George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg, was a 15th century Albanian leader. Born in 1405 to the noble Kastrioti family, he was raised in a village in Dibra. As a young child, he was taken hostage by Sultan Murad II and as a result, he fought for the Ottoman Empire as a General. In one of his battles, he deserted the Ottomans and became the ruler of Kruje. However, there is wide debate over how influential Skanderbeg’s diplomatic and military skills were in protecting the Albanian people, which raises the research question: To what extent did Skanderbeg’s diplomatic and military skills prevent the Ottomans from taking over Albania? Although Skanderbeg’s victories and losses during his time of protecting Albania are well documented, it is still unclear as to the extent of Skanderbeg’s diplomatic and military skills in preventing Ottoman rule over Albania.
Much of what we know about Skanderbeg comes from the museum that is located in Kruje castle, containing art compositions, stone and wood engravings, and maps that portray Skanderbeg’s life against the Ottomans. In this essay, I propose that both Skanderbeg’s diplomatic and military skills were successful in preventing the Ottomans from taking over Albania to a large extent, as many different techniques within each category were used. His diplomatic skills were crucial in defending Albania since he required a vast amount of men to help against the Ottoman attacks; he showed his diplomacy skills through family and armies in order to maintain connections with powerful allies. His military skills were also important, and he portrayed these skills through his tactics, and through his morale boosting techniques.
During the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire was one of the strongest powers in the world. Their plan was to dominate Western Europe, and once they arrived in Europe, most of the colonies fell to the Ottomans. However, their main goal was to capture Rome, and the only way they could get to Rome was to go through a small country called Albania. In Albania, they were opposed by a chieftain called Gjergj Kastrioti, nicknamed Skanderbeg. Within his country, he had a fortress on the side of a mountain, and never more than twenty thousand armed men at his disposal. Yet, under his leadership, he was able to hold the mightiest army of the world at bay, saving not only his own country from defeat, but with it the peninsula of Italy and the remainder of Western Europe. To what extent did Skanderbeg’s diplomatic and military skills prevent the Ottomans from taking over Albania? In the long conflict against the Ottomans, Skanderbeg’s diplomatic and military skills were very effective in fending off the Ottomans from capturing Albanian territory to a large extent.
Section One: Diplomatic Skills
When Skanderbeg first abandoned his role as a general for the Ottomans in order to protect Albania from them, Skanderbeg needed effective diplomatic skills in order to adequately fend off the Ottomans from their land. He first used his family in order to maintain connections with powerful allies that would eventually provide aid for him in the long run. Skanderbeg had nine siblings, five of them sisters including: Mara, Angelina, Jelena, Vlajka and Mamica, and all of them married individuals of high power, which would greatly support Skanderbeg in the future, since they provided him with men that were used to fight off the Ottomans from Albanian territory. The first family Skanderbeg was connected to was with the Crnojevic family, through Mara; they eventually became the first royal Montenegrin family in command of many soldiers, many of whom were provided to Skanderbeg, since he required a large amount of men in order to protect Albania from the Ottomans, who had the largest army at that time.
He was then connected with the Arianiti family, through Angelina, who already had a good relationship with the Byzantine imperial family, who had one of the strongest armies and also put forth soldiers for Skanderbeg to lead. Jelena and Vlajka provided Skanderbeg connections with the Musachi family, who had an admirable relationship with the Venetians, and provided Skanderbeg with the most amount of aid, not just soldiers, but also other supplies including money and food. Finally, Mamica connected Skanderbeg with the Balsha family, whose power and pretensions were already well-established. Once Skanderbeg maintained connections with the influential leaders through marriage, Skanderbeg strengthened his diplomatic ties by branching out and connecting with other armies. These groups can be categorized into religious leaders, Italians and other neighbouring armies. Skanderbeg first reached out to Pope Pius and the Holy Army in order to receive some men from the Pope in order to defend Albania.
