INTRODUCTION TO THE RIBA PLAN OF WORK
First developed in 1963, for half a century the RIBA Plan of Work has been the deﬁnitive UK model for the building design and construction process, also exercising signiﬁcant inﬂuence on an international stage.
The RIBA Plan of Work has been a bedrock document for the architects’ profession and the construction industry, providing a shared framework for the organisation and management of building projects that is widely used as both a process map and a management tool, and providing important work stage reference points used in a multitude of contractual and appointment documents and best practice guidance.
The RIBA Plan of Work organises the process of brieﬁng, sketch planning, preparing working drawings, site operations and maintaining into a number of key stages from the stage of inception to feedback. It details the tasks and outputs required and the construction stakeholders involved at each stage which may vary or overlap to suit speciﬁc project requirements.
It is mainly elaborated under the following key topics of,
* Outline proposals
* Scheme designs
* Detail design
* Production information
* Bills of quantities
* Tender action
* Project planning
* Operations on site
* Feed back
These stages may overlap or carried out simultaneously in according to the characteristics of each project.
RIBA Plan of Work is a guide line to the construction process which would make the things accurate and easier. So we can consider it as some sort of a standard when comparing construction processes with each. We thought of selection an almost finished multi storied building to check whether this particular plan is followed or what sort of deviations are done by the ongoing construction processes in xxxxxx. For that we have chosen an almost completed multi storied apartment building project owned by the “xxxxxxxx” construction firm.
First of all a new idea of constructing a new multistoried apartment complex was risen in the mind of the owner of this construction firm considering the profit making surrounding of the location that he found recently, which is in the beach side of Mount-Lavinia. Considering about the outline requirements a brief document was prepared by the owner of this construction company with the assistance of his consultants, considering the existing demand for the apartments in the area. Then consider about the probable procurement methods.
The brief states precisely what the client wants. This has to be detailed and comprehensive. It is interpreted thoroughly by the design team to decide the type of the project to be designed.
Mount-Lavenia is one of the popular places to tourism industry, where these multi storied apartment complex is proposed. Mainly, considering about the facilities which can be obtained around the area such as luxurious star class hotels, beach side, ease of transportation etc., tourists’ and buyers’ consent to live there is with a high potential.
Along this era, more steps and strategies have been taken to develop the tourism industry by the government in xxxxxx. More facilities and aids are provided. Thus, considering all the factors such as economically, financially, technically and environmentally it is foreseeable that a high value addition to the proposed apartment complex is potential to be gained.
The “xxxxxx’s apartment complexes are planned and built up with the ultimate purpose of profit making . So the land in xxxxxxx has been selected and through experience, money has been invested to the project by the owner of this construction company. Comparing with the preliminary estimate the capability of the construction is confirmed certified whether the amount would enough or not. Considering the relevant data the preliminary cost plan is created by the quantity surveyor. Then necessary actions are taken to procure the budget through a bank loan of Rs. 1.5 Bn in two installments. Considering those details the project has been approved by the head office at xxxxxx.
In construction field architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, designers and other parties are adjoined with each and every work. According to the procedure, architect and other parties were hired, either from one organisation or several rganisations by the owner with the experience he has being a part of this construction body in xxxxxx for a considerable time.
In this project they are hired by various organisation considering their previous project details. Besides that, outline cost plan of elements have been considered in this stage. Such as sub Structure, Superstructure, Services, Finishes, External works and Furniture and Fitting. Below picture (Figure 1) will give you an approximate idea about the substructure and superstructure of the building.
With the outline cost plan, quantity surveyor can assume the existing expenses giving an cost range. New proposals and designs are risen in this stage. Through all plans, cost details, requirements and designs, now decisions could be taken about the project more easily than earlier.
Figure 1: Substructure and Superstructure
Figure [ 2 ] : Sketch Plans
Then sketch plans are prepared considering the requirements of the owner by the architect. Through the selected sketch plan, the detailed cost plan is formulated. Then the structural plan has been drawn by the structural engineer. There are extensive differences between sketch plan and a detail plan. All measurements in each and every elements of the building are displayed clearely in detail plan.
Figure 3 : DEtailed Cost Plan
Measurements in the building are displayed on the surface in detail plan (Figure 4). Front elevation, edge elevation and plan are included in to this. All the measurements of the building had taken in this stage, thus the cost estimate has to be produced in time to time by the quantity surveyor. Every part and components of the building fully designed and cost checked. Figure [ 4 ] : Production Drawings / Detail Plans
BILL OF QUANTITIES
Each and every elements of the building will be drawn after the estimating. This document is most important to prepare the Bills of Quantities (BOQ) (Figure 5). In this stage QSs have a great responsibility to prepare this document accurately and efficiently. Substructure and superstructure materials even reinforcements sizes will be included to this document. This documentation was done in the Blue Ocean project as well.
