The aim is to highlight on the design for a website for Garage that does not have online booking system. The online booking system would facilitate all the customers to purchase and view availability details online. The discussion of the various technologies and the World Wide Web (www) is taken up to its fullest extent.
The second section would make the web technology concepts quite clear so that they are able to envelope the various methods for making the website and the technologies concerned for giving it a greater dimension.
The following are the various objectives which are likely to be noted for the paper:
- To identify the various merits and the demerits of the various implications of the website for online booking system
- To deeply integrate and understand the web methodologies required for getting the website done
- To explore the various web server side languages and the importance of Human Computer Interface
- Figure out the user requirements and the various elements which make the website get rated on high usability
1.3. Research Methods
Pervez & Kjell (2005) defines as: “we must ourselves collect the data that are relevant to our particular study and research problem.” Primary is the original data, which includes observations, experiments, surveys and interviews. The primary source for the paper is the textbooks and various journals which provide originality and include observations, surveys and interviews.
Pervez & Kjell (2005) defines as: “Secondary data are useful not only to find information to solve our research problem, but also to better understand and explain our research problem.” Mostly research with literature review includes journal articles, online data sources such as Internet web sites. The secondary source for the paper would be the web related material which provides validated content and updated information source analysis for the paper.
The primary kind of research to be undertaken is to explore the uses of the website and the various web technologies which can be used for facilitating the various processes for getting the users operate with ease.
The entire paper is decomposed into various sections namely understanding of the web and its history, the various web technologies and the client and server side merits for the paper. The final section makes sure that usability issues are catered to its very best.
The first section makes sure that understanding of the web and the related history and the various technologies which makes it possible for it to gain an upper hand in the engineering of the website for the Garage for online booking system. The various client and server side technologies make it possible to get the various concepts to enable the arising of diverse attitude for capitalizing on the technological concepts. The identification of various front end and back end technologies make sure that proper adherence is done for the website and for the very decomposition of the business functions.
The second section takes up the usability issues for the website and the very making of the human interaction successful. The various complexities and the methodologies to be followed would make sure that proper understanding and the devising of the user outlook must be done to cooperate with the user desires for better usage of the site and the complex functionality of the various functions which it desires to produce.
1.5. Benefits of website
The benefits of the website can be as follows:
- The website will be able to cover the customer base well by spreading the good word of the company over the internet.
- It will be able to spread the Garage business over a large domain of customers which may range from home users to institutional buyers.
- The awareness of the company stands very important so that people get a chance to compare it with the competitors.
- The supply chain can be well managed.
- The customer information can be stored and managed well so that they are focused when catering repeat orders and services. The data will also serve as rich information to the degree of importance which a customer must obtain.
- Diversifications into other businesses are very important for business continuity and should be taken care really well to fetch more customers and provide them better and allied services for retention and indirect marketing.
- Most importantly the services can be rendered to a large variety of customers across a geographical region with B2B and B2C models.
- The feedback system can also be added so that future caterings can be handled better.
- The total sales and profit can be easily captured and produced to management with ease reducing a lot of manual operations.
- People can access the online store at their convenience and make payment through credit card or other means at their convenience.
1.6. Problems with website
The various identifiable problems with the website would make sure that they are taken care for the website:
- Website can be vulnerable to various forms of security flaws created by internal and external agencies for getting the functions done.
- Social engineering: The best way to get it done is the use of fake names and pretending to be internet service providers.
- Installing Trojans: They are malicious invisible programs which monitor keystrokes and file paths.
- Others: The proper amount of care must be taken in safeguarding the website towards online threats from malicious users who trap valuable information for either tampering them or for stealing them for illegal use.
- Software Flaws: The software flaws with the website makes sure that performance is at stake and must be avoided at any cost by following sound engineering principles:
- Bugs: The software bugs would compose a lot of loopholes where security factor may weaken due to greater functionalities of the software which makes it to track back the processes already undergone.
- Secure servers: Sometimes the server technologies are not secure enough to display websites which make it a more erroneous.
- Antivirus software: A lot of antivirus software makes the website flawless; again expired antivirus software would make the website quite vulnerable to malicious programs.
- Firewalls: It helps in reducing security risks and also covers port to port.
- Information security: Information in the websites must be locked and should be kept secure so that no malicious or external harmful program is able to alter it to mislead or represent wrong information.
- Secure communication protocol: Using “https” would make sure that information exchanged would be safely done and managed well (Ghosh, 2001).
- Detecting and removing flaws: Regular flaw detection software must be employed so that they are corrected instantly.
