1.Rene Descrates adalah bapak filsafat modern yang dianggap telah memberikan suatu fondasi kepastian bagi pengembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan. Pertanyaan: Apakah yang saudara ketahui tentang pokok-pokok pikiran Logika Baru yang diawali oleh Rene Descartes? Bagaimana pengaruh Logika Descartes bagi pengembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan? It is no exaggeration to say that Descartes, philosopher and scientist, was the most influential thinker in the XVII century. As already noted, in the 40’s Descartes widely spread in the Netherlands universities. After his death, the influence of Cartesianism efforts – not only in France, but also in other countries in Western Europe, despite the fact that 1663 all the works of the philosopher have been made to the papal “Index Banned Books, “and in 1671 by the decree of Louis XIV Descartes was allowed to teach in schools of France. In accordance with various parties Cartesianism his influence was seen in the works various philosophers. Descartes was a rationalist approach to systematic development book of his followers and friends Pascal Arnaud and Nicolas “Logic or art of thinking “(1662: the so-called” Logic of Port-Royal “).
The logic close to the mathematics, science is treated here as the acquisition of new truths of the real nature of the study. Rejecting the subtleties traditional formal logic, the authors of “The Logic of Port-Royal” saw home purpose logic in formulating strict judgment. The greatest influence of Descartes demonstrated in this work in the introduction of the method of teaching both the important branch of logic. The four rules of the method of Descartes were interpreted here the methods of analysis and synthesis. The first of them is treated as a method of opening new regulations by careful observation and dissection of things and phenomena, and thus a simple and clear truth, absolutely than the uncertainty and darkness of scholastic universals.
More However, the value of the authors of “Logic of Port-Royal ‘attached to synthetic (or theoretical) method, by which the transition from the most general and simple to the less common and more complex. In the context of the doctrine of method formulated rules for definitions, axioms, and proofs. If in fact the scientific side of Cartesianism during the life of its founder has won many supporters in Utrecht, Leiden and other universities in the Netherlands, the general spirit of his rationalism and regulations metaphysics had an impact on some Protestant theologians. In French Jansenists circles – the Semi Protestant movement in Catholicism Rethink on the idea of Augustine – Cartesianism also became influential doctrine. In such a way Descartes left a bright trace in the history of philosophical thought and has had a serious impact on the development of science era new time.
2.Dalam dialektika ilmu pengetahuan dikatakan bahwa: “dalam perkembangan ilmu dewasa ini sebenarnya tidak ada ilmu yang dapat mandiri secara penuh, melainkan saling membutuhkan satu sama lain. Tidak ada ilmu yg mampu menjelaskan suatu realitas secara utuh, karenanya dibutuhkan kerjasama antar ilmu, namun bukan hal yang mudah. Setiap ilmu berbeda karena objek formalnya memang berbeda, sehingga menyulitkan untuk mengkoordinasikan cara-cara kerja yang memang berbeda satu sama lain”. Pertanyaan: bagaimana kerjasama antar ilmu pengetahuan dan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan di Indonesia dapat dijelaskan dalam kaitan dengan tiga bentuk kerjasama antar ilmu van Melsen (1985), yakni: multidisipliner, interdisipliner, dan integrasi?
3. Dikatakan bahwa filsafat tidak statis & tidak berdiri sendiri, namun berkembang, dinamis serta terbuka untuk menjadi landasan, menyapa & berdialog dengan berbagai disiplin ilmu pengetahuan dalam mengarahkan kembali kepada berpikir kritis kefilsafatan. Pertanyaan: Jelaskan bagaimana filsafat dapat berperan dalam pengembangan berbagai disiplin Ilmu Pengetahuan dewasa ini, antara lain dengan mengembalikan kepada tujuan filsafat ilmu! Philosophy of science – an area the general philosophy that studies the methods that are used by scientists to suggest hypotheses and formulate laws based on the collected facts and basic principles of research, based on which the scientist can build a proof of the truth of his theory. While scientists are more closed in the circle of his private interests, philosophers, not paying attention to the details of specific studies, sought to draw a general picture of the world, and have focused their efforts on finding common principles and began scientific knowledge.
We can say that the philosophy of science is a reflection on science. However, the problems of this reflection and the essence of philosophy of science are understood differently. a) Some authors define it as a kind of philosophy, which is based on the results and methods of science (Rudolf Carnap, Mario Bunge); b) Others believe that the philosophy of science is the link between the natural sciences and the humanities (Philipp Frank); c) Still others say that the task of philosophy of science is methodological analysis of scientific knowledge (Imre Lakatos). Science as a subject of study includes a broad subject field, consisting of various elements – problems. You can say that the subject field of the philosophy of science is made up of certain issues or problems.