Pope Pius declared a crusade against the Turks, and promised any Christian armies that would assist him would be protected by his very powerful army. Skanderbeg was one of the Christian armies who accepted Pope Pius’s offer. This connection showed Skanderbeg’s diplomatic skills since he supported the Pope in his crusade, and in return the Pope would provide Skanderbeg with the men to hold off the Ottomans in their mission to take over Albania. However, Pope Pius died a few months later after the crusade, which was initiated on November 17, 1463, and Skanderbeg never received any men. Regardless, this demonstrates how he successfully negotiated with Pope Pius about the fact that if he were to fight with him, that Skanderbeg would be able to receive soldiers to protect him from the Ottomans. Another religious leader who supported Skanderbeg was Pope Eugene IV. Just as Pope Pius had done, Pope Eugene IV also invited Skanderbeg to take part in the crusade initiated by Gjon Hunyadi, the Hungarian leader, who also gained respect for Skanderbeg due to the fact that he abandoned his role as general in the Ottoman army.
Once Skanderbeg assisted them, they supplied him with some men to protect him from the Ottomans. His diplomatic skills continued to be demonstrated when he assisted Pope Eugene IV and Gjon Hunyadi in their time of need. In return, they supported Skanderbeg when he required attention, by supplying him with soldiers from their armies. Finally, Skanderbeg was able to receive the support from many other Christian Armies when Skanderbeg converted back to Christianity from Islam. The fact that Skanderbeg converted back to Christianity after having followed the Muslim religion while he was fighting for the Ottomans demonstrates Skanderbeg’s diplomatic abilities since he then received assistance and negotiations from fellow strong Christian armies once they realized that Skanderbeg converted. When referring to the Italians, the first army Skanderbeg aligned himself with were the Venetians. When the Albanians and the Ottomans had declared a truce, Skanderbeg took this time to align himself with individuals who would provide him with the men necessary to adequately protect and defend Albania from the Ottomans if the truce were to be broken, which eventually occurred.
This truce with the Ottomans was intended to startle the Venetians into giving greater consideration to Albanian purposes than they had ever done in the past. This successful alliance with the Italians clearly shows Skanderbeg’s diplomatic skills in order to gain more men. After this, there was a point in time in which the Venetians were against Skanderbeg; however, negotiations for peace were opened at Lezhë, with Paolo Loredan and Andrea Venier as the Venetian representatives; and Gjergj Pellini, Abbot of St. Mary of Rotezo, and Bishop Andrev of Krujë as representatives of Skanderbeg. These negotiations were set due to the many defeats the Venetians suffered by Skanderbeg. After the conflict Skanderbeg had with the Venetians, the Venetians gained respect for Skanderbeg due to his tactics on the battlefield. Skanderbeg’s diplomatic skills were sustained as he maintained his alliances with the Venetians due to the defeat that the Venetians had suffered by him, and from the respect they had gained from his tactics on the battlefield.
Another Italian individual Skanderbeg was able to align himself with, was King Ferdinand. After a letter that Skanderbeg sent to King Ferdinand, men were deployed to his army due to the fact that Skanderbeg had provided men for King Ferdinand in the past; the letter that Skanderbeg sent stated: …My Lord, the worst kind of people in my opinion are those who see their lords or allies or friends over taken by some kind of trouble and wait to be called upon or asked for help… I am sure Your Majesty will remember that as soon as disturbances and rebellion broke out in your kingdom, I sent my person, my goods and all I have in the world. All I ask in return Your Majesty is to do the same for me, in my time of need.
After sending this letter to King Ferdinand, men were sent to Skanderbeg in order to protect Albania from the Ottomans. Skanderbeg’s diplomactic skills through negotiating men to protect his country, were due to the fact that he had assisted King Ferdinand in the past and had had his loyalty. The final Italian Skanderbeg was able to develop alliances with during his time against the Ottomans was King Alfonso V, the Aragonese King of Naples. On March 2nd, 1444, Skanderbeg, and a number of neighbours, came together at the Cathedral of St. Nicholas in Lezhë, on March 2nd, 1444 to bring together all of his forces. This alliance is now known as the League of Lezhë. However, many months later, Skanderbeg had to deal with two problems within the League of Lezhë; he had to recreate the League despite Venetian indifference or hostility, and he had to win back Arianiti.