- Database handling: The security features can be handled by the database itself so that the data rules are strictly adhered to when working with the database in adding and deleting data.
- Implementing views: The database is able to create views for every group of user so that they are able to access data only to the extent of their privileges and not the entire data itself. Restricting the data at the user level makes it quite viable to secure the right kind of information and enforce data security and warehousing.
- Encryption: To make a website secure financial data and payment transactions, encryption must be properly implemented.
- Public key encryption: The transfer of secret information from one to another would make the transfer secure so that no other person is able to tap the message. It includes algorithms which make sure that the information reaches to the intended recipient only (Rayport, 2003).
2. Literature Review
2.1. The Internet
It can be interpreted as a network or networks which pools and creates a bigger place for retrieving information.
2.1.1. A brief history
The Internet was due to the fact that some researchers at MIT sought an opportunity to share information research and development in scientific and military fields across computers and that grew large to envelope larger computers and server and then networks successfully. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to make it happen. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and later UCLA developed the theory of packet switching to communicate in the internet.
2.1.2. World Wide Web
W3C.org (2008b) mentions that the entire world of internet is bound by the protocol www which belongs to a consortium called the w3c.org. It specifies that all the information over the web operates on interoperable technologies such as specifications, guidelines which drives web to its full potential.
2.1.3. Search Engine Optimization
The successful use of keywords for searching the internet for information would make sure that all the information is displayed for stance. The use of various keywords for a particular document would make sure all the information is procured at request.
The Google search takes into account the various rules for getting the job done. It checks for various content related information and gets the information out as mentioned by Hedger (2005).
2.1.4. The Internet
As discussed the internet is a network of networks which combines and connects with all the major and minor servers of the world to retrieve information and promote visibility to a website over the large internet.
The browsers facilitate the web page to be displayed on the user screen. The process is as follows:
- The user types or request the name of the website
- Once the name is entered and pressed, it goes to the concerned DNS server in the network to resolve the domain name with the equivalent IP address
- Once the IP address is resolved, the various routers in the process is fetched for procuring information
- The requested page is then stored in the computers hard disk and is ready to get displayed to the browser.
The standard browsers in the process are Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Netscape Mozilla, SeaMonkey, etc.
The hyperlink is a concept in HTML which allows navigation to various other web pages for getting their information to be distributed among pages.
For any website which is quite big in content, hyperlinks make it possible to create various web pages for getting the additional information on the various issues.
2.2. Adobe Dreamweaver CS3 supports CSS, XSLT and W3S
2.2.1. What are CS3, CSS, XSLT and W3S?
CS3 is a package of various technologies which enables user to create a digital photography and enable functions like smart filters, quick selection tools, refinement of edges, vanishing points, auto-aligning of layers, auto blend layers, camera raw view ad many more which are tools to enhance the photos and produce them for enhanced printing an mentioned in W3C.org (2008a)..
CSS is an embedded language of HTML which can add style to documents. It is a template which combines text, colors, fonts, spacing and many others. It save the development and implementation time for web pages. If a page desires to inherit the features similar to the homepage to maintain the usable features it can simply redirect to its source for getting the job done (W3Schools.com, 2008a).
XSLT is an XML style sheet which basically speaks about how an XML document is desired to be displayed. It transforms an XML document to another XML document.
2.2.2. Advantages and disadvantages of their use?
The advantages of using them are to enhance the use and development of the web pages so that users and developers are at ease.
The disadvantages are the various components which make it quite dependent on the development of web sites and includes further adherence to specific rules for its adaptability.
2.3. Human computer Interaction?
2.3.1. Why it’s important to consider the HCI?
Human Computer Interaction is a biggest challenge to the internet users by the software vendors which are likely to improve ones ability to exist over the internet or their site (Bullinger, 1999).
It stresses on the following:
- The various processes and the methodologies underlined for designing interfaces and user screens
- Software kits for implementing interfaces
- Development of interaction strategies
2.3.2. The history of HCI?
The history drills down to the various problems faced by the users in interacting with a web page and the level of comfort achieved by the users in handling the various functions.
2.3.3. Advantages and disadvantages of HCI.
The various advantages are as follows:
- Promotes high usability
- Makes it easy for one to interact
The various disadvantages are as follows:
- Enough research must be done
- Users choices change with time
- Acceptability of the large categorization of users is a problem
2.4.1. What is XHTML?
It is named as the stricter and neater version of HTML. It is a combination of HTML an XML
2.4.2. The history of XHTML
The history traces back to the bad use of HTML which often does not end up tags correctly a create a lot of problems in getting the data transferred successfully. Whereas XML is a mark up language which is perfectly taken care to take a shape of a perfectly shaped document (W3Schools.com, 2008b).
