The monkey is a small, lively, intelligent mammal. There are nearly two hundred kinds of monkeys, most of which live in the warm parts of the world. Unlike many other animals, monkeys can see both in depth and in color. So, have you ever wondered what certain monkeys look like, how they sleep, their life expectancy in captivity verses wild, what they eat, where they live, and how many kids do they have at one time? Well, if so it is your lucky day because that is what I am going to be talking about in my paper. Spider monkeys are mostly dark brown and black all over, they have long tails, spindly legs, little pot bellies, little heads, long hands and bare feet. The life expectancy of a spider monkey living in captivity is four to six years, whereas in the wild, it is up to forty years. The spider monkeys prefer ripe fruits and leaves, but will eat nuts, seeds, insects, and some eggs. They live in dense, wet, tropical forests and crash through the canopy barking and screaming to other members of their pack. This type of monkey, at night, gather in groups as large as thirty-five to sleep clustered together in the trees. Spider monkeys have one baby every three to four years, or when she is ready to reproduce again. One thing you may not know about this monkey is that is only has four fingers, which means that it does not have a thumb.
“The black spider monkey is an essential part of the tropical rainforest ecosystem. They play a key role in seed dispersal, allowing their forest environment to continue to grow and thrive.” This monkey is also a skilled acrobat. It can cover thirty feet in one flying leap. The spider monkey is a New World monkey. Next I am going to talk about the Emperor Tamarin. “Emperor Tamarin’s were named after the Emperor of Germany, Emperor Wilhelm II. Taxidermists liked to play with these monkeys and twist up their mustaches to look like the Emperor instead of letting them droop in their natural position. Swiss zoologist Goeldi gave the species the name of “emperor” as a joke, but the name stuck and was soon given the Latin name of “Saguinas imperator”. Their claws are believed to be an adaptation to their environment instead of a vestigial trait of their phylogenetic ancestors.” The Emperor Tamarin’s body is grey-brown with a red-brown tail. The forehead, crown, cheeks and temples are all covered with long hair. The long white mustache extends to the shoulders when laid back. They have a non-prehensile tails and round nose with widely separated nostrils. The forelimbs are shorter than the hind limbs. The life expectancy of the monkey in the wild is between ten to forty years, as in captivity it is seventeen point nine.
The Emperor Tamarin eats fruit, tender vegetation, insects, spiders, small vertebrates, and bird eggs. This type of monkey lives in the northern Amazon Basin, southeastern Peru and northwest of Bolivia. They are often found in tropical vine canopy forests, open woodlands, and secondary growth. The Emperor Tamarin sleep in large isolated trees near the other group members. They normally give birth to twins although single and triplets also occur. The infants weigh nineteen percent of the mother’s weight. “The father (usually both males of the group since the exact father cannot be determined) usually helps with the baby’s birth, receiving it at the end of parturition and washing it. A newborn Emperor is completely helpless, weighs approximately 1.2 oz. (35 g.), and has a coat of short hair. A mother feeds her baby every 2-3 hours for about a half hour each time, after which she returns the baby to the father. The babies ride on the backs of their parents for 6-7 weeks, and at around 2-3 months of age they go through a weaning period.” In captivity, the monkeys love to be rubbed and played with. To get more extra petting attention; they will lie upon their backs in hope that someone will eventually pet them.
The third monkey I will be talking about is the Orangutan. The Orangutan is a rare ape that has bright orange fur that is long, coarse, and spares and it covers their arms and bodies. The life expectancy of the Orangutan in captivity is about fifty to sixty years, but in the wild it is only thirty to forty-five years. Orangutans eat mostly fruit, but they also eat flowers, honey, bark, leaves, and insects. They live in Indonesia and Malaysia on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. The orangutan lives in tress, and rarely comes down to the ground. It moves carefully through the forest by climbing from branch to branch with its arms. The orangutans sleep in a nest in the trees which they make every day from leaves and branches. These nests are from twenty to eighty feet above the ground. They live in groups of from two to five. These groups may not always stay together. Sometime the animals travel through the forest alone. These types of monkeys have very low reproduction rate. They have about one baby every six to eight years.
