The first half of the nineteenth century called for powerful forces of change. This led to a series of political philosophies and ideologies. Liberalism emerged as a chance to further the development of oneself and to one’s own welfare of society. Nationalism was another important government style that emerged, was a new way to think about the advancement of society and the nation itself. Socialism was the third important government and concentrated on the benefit of strictly the society that it was under, with all members being equal. These philosophies were very different from the ideas of a monarchial government, and were in some ways similar, but in some other ways were also very different.
Liberalism was the belief in Liberty, private property, toleration of different beliefs and ideas. They agree with John Locke, and the driving/starting force behind the theory of liberalism was the Laissez-faire. The Liberalist believed that people should be allowed to do whatever they wanted as long as they didn’t hurt anyone in the process of it. They also believed in a written constitution that provides equality among all individuals which is very similar to our constitution’s first amendment, in fact it is an exact replica. Liberalism was revolutionary because it was a new way of government.
It allowed people to be individuals, and they no longer had to deal with the monarchy of King’s and Queen’s. The government was based individualistic society, because it was all about benefiting oneself and allowing them to be free. The idea behind liberalism was that everyone should be an individual, not people as a whole, such as socialism is. Nationalism and liberalism are similar since they both believe of autonomous empowerment and thus the creation of a nation as a whole. Socialism and Liberalism were also slightly similar because they were about the people and not the government. Nationalism is dissimilar to liberalism in the way that nationalism primary focus is to advance the power of the nation.
Another government style that came for the revolutions during the 19th century was Nationalism, nationalism was that people needed to be aware and part of the community. In the government system of nationalism: culture, ideas, customs, languages, and traditions are all shared to create a strong united community. Nationalism was considered a great governmental system but it was not popular until after the French Revolution. This system believed in individual power as opposed to the supreme power of the King and Queen of a monarchial government. It was similar to socialism because they tried to link the nation together to create a broader community and to better humanity within society and community. It was similar to liberalism because it benefited individuals, such as one’s right to rule over themselves and their own land. It was different from socialism because people were able to better themselves as an individual. They also cared about what would help their own prosperity, and not what was beneficial for the whole. It was different from liberalism because they didn’t believe in a written constitution.
In the governmental system of socialism the government looked out for the rights of the people as a whole and not individuals. Human cooperation was superior to competition that had characterized earlier capitalism, liberalism. They contemptuously labeled theorists as utopian socialists which has stuck with them till modern day. Many women favored socialism because it made everyone under it equal, men, women, adult, and child although it made them socially equal it still didn’t allow them to be politically equal. Socialism was revolutionary because wasn’t for the benefit of the government, as it was more for the people.
People were totally equal under socialism, as a monarchial government was for class system. It was similar to liberalism because it was more for the people than it was for the government, although it was different because it is for the people as a whole, as liberalism is for the individual. It was similar to nationalism because it attempts to make a better living environment, but it is also different from socialism, though, because people were able to better themselves as an individual, and they cared about what would help their prosperity, and socialism doesn’t allow this.
In supposition the 19th century came to a beginning, bringing three new initiative styles of government came into existence. These new governmental systems were liberalism, nationalism, and socialism. They were all very important as they were different from the common monarchial government and had their own benefits and faults compared to the old style of ruling. The liberal government allowed people to be free, do whatever they wanted as long as they did not cause others harm. Nationalism shared common languages and traditions within the nation allowing them to form stronger bonds. Socialism cared about what was best for everyone as a whole; they did not care about property or status as long as they believed that what they were doing was best for everyone. These forms of government changed not only Europe, but the world.
Bibliography: Western Civilization Combined Volume Sixth Edition,Jackson J. Spielvogel