plagiarism. Intellectual property rights, as defined in the form of copyright laws, are also honoured.
What is a reference?
A statement in a text should be linked to the bibliographical details of the document that supports that statement. This is done via the use of a citation when quoting or alluding to a work that the author has consulted. Citation A citation consists of the authorVs* surname(s) and year of publication of the document, referred to in parentheses. If quoting directly or referring to a specific piece of information within a document, the page number should also be given — after the year of publication and within the parentheses. All citations given in the essay, thesis, article, etc. are listed alphabetically by surname in a reference list at the end of the work. Full bibliographical details are added to each citation, the result being a complete reference for each work that the author has consulted and to which he/she has referred. It is important to note that the reference list consists only of those works specifically referred to in the text. We shall take a reference to include: Quotation: A set of data describing a document or part of a document, sufficiently precise and detailed to identify it and to enable it to be relocated. Citation: (British Standards Institution, 1990, p. 3). Vnl 4. Nn 10
The first step is to obtain correct bibliographical details. Do not depend on the cover of a document, unless no other information can be found. Consult the title page and the back of the title page for the details set out below. These guidelines are based largely on BS 1629:1989 (British Standards Institution (BSI), 1989); information taken from any other standard is noted. Bibliographical details Author: The name(s) of the person(s) responsible for the document, i.e. a single author, multiple authors or corporate author. The corporate author, such as the editor of a collection of works, or the publishing body where no identifiable author exists, can be used. Date: Normally the year is sufficient, but for some items, e.g. a newspaper or patent document, the month and day can be supplied. If there is no date, but one can be ascertained, it should be supplied.
A guide to the Harvard referencing system The Harvard system s reference list consists only of those works cited within the body of the text. Details of additional reading should not be mixed with cited works. References should be set out in a list in the alphabetical order of the author’s/s’ sumame(s) and thereafter by initials^ and then chronologically by date of publication. exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark can be given, e.g. (16th century?). Where no date is given or can be found, (No date) or the .lbbrcviation (ND) should be stated. Title: Always use the title on the title piige. Give the full title, although the inclusion of the subtitle is optional. Journal titles should be given in full, with abbreviations used only in accordance with BS 4148 (BSI, 1985). If referring to a whole journal — not just an article within it — give the journal name and its International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), e.g. Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477.
Reference: Dickinson EJ (1991) Quality hospitals: the role of medical audit. Geriatric Medicine 21: 27-8, 31-2. Citations in the text # Use only the author*s/s’ surname(s) and year of publication, with the addition of page number(s) if required, e.g. (Swann, 1981, p. 10). # Where sense demands, the name of the author(s) can be incorporated into the text, e.g. Strauss and Ziegler (1975) outline the main goals of the Delphi technique, with Turoff (1970) identifying four secondary goals. # If two or more works by the same author(s) have the same publication date, they should be distinguished by adding lower case letters after the date, e.g. (Tschudin, 1992b). Finalised reference list
Edition: It is important to state second or further editions. In a reference to a reprint, the date of the reprint can be given after the date of that particular edition, e.g. (1796, reprinted 1810). The reprint date is often ignored. Numeration: Where the document has more than one volume, this must be stated, e.g. Vol. II, or for a journal: Vol. 6 (3)pp25-26, 28, 30-33. Publisher: Give the place/town of publication, followed by the publisher’s name. Journal articles and books are treated slightly differently. The elements of a book and journal article reference, as outlined in BS 5605:1990 (BSI, 1990) are given below. Book details # Author’s/s’ surname(s) plus initials 0 Year of publication # Title, underlined or in quotation marks # Material designation, if necessary, e.g. map, illustration # Edition # Volume number, if the book has more than one volume # Place of publication # Publisher’s name # Location element (for unpublished works). Example: Citation: (Llewellan-Jones, 1986). Reference: Llewellan-Jones, D (1986) Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 4th edn. Suffolk: Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd. Article details # Author’s/s’ surname(s) plus initials # Year of publication # Title of article # Title of journal, underlined # Volume number/part number/date of # Pagination Example: Citation: (Dickinson, 1991). issue
The Harvard system’s reference list consists only of those works cited within the body of the text. Details of additional reading should not be mixed with cited works. References should be set out in a list in the alphabetical order of the author’s/s’ surname(s) and thereafter by initials, and then chronologically by date of publication. Ensure that full bibliographical details are given for each item listed and that letters used to distinguish works by the same author(s) with the same publication date are included. Examples: British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations For Citing and Referencing Published Material (BS 5605:1990). 2nd edn. London: British Standards Institution. Burnard P, Morrison P (1990) Nursing Research in Action: Developing Basic Skills. London: Macmillan. Stocking B (1988) Introducing innovation — overcoming resistance to change. In: A Bowling, ed. The Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press: 57-65 Tschudin V (1992a) Ethics in Nursing. 2nd edn. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. Tschudin V (1992b) Values: A Primer for Nurses. London: Baillière Tindall.