The mother will not begin mating again until the infant is about four years old. One thing about orangutans that most humans don’t know is that the orangutans share about ninety-seven percent of their genetic material with humans. The name orangutan comes from a Malaya word meaning man of the wood. The orangutan stands from three to five feet tall. The male orangutans may weigh from one hundred fifty pounds to two hundred pounds, and may have an arm spread of seven and a half feet, one of the largest of all the apes. Females are only about half as large as males. The orangutan’s arms reach to its ankles when the animal stands. The orangutan is very peaceful, powerful and silent. Man is their main enemy. Male Orangutans are the most solitary. They are intolerant of each other in adulthood and will threaten one another using long calls, starring, shaking of tree branches, and inflating their laryngeal throat pouches. Sometimes these encounters can escalade to combat and even to the death of them. Sexual contact with females is the only interaction that males have and it will only last for a few weeks when females are receptive to mating.
After contact, males will abandon females a few days after a female becomes pregnant. The chimpanzee is the next monkey that I am going to discuss. A chimpanzee looks somewhat like a small hairy man. A full-grown chimpanzee may be five feet tall and weigh as much as one hundred eighty pounds. It has a broad chest and long, powerful arms. Its hands look like human hands with short thumbs. Its legs are short too. Its big toes face the other toes like thumbs, enabling it to grasp objects with its feet in climbing. They do not have tails and usually walk on all fours, supporting the upper part of the body with the knuckles of its hands. Long black hair covers its body. Its face and hands are pink or black. The life expectancy of chimps in captivity is over sixty years, but in the wild it is forty to fifty years. Chimpanzees eat plants, fruits, seeds, nuts, leaves, and flowers. A wanderer by nature, the chimpanzee roams far in search of food. They also eat insects and larger animals that they have hunted and killed.
The chimp lives in central and west-central Africa, in the tropical rainforests. Every night they build nests high in the trees and tuck themselves in for a good night’s sleep. The chimpanzee spends much of its day in tress. But it spends more time on the ground than any other ape besides the gorilla. Most mothers give birth to one young at an average of every five to six years in the wild. Young chimps stay with their mothers up until the age of ten. They are curious and excitable, and they also enjoy playing when young. Chimpanzees have excellent memories, and enough mechanical skill to enable them to make simple tools. They have been known to put two sticks together and pile up boxes in order to reach food. They make excellent performers in animal shows, motion pictures, and television shows because they are intelligent and they are good imitators. Chimps usually live in small bands that split up and reunite at irregular intervals. The last monkey I am going to discuss is the tufted capuchin. This monkey has a black or dark brown cap with dark sideburns. There are dark tufts above the ears, and the shoulders are paler. The face can range from brown to pink.
The life expectancy of the tufted capuchin in captivity is forty-five years, but the typical life span in the wild is unknown. The tufted capuchin eats fruits, vegetation, seeds, pith, eggs, insects, reptiles, birds, and small mammals (such as mouse opossums). This type of monkey is relatively common in the forests and rainforests in South America. Tufted capuchins sleep wedged between branches. They usually live in groups from two to forty. They have one young at a time, rare but possible they can have twins. Seeing how the tufted capuchins are very social, they form groups from eight to fifteen members. “These monkeys scent mark themselves by washing their hands in their own urine and rubbing their hands on their fur. This may be a way for males to advertise their sexual maturity. Female brown capuchin monkeys in estrus try to attract the attention of the dominant male by following him and making loud calls.
A wide variety of vocalizations is known from Cebu’s species. These were divided into 4 categories in C. olivaceus: contacting the group, contacting individuals, ending aggressive encounters, alerting the group to the presence of danger.” Capuchin is the common group of New World monkeys. New World monkeys are smaller and lighter than most of their Old World relatives. Many New World monkeys can grasp with their tails. They use the tail to swing through trees like talented acrobats. Some experts consider them the most intelligent New World monkeys. For example, capuchins can learn how to use sticks to bring food closer to them. Capuchins express themselves by shrieks and chattering sounds. The intelligent capuchin monkey is often trained as a circus performer.