In our view, it is impossible to limit the problem domain and the philosophy of science by any one feature or function. It is a holistic analysis of science as a system of knowledge and human activity, and therefore includes the study of various aspects of science, the history of its development and the work of the scientist. However, at different stages of its development philosophy of science focuses on various issues of interest. At the beginning of its formation, it was occupied by: * building a holistic picture of the world;
* study the relation of causality and determinism;
* study of statistical and dynamic patterns;
* ratio of different methods of scientific thinking: logic and intuition, induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis of theory and fact.
At the second stage (in the XX century) dominated problems: * empirical foundations of science and the role of empirical research in scientific knowledge; * Reveals the ratio of the empirical and theoretical levels of science; * Increasing competition of different models of science;
* attempts are made to reconstruction logic of scientific inquiry;
In the third stage (the end of XX century):
* discusses the new concept of scientific rationality, the new content
becoming scientific criteria; * Updated sound is the question of the social and cultural determination of scientific knowledge; * Become actual problems of humanization of scientific knowledge. * Continue to discuss the problem of growth of scientific knowledge, a paradigm shift, scientific revolutions, changes in scientific theories; * Clarifies the structure of scientific knowledge;
* The relation of rational and intuitive science, trying to understand the algorithm of discovery; * Develop and scientific methods, an attempt to classify and detect relationships; * Study the problem of language of science;
* Reviews the activities of the scientist, the ratio of the objectified and subjective-personal skills; * Investigate sociocultural functions and status of science in society. Modern philosophy of science serves as the missing link between the natural sciences and the humanities, and is trying to understand the place of science in modern civilization to cross multiple relations to ethics, politics, and religion. Thus the philosophy of science, and performs general cultural function, not allowing scientists to be ignorant when specific professional approach to the phenomena and processes. It calls to pay attention to the philosophical level to every problem, and therefore the relationship of thought to reality in its entirety.
All of the problems which, being addressed by philosophy, can be divided into three types. The first group is formed problems in moving from philosophy to science. That is, they are based on the specificity of philosophy. This leads to the formulation of the questions very general, when the initial study principles of scientific knowledge, the underlying mechanisms and the foundations of science. Ideological positions play an important role in this kind of problems that influence the choice of the methodological basis of the research.
The second group of problems arise in science itself but scientific means is unsolvable, so attracted by the possibility of philosophy. This group of problems included the issues related to the cognitive activity, the general principles of knowledge, developed in line with the philosophy and their own philosophical tools used to solve scientific problems.
4. Ada pernyataan bahwa: Penerapan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi selalu memerlukan pertimbangan-pertimbangan dari dimensi etis yg mempengaruhi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi ke depan; Tanggung jawab etis selalu berhubungan dengan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi; Filsafat dapat berperan untuk menjawab perihal pengembangan teknologi yang mengalami pergeseran atas nama pragmatisme dan materialisme.
Pertanyaan: Bagaimana pemikiran etika atau filsafat moral dapat mempengaruhi pengembangan etika dalam ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi untuk membangun masyarakat berbudaya ilmiah? Beri contoh aktual dan relevan yang saudara ketahui!
The sphere of the philosophy of technology and applications include tasks and problems, for example. Such as determining the principles of science and technological politics, the development of the methodology of science and technology, humanitarian and technical expertise, the methodology of scientific and technological forecasting, etc. At the dawn of this discipline (in the context. 19th – early 20.) similar to the philosophy of technology applications, although quite large, the problems were not included.
An important methodological problem is the problem of the philosophy of technology limits its reduction to such realities, as an activity, forms of technical rationality, values certain aspects of culture. Many basic definitions of art, which are given in the philosophy of technology, it is “desobjectivation ” technique seems to disappear, her substitute some form of activity, values spirit, and cultural aspects, etc. On the one hand, such a reduction is a necessary moment and prerequisite knowledge of technology, on the other hand, the danger of losing any specific technology as the object of study. “Desobjectivation” technique sometimes goes so far that the technique is both deep and global aspects of all human activity and culture, and not as something substantial, usually we intuitively mean, talking about technology. In connection with this occurs dilemma: is technology independent reality, or does it have other being something else, just the spirit aspect, human activity, or culture, etc.
In recent years new problem arose – the analysis of the cultural and historical changes in the understanding and perception of art. Studies show that, for example: In archaic culture tools, simple mechanisms and structures were understood animistic worldview. Ancient people thought that the instruments are present spirits to help or hinder a person. The development of the technology in modern culture has led to the fact that modern man sees in the art to the laws of nature and their own engineering work. And it’s not limited to a particular interpretation of the technology – it’s about her cultural existence and being. Understood as a spirit, technique lives on the same “logic”, has some degree of freedom, understood as the manifestation of the divine creation (medieval interpretation) – on the other “logic”, understood as the process (power, energy) of nature – in the third.
The philosophy of technology is used in a number of areas, for example. in the system of economic management (examination of scientific and technical projects, consulting, forecasting, etc.), in different fields of science and technology, finally, in the humanities (such as the time of reflection, technical and technological side of humanitarian work and thinking).