Population distribution is how people are dispersed over a given area. Population distribution is measured by persons per square kilometer. An area (or country) can be densely populated, which means there is a high concentration of persons per square kilometer, or sparsely populated, which means there is a low concentration of persons per square kilometer. The distribution of population can be influenced by both physical and human factors. Physical factors include relief, climate, vegetation, soil, natural resources, water supplies and natural roads. Human factors include economy, politics and social factors.
India’s population is not evenly distributed. The outer parts of the country have a higher population density than the center. The north east is the most densely populated area. The Northwest and center of the country are the most sparsely populated areas. The most densely populated places are cities in the northeastern part of india around the Ganges river, that leads to the sea, where the plains of Ganga are. These cities include Calcutta and Lucknow. Bombay, the most populated city in India, is located in the western coast of the country, in the Western Ghats. Another of the biggest cities, Bangalore, is located where the Penner and Palar rivers meet, in the south of India, in the verge of the Eastern Ghats. The capital, New Dehli, was placed in the north west of the country, where the Yammuna river flows, near the verge of the Plains of Ganga. One of the most sparsely populated areas is in the Great Indian Desert or Thar Desert, in the northwest, where the altitude is less than 200 meters and there are no great rivers flowing. The center of India, with no densely populated cities, is home to the Saptura and the Vindhyan Ranges, as well as the Deccan Plateau. The northeast part of India, where the Himalayas rise, is a very sparsely populated region.
India’s population is distributed in this certain way due to human and physical factors that affect where people live. • Physical Factors:
India has different reliefs and terrains, with mountains and plains, rivers and deserts, forests and grasslands, etc.. Calcutta and Lucknow, two populated cities in the northeast are located in the plains of Ganga, and river valleys of the Ganges river. The areas consist of scrubland. These factors are good for the development of agriculture and provide a stable place to create a settlement. The river also connects important cities and leads to the ocean, which serves as a link to other cities and countries. On the other side, the Thar Desert is one of the most sparsely populated regions of India. This is because it is a desert and the water supplies are unreliable. There is limited annual rainfall and there are no natural roads.
This prevents crops from growing, and the communication to other cities is not good. Even though Bangalore is located near Nilgiri Hills, which would be a negative factor to its dense population, it sits where two rivers meet, the Penner and Palar, and they both flow to the ocean, serving as a natural route, as well as a water source. Its vegetation consists of grassland, which is great for agriculture and livestock. The Saptura and the Vindhyan Ranges create a sparsely populated region for the relief is high and the soils are mountainous, impeding the harvest of crops, and making it harder to make a settlement. In the northeast, near the Himalayas, has very high altitudes, with mixed forest to alpine tundra vegetation. There are no rivers flowing through this region, and there is a low annual temperature. This does not support agriculture and livestock, and it makes it harder to create settlements there. Human Factors:
Calcutta, New Delhi, Lucknow and Mumbai all have ports and several roads and highways that connect them to other cities. Tourism flourishes in these cities, for they are internationally known as popular tourist attractions. New Delhi, Calcutta and Mumbai have airports, which allow the communication between cities and the flourish of tourism and international industry. All of these factors convert these cities into densely populated areas. Conversely, the Great Indian Desert has no ports, since it has no rivers flowing through it. There are not many major roads linking it to other cities. The Saptura and the Vindhyan Ranges, as well as the Himalayas have the same problem. They do not have many major roads, for it is very mountainous, and the rivers flowing through it are too small or non-existent, preventing them to be used as transport.
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