Combining together would make the pages take a better form in representing data across platforms.
2.4.3. Advantages and disadvantages of using the XHTML.
The advantage is in taking up the fully formed documents so that it can be architecture neutral in form and can be represented in every platform may it be browser in a host computer or in mobile.
The disadvantage is the complexity in combining it for use and taking care of the necessary tags for greater integration.
2.5. Tools and Techniques
The various tools and techniques used for getting the job done are HTML editors and ADOBE tools which help in the process to create a web page and design the various aspects successfully.
2.6. Web Applications
The various web applications make sure that various servers and routers are willing to help in the fetching of the information and pass the information. The various applications used are as follows:
- Application and web servers
- Firewalls and other database servers
2.7. Static Web Sites
Static web sites are ones which are displaying stable content and do not require communicating with a server for changing its contents dynamically. Here the user does not any facility to customize the content for their own preference and use (Norton, 2003).
2.7.1. Dynamic Web Sites
Dynamic web sites are ones where the user is able to customize the contents of the web page according to their preference. The various information which s desired to be observed for a certain WebPages makes it quite complex to allow the user to see it in the manner desired.
2.7.2. Advantages and Disadvantages
The advantages of the dynamic web sites are as follows:
- Usability is high
- User acceptance is high
The disadvantages of the dynamic web site are as follows:
- Security is low
- More traffic in the network
- Keeps the server busy
- Size of the web pages are large
2.7.3. Scripting Languages
Scripting languages help for validation of the web site both for client and server side. It helps the information content to be displayed and corrected for getting the right job done.
2.7.4. Client Side
The client side scripting languages like Java Script and VBScript make sure that all the information at the client side is taken care before submitting and processing the information for use. It saves time and processing ability is enhanced.
2.7.5. Server Side
The server side languages like JSP, PHP, ASP and others make sure that proper implementation is catered for getting the business function solved for getting the job done.
Both the client and server side scripting languages are to be used for making a website to guarantee better usage and handling the business functions.
2.7.7. Which Language
The variety of the web server side languages are evaluated so that proper alignment to its usage is done for the sake of getting the website built.
Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) is a server-side scripting technology that can be used to create dynamic and interactive Web applications (ASP.net, 2008). An ASP page is an HTML page that contains server-side scripts that are processed by the Web server before being sent to the user’s browser. The following can be attributed as the features of ASP:
- Standard HTML file extended with additional features
- Contains HTML tags that are interpreted and displayed by a web browser.
- ASP is used with IIS and Personal Web Server for win 95/98
- Contains server side scripts – making the web pages dynamic
- Provides several built in objects – making the script more powerful
- Can be extended with additional components- work with databases, send email, access the file system.
- When the browser send a request for an ASP to IIS Web server receives the request and recognizes that the request is for an ASP file through the extension .asp
- Web server retrieves the proper ASP file from the disk or memory
- Server routes the request to a special program named ASP.dll
PHP (“Hypertext Preprocessor”) is an extensively used Open Source general-purpose scripting language which is especially suited for Web development and can be embedded into HTML pages.
PHP is comfortable with all major operating systems, including Linux, many Unix variants (including HP-UX, Solaris and OpenBSD), Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, RISC OS, and probably others. PHP provides excellent support for almost all the web servers which include Apache, Microsoft Internet Information Server, Personal Web Server, Netscape and iPlanet servers, Oreilly Website Pro server, Caudium, Xitami, OmniHTTPd, and many others. For the majority of the servers PHP has a module, for the others supporting the CGI standard, PHP can work as a CGI processor (PHP.net, 2008).
PHP is most recommended for this website and we have used it for the construction of the website and the user configuration and management.
Sun.com (2008) mentions that JavaServer Pages (JSP) technology enables you to mix regular, static HTML with dynamically generated content from servlets. You simply write the regular HTML in the normal manner, using familiar Web-page-building tools. You then enclose the code for the dynamic parts in special tags, most of which start with <% and end with %>.
PERL is an essential dynamic programming language for use in web development, system administration and network and GUI programming. The unique ability for it was to write CGI scripts for server end programming languages in the internet.
2.7.12. HTML Editing Software Selection
It is done in the process of building a web page for getting the web pages ready for action. Various software which are used are First page 2006, Coffee cup and others.
Database is a collection of programs which facilitates the creation and maintenance of database of a large number of users (Navathe, 2004).
The flavors of the databases used for e-commerce websites follow a different pattern set for storing data and offer various storage patterns and features to enable it to be distinguished from the competitor.