Figure 5 : A BOQ Modal
The special factor comparing with the RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) plan of work is that tender action did not carry out in the Blue Ocean project. Because of that Consultant services and contractor services were supplied by themselves..
According to the RIBA plan of work, tendering action would be applied to the construction building by the consultant QS and tenders are convened by him/her. The Document which is used in this process is Tender Document. A bill of quantity is only one document which is included in this tender Document. The purpose of this stage is to obtain the suitable contractor for the project. Open tendering, selected tendering, serial tendering and nominated tendering are the methods to select the contractors.
Open tendering -Open tendering is the preferred competitive public procurement method used for acquiring goods, services and infrastructure works. It is executed in accordance with established procedures set out in the procurement guidelines and detailed in the standard bidding documents Open tendering is also known as open competitive bidding, open competition or open solicitation, and the procurement notices used to call for bids for these requirements are identified as: Invitation for Bids or Invitation to Tender.
Selected tendering – Selective tender mainly used by client in private sector to invite contractors to submit their bids for specific project. Client short list the contractor and ask them to bid for the specific project.
Serial tendering – If the project consist with two or more phases, contractors will be changed step by step according to the construction. stage.
Nominated tendering – Directly contractor was selected by the client.
The tender document will be issued by the Consultant Qs, using one of the tendering methods. In the mean times fully completed BOQ will be retained with QS. Tender will be received after pricing according to their procedures and tenders will be examined by the QS considering the lowest cost and the quality. Though the first connection with the contractor occurs with the consultent, always the contract is signed or done between clients and the contractors.
Comparing this procedure with the project called “Blue Ocean”, was totally different. As mentioned earlier, contractors and consultants are same group of people in this project. Hence the whole process in tendering action was not going on. For additional minor works such as frameworks and fitting are done by the subcontractors. To convene subcontractors they used to apply the one of the tendering methods called selective tendering. Firstly, four of subcontractors are selected and sent them tenders. Through four tenders, three of subcontractors would be selected.
Project planning comes up as the next stage of the RIBA plan of work. All the work in construction are scheduling in this stage. This is the previous preparation before the operation on the side. Brief site inspectorate will be done by the contractors consenting to the contract conditions. Arrangements to commence work on site are made in this stage. This phase is in the pre contract stage. It falls under the category of workings drawings. There are lot of tasks to be done in this phase of RIBA work plan .in this stage final working drawings should be prepared by the architect. Preparations of the other final information on such as schedules and specifications should be done preparation of production information in sufficient detail to enable tenders to be obtained for the product.
Application for statutory approvals should also be prepared. Further information for construction required under the building contract are also prepared. QS Will be checking the final cost plan of the construction. Architects, engineer and specialists, contractor are directly involved this stage. At this stage it is decided to prepare production information and final detailed decision should be made to carry out the work. There are certain documents should be prepared, during this stage such as application for statutory approval. Preparation of further information for construction required under building contract by the architect.
According to the “Blue Ocean” project, this stage has been included as well. Contractors and subcontractors are the person who were directly involved in this stage.
OPERATIONS ON SITE
Next stage was about operation on the site, which was mentioned about the beginning of the construction. Contractors, subcontractors, QS, Engineer, suppliers, manufacturers and clients will be directly adjoined and carry out the all the requirements which are already confirmed. Provide further information as and when reasonably required.
The people who are adjoined in this stage will be constructed the project, considering all the information which are clarified earlier stages, budget and regulations. Their tasks will be higher. Payments certificates will be created in this stage by the contractor. Cost of the construction should perfectly managed by the QS. Though there are any difficulties in constructing, expenses should be within the budget in the mean time.
After the construction is completed the final inspection is carried out. Any defects found are remedied. Then the final accounts are prepared by the QS. Finally the projct is handed over to the client.
Now the whole project is completed and handed over to the client back. Then it is the opportunity to analyze the management and construction issues and performance of the project for the future. In this feedback period a cost analysis is carried out by the QS, as well.
When considering about the above report it is obvious that company had been unable to be adhered to the RIBA plan of work all the time. Actually that kind of deviations are very much common when a theory is making into work. Some of the steps had continued at the same time and the saome have exchanged he order of the procedures. This stage within the RIBA Plan of Work acknowledges the potential beneﬁts of harnessing the project design information to assist with the successful operation and use of a building.
While it is likely that many of the handover duties will be completed during Stage L, prior to conclusion of the Building Contract, certain activities may be required or necessary afterwards. These should be conﬁrmed in the relevant Schedule of Services. While the end of a building’s life might be considered at Stage M, it is more likely that Stage 0 of the follow-on project or refurbishment would deal with these aspects as part of strategically deﬁning the future of the building. Being stick to this RIBA plan of work it cause to save both money and valuable time as well, as it is well arrange to reach the task with minimum obstacles. So I recommend to adhere to the RIBA Plan of Work when proceeding with the construction projects to reach its end economically and accurately.