The History of Tamil Nadu consists of the rise of the different kingdoms under the then rulers. History of Tamil Nadu is a witness to the rise and fall of the several dynasties under their able and incompetent rulers. The Chola dynasty rose in power in Tamil Nadu between the 1st and 4th centuries. Karikalan was the first and one of the famous ruler of the Cholas. Later in the 9th century, the Cholas regained power under Vijayalaya Chola.
Rajaraja Chola was the greatest ruler among the later Chola rulers. It is during his reign that the architecture reached the pinnacle. Rajendra Chola I was the successor and the son of the ablest ruler Rajaraja Chola. He further expanded the kingdom of the Cholas and consolidated the empire as well. He even established a new capital called Gangaikondancholapuram to commemorate a political victory.
The Pandyas that came to prominence after overthrowing a decaying Chola empire. The Cholas were mainly known for their administrative capabilities, for the different constructions in the kingdom and for their aesthetic senses.
The Pandyas is considered to found the city of Madurai. This dynasty is well known in the History of Tamil Nadu for establishing trade contacts with the Romans and the Greeks. Their rule came to an end in the 14th century as they were completely shattered by the Muslim invasion.
The Cheras is one of the dynasties that ruled in the western part of Tamil Nadu. With their fall, the Vijayanagara empire was established to counter the Muslim force in Tamil Nadu. The Nayakas of this empire re-established peace and glory in the state till the British colonialism.