The e-commerce websites deal with a variety of products and services and requires their data to be stored in a database so that it can be successfully fetched and modified for performing a variety of functions.
2.7.14. Relational databases (SQLs)
Relational data model is based on relational data structures, integrity constraints and smooth access to Data Definition Language and Data Manipulation Language statements for creation and retrieval of data. It is based on relational algebra (Navathe, 2004). The features could be attributed as follows:
- Atomic values
- Primary and foreign key
- Row and column structure of the database tables
- All kind of relationships are possible, one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one and many-to-many.
For example: Employee database with associations between many tables.
Oracle, MySQL are some of the most powerful databases used for commercial purposes and stands taller than the rest of all of them such as MYSQL, DB2 and others.
2.7.15. Object Oriented Databases
Object-oriented databases make sure that the integration of the object-oriented concepts like data abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance is achieved to larger extent in storage and retrieval of data (Korth, 2005).
The performance benefits of storage, retrieval and mapping into one-to-one is done and carries better techniques to map complex data relationships.
For example: Employee database with external penetrations of their associations with banks and insurance firms are better managed by object oriented databases.
2.8.1. What is MySQL?
MySQL is used extensively in e-commerce websites for storage of information and provides an array of features that highlight the crucial issues:
- Provides efficient support for cross-platform
- Provides efficient support for updatable views and strict mode.
- The facility of independent storage engines
- Support for SSL
- Full text indexing and searching
- Provides support for pluggable storage engine API
- Event scheduling
- XML functions and row based replication
MySQL is the database which supports the entire Google search engine, which is widely known as most popular open source database in the world. In order to ensure all the transactions follow the ACID model, almost all the commercial RDBMS functionality are supported by MySQL which allows supporting standard data types, building of indexes and database replication among other features. The Perl Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), which is dynamic web development language, is completely cooperating with MySQL.
2.8.2. Advantages and disadvantages of using the MySQL?
The functions that are quite unique to MySQL that is distinguishable over other RDBMS software’s are as follows:
- Provides multiple storage engines, providing support for making a decision to select the most suitable one for each table in the application, it also facilitates dynamic loading at runtime.
- Allow native storage engines (MyISAM, Falcon, Merge, Federated, Archive, CSV, Blackhole, Cluster, BDB)
- Partner-developed storage engines (InnoDB, solidDB, NitroEDB, BrightHouse)
- Also facilitates community-developed storage engines (memcached, httpd, PBXT)
- Custom storage engines
- Provides commit grouping, gathering multiple transactions from multiple connections together to increase the number of commits per second.
The disadvantages of the MySQL database would be the following:
- Open standard makes it non-standardized for usage
- The regular or periodic maintenance of defects and errors are inappropriate
2.9. Understanding user needs and requirements
The needs of the user can be distinguished under the following heads:
- A website to feature and get serviced for their booking related details
- Anytime anywhere booking facility
- Usable user interface for understanding the various functions of the website for availing the booking facility
- Various tags and functionalities of the website must be quite visible to the users so that they are able to interpret with ease.
2.9.1. Guidelines based on user classifications
The website is based for the following types of user’s:
- They are the ones who are responsible for running the site and the maintenance of the site features so that periodic updates can be done and must take care of the various functionalities which they are able to carry for meeting the objectives of the business
- Check whether the functions, online booking system, are getting performed or not.
- The payment system which requires to be updated periodically must check the various functions
- They form a serious bulk of the entire process who are linked to getting the service from the website
- Every link of the website must be accessible so that they can be accessed for will
- The information can be accessed and forms can be filled for getting the information and supply of information
- They form an equal section of the service consumers who are able to book and procure online facility for getting their job done
- The site usability would form a major section of the crowd which is able to fetch the user requirements for getting the job done.
2.9.2. Importance of Design in User Interface
Usability on the web is crucial to achieving loyal and frequent customers; hence investment is recommended in this area. Garage must have strong link affordances. Links are accurate and intuitive. Users are aided in their search and purchases, demonstrating good usability. An animated demo must be available for new users and a help section, as recommended by (Nielsen, 2008.)
2.9.3. Principle of Good Design
Due to the complexity and diversity of large scale web development it is vital that we adhere to web engineering principles when re-developing their site. These principles offer a disciplined approach to achieving the most competitive website. Engineering principles will ultimately affect profit; costs of bad design are high. Special consideration with regard to the Quality Requirements addressed by (Pressman, 2004) must aim to maximize performance in usability, functionality, reliability, efficiency and maintainability. Engineering principles will prevent problems with outdated or irrelevant information, slow response, crashes or security breaches to which web applications are sensitive.