Joint authors A work by two or more authors should be referred to by up to two names and thereafter with the use of the first-named author followed by ‘et al’, meaning ‘and others*. Example: A citation would read as follows:
(Brown and Smith, 1989) or !„..-„„! „f
A guide to the Harvard referencing system
(Atkinson et al, 1990). ‘Et al’ may be used in the reference list, but for thoroughness, all authors can be listed. Collection of works by various authors A work consisting of contributions by different authors is referenced under the editor’s name. The word editor goes before the year of publication. Example: Reference: Bowling A, ed. 1988 Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press. Citation: (Bowling, 1988). Quotations from an article published as part of a collection should be referenced under the author of the particular article or chapter, followed by the year and title of the article/chapter. The word ‘in’ should immediately follow these details, followed by the full bibliographical details of the book itself, with the addition of page numbers of the particular article. Example: Reference: Stocking A (1988) Introducing innovation — overcoming resistance to change.
In: Bowling A, ed. Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press: 57-65. Citation: (Stocking, 1988). Corporate authorship Reports that are not the responsibility of an individual(s) should be listed under the name of the body responsible for publication. Example: Citation: (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1966). Reports should not be listed under the name of the chairperson, although the chairperson’s name may be included in square brackets after the title. Example: ‘The Salmon Report’. Reference: Ministry of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department (1966) Report of the Committee on Senior Nursing Staff Structure [Chairperson: B. Salmon] or [Salmon Report]. London: HMSO. Citation: (Ministry of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department, 1966). Pseudonyms Use the pseudonym. Put the real name in square brackets after if this is desired (BSI, 1989).
Anonymous works For cited documents with no originator ‘anon’ should be used (BSI, 1990). Unpublished works Unpublished works often present problems. Tr}’ to obtain as many bibliographical details as possible, paying particular attention to location information of an item and to obtaining written permission to use papers and letters. Papers printed in published proceedings of meetings or conferences are referenced as chapters/articles in a book (See ‘Collection of works by various authors’ above). Below are the elements of a reference for an unpublished work, as outlined in BS 6371:1983 (BSI, 1983): 1. First term of the descriptive element 2. Date 3. Remainder of descriptive element 4. Location element. First term of the descriptive element:
This should detail the originator of the work and can be a name, a person’s title or office, or the organisation by or for which the document was originated. Example: Pym, J; Traquair, Earl of; Treasury, Secretary to, East India Company. Date: If no date (No date) or (ND) should be used. Remainder of the descriptive element: Title: Use the official title given either on the document, or the title given by the repository or the popular title. If no title is available, a supplied title can be given. This should at least contain the name, place or subject of the document and/or an indication of the type of document, such as a diary, will or letter. Example: Letter to Marquess of Hamilton. Lease of land in Hog Lane, Holborn. Matertal designation: microfilm, gravestone, photocopy. Location element: this should contain the data required to obtain access to the document, i.e. the place, the repository and the
A reference is a set of data describing a document or part thereof that enabies it to be identified and located. A referencing system enables statements in a text to be linked to the bibiiographical details of the documents that support those statements. The Harvard, or author/date system Is a system ‘in which names and dates are given in the body of the text and the references are given alphabetically at the end of the paper’ (Royal Society, 1965). A reference iist contains oniy those works referred to specifically in the text. Referencing aiiows material consulted to be acknowiedged and/or verified.
A guide to the Harvard referencing system
call number. The place will be the name of the city, town, village, etc. nnd where the document is kept; the repository is the name of the individual or institution owning, or with custody of, the cited document. Full name and postal address should be given. The call number entails a code number, or if none is assigned by the custodian, a description to aid location within the repository. A document may, of course, contain full bibliographical details. In this case, if consent to use has been given, reference as a published work, but include the name of a library or other repository known to hold a copy as the location element. Examples: East India Company, writers’ petitions, petition of Alexander Dalrymple 1 November 1752: London; India Office Library and Records. J/I/1, Fol. 341-342. Jones R (1976) Ecological Study of the Glens. PhD Diss. Belfast: University of Antrim: Deptanment of Geology. Second-hand references This problem area is not addressed in any of the British Standards relating to referencing. Generally, the rule followed is that, wherever possible, quote from original sources. However, if this is not possible, use the following criteria as found in Burnard and Morrison (1990) and the Royal Society (1965). When citing in the text, use the term ‘cited by* followed by the reference for the work m which it is quoted. Citation example: (Schweer, cited by Harrison, 1992, p. 774). In the reference list, the entry will be made for the Harrison publication. Reference example: Harrison T (1992) Creativity in nurse education. British Journal of Nursing 6 (15): 774-777.
Other methods of citing publications by bibliographical references are available. The Vancouver, or ‘numerical’ system, is another very well-known method. Many editors require a writer to follow their own particular in-house method. Whatever system is chosen, it is important to use it in a consistent manner. Writers embarking on research or writing for publication should record references in full at the time of consultation. This will prevent having to backtrack at a later date when the reference list is being compiled.
British Standards Institution (1983) British Standard Institution, London British Standards Institution (1985) Abbreviation of Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents. BS 6371:1983. British Standards Title Words and Titles of Publications. BS
4148:1985. British Standards Institution, London British Standards Institution (1989) British Standard
Recommendations for References to Published Materials. BS 1629:1989. British Standards Institution, London British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations for Citing and Referencing Published Materials. BS 5605:1990. 2nd edn. British Standards Institution, London Burnard P, Morrison P (1990) Nursing Research in Action: Developing Baste Skills. Macmillan, London Royal Society (1965) General Notes on the Preparation of Scientific Papers. 2nd edn. Royal Society, London
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