Engineering principles will minimize risk; improve quality, maintainability and scalability. Software Configuration Management and Quality Control should be addressed to maintain standards. Testing will help our client plan, monitor, control and cope with the challenge of their web application.
It must adopt a linear structure, which is easy to remember. Their structure, layout and navigation is user orientated, its simplicity demonstrably fits context of use. It must understand user goals which they relate to their fundamental site goal – profit.
It must stress the importance of “flow” (Hoffman & Novak, 1997) in their design, inter-related with usability. Its navigation creates choices, is consistent, logical and predictable which provides user control, promoting confidence. Navigation is efficient and interactive, which improves “flow” according to (Rettie, 2001.)
The usability is inter-related to content, navigation and page layout, which reveals consistency throughout the site.
“Users want simplicity and consistency” (Lynch and Horton, 2002.) The website must use tab based navigation. According to (Nielsen, 1999) “horizontal tabs across the top of the screen, show bad design and an abuse of the tab metaphor” this should be avoided.
To some extent features are redundant for promoting and maintaining usability. Some of the redundant features are as follows:
- Content is clear and simple, there are no flamboyant designs or images. It depicts professionalism in content.
- The most important content is presented well for user awareness for the site
- The content representation, layout, colors, typefaces are very ethical in practice
- Tagline appears in every page
- The contact page takes care of visitor feedback using their mail and telephone services
Hyperlinks follow standard HTML conventions; they are blue and underlined providing clarity to the user. Links are self-describing and adhere to the heuristic guideline speak the users language. It must maximize information scent with category/genre links that adequately describe content. A search box is an excellent navigational tool for experienced users searching by date and time and must be incorporated (Murugesan, 2005).
Navigation is centered on the homepage although graphics, tabs, consistent hyperlinks, page labels and attribute breadcrumbs (Instone, 1993) make users aware of their location, the path chosen and how to return to previous stages.
It in engineered in a sense that when required business functions can be added into the website to enhance the process.
Everyone is able to use the site with any underlying platform so that they are able to browse the website through the help of internet in their web browser. Any standard web browser must enable its users to access the features with ease and all the standards principals would be followed to keep it intact.
Garage website must make assumptions for user errors. Spelling errors in search fields provide the most popular matches, suggesting a constructive solution. Such careful design helps users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors.
Legal and ethical issues are vital to online success. Building trust and user confidence is essential to our client, respecting consumer privacy and adhering to data protection legislation. “Consumers are extremely concerned about security and privacy on the Internet” (Trepper, 2000.) The garage must promise Safe Shopping Guarantee which means customers pay nothing if unauthorized charges are made to their credit cards as a result of shopping at Amazon. They use secure sockets layer (SSL) technology encrypting all personal information. Garage must take customer fears about security seriously to provide customer reassurance.
It must make clear terms of trade and offer warranties policy. The sound nature of facilities like copyright, patents and trademark protection must be enforced successfully in the site.
3. Sources that garage use for the M.O.T information system?
The various sources that are to be used are based on the requirements determination of the website and the various requirements of the customer.
4. Conclusion and recommendations
The homepage would act as an overview to their site, emphasizing reasons for use and product variety. Their path based homepage was inter-related to navigation helping segment users into areas of interest. Design demonstrably fits context of use.
The fundamental goal was to cater services and profit but competition is intense in the marketplace. Usability was inter-related to many other characteristics (content, navigation and layout.) It must offer efficiency, personalization, interaction and control to improve usability. Layout was simple and consistent. Content should be maintained and produced for scan ability.
Technology is integral sustained competitive advantage. It must operate on a client to server basis. The technology consists of a web browser linked to the Internet, which goes to a web server. The web server is linked to a business process server, which may be linked to a series of other servers such as payments and security servers. As previously mentioned they also use SSL technology to protect e-commerce transactions.
Engineering principles were a necessity in the complexity/diversity surrounding online activity. Legal and ethical issues are vital to security conscious users.
They are in the process of utilizing their virtualized value system for economies of scale and global reach. Their virtual community model has excelled in customer relations, aiding brand image. Associates and business model flexibility have sustained competitive advantage.
The various technologies both at the server and the client side identified make sure that proper understanding of the technologies in relation to the advantages and disadvantages are done and made sure that observation is done for taking up the correct form.
Using the latest web technologies would make sure that it is ready to compete with international scenario. Having an IS makes it a branded company. It creates trust for all the financial operations made and the feedback from the clients is capitalized for future innovation.
The usability features make sure that enough adherences towards the deep insight of the technology are done to make things quite useable to the users and promote the usability factor.
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