The fact that Skanderbeg was married to his daughter took care of that personal problem. The political problem, however, demanded a sponsor for a revived League, and the only man who could fill this role was King Alfonso V. The fact that Skanderbeg rebuilt the League of Lezhë by sponsoring King Alfonso V displays Skanderbeg’s diplomatic skills since he was rebuilding the League and at the same time, was repairing the political problems he had with the Arianiti family and the Venetians. During Skanderbeg’s time in which he was defending Albania from the Ottomans, Skanderbeg was also able to maintain diplomatic relations with a number of other neighbouring armies, and the first one of these neighbouring leaders was Gjon Hunyadi. As previously explained, Gjon Hunyadi was the Hungarian leader during Skanderbeg’s time, and Gjon and Skanderbeg first met when Skanderbeg fought for the Ottoman army. When Skanderbeg was part of the Ottoman Army, they waged war against Hungary, against the commander Gjon Hunyadi. It was during this battle that Skanderbeg left the Ottoman army, which showed a great respect towards Hunyadi.
This move helped Skanderbeg in the future since Hunyadi in return provided men for Skanderbeg to protect Albania from the Ottomans. Leaving the Ottoman army provided him with more men to protect against the Ottomans, since they now considered Skanderbeg as a traitor. Another individual who provided aid to Skanderbeg when he needed it most was a man named Moses Golemi, the Chieftain of Dibra. Skanderbeg met and aligned himself with a leading chieftain of Dibra, Moses Golemi. With the help of Moses, they captured Svetigrad, a fortress strategically placed on the border between Albania and Macedonia. After Skanderbeg realised that the fortress was essential for the Turks in order to have an effective assault on Kruje, the heart of Albania, he left Moses in charge of the fortress. Skanderbeg’s diplomatic skills are demonstrated here since Skanderbeg allied himself with the chieftain of Dibra, and used him to his advantage, and with the help of his military skills, effectively captured and defended Svetigrad before the Ottomans had the opportunity to attack.
Moses and Skanderbeg would maintain this relationship for many years, and would be very effective in protecting Albania from the powerful Ottoman army. In Skanderbeg’s campaign of defending Albania, Skanderbeg’s brother-in-laws provided a great deal of assistance to him since they were able to put about 12,000 men into Skanderbeg’s possession. This alliance came together on March 2nd, 1444 to bring together all of the alliances, which is now known as the League of Lezhe, as previously explained. This collaborative effort demonstrates Skanderbeg’s diplomatic skills as he brought together all of his allies and formed one large army in order to defend Albania against the Ottomans.
This alliance was very useful for Skanderbeg since his allies were able to provide him with a large amount of men who would greatly have an impact on Albania’s defence against the Turks. Finally, many unknown armies came to Skanderbeg due to the number of victories and the lack of losses that he had during his campaign against the Ottoman Empire. Because of his reputation for successful battles and victories, many contributions were given to Skanderbeg, which shows Skanderbeg’s diplomatic skills through armies. Section Two: Military Skills
Skanderbeg maintained stable connections with a large number of men in order to prepare defences against the Ottomans. Skanderbeg was thus able to use his military skills in order to defend Albania from the Ottomans with the smallest number of casualties. Although Skanderbeg was well-known for his skills in diplomacy, Skanderbeg was also very famous for his tactical skills, as he used both defensive and offensive tactics in order to prevent the Ottomans from taking over Albania. The most important tactics that were crucial for Albania’s freedom was Skanderbeg’s skill in defensive tactics. He first showed his talent in defensive strategies by choosing Kruje as the main fortress. Due to the positioning of the Kruje fortress, the Turks were at a disadvantage. The fortress was almost part of the mountain against which it had been built.
Skanderbeg, was aware of the fact that this location was difficult to bombard and chose this fortress to be the main fortress.  This location as a main fortress shows Skanderbeg’s skill in defensive tactics due to the fact that he knew that the Turks were technologically advanced at the time, with the most advanced artillery. So, by choosing a main fortress in which bombardment with artillery was difficult, caused the Turks to be at a disadvantage and made it much more difficult for the Ottomans to take over Kruje. Another way in which Skanderbeg portrayed adept defensive tactics was through the modifications of his defences. He first modified defences in Svetigrad due to its importance in the war. In addition, knowing that the Ottomans would outnumber the Albanians in battle, Skanderbeg fortified defences in Svetigrad, in order to prevent the Ottomans from capturing it.
He was then put to the test in 1450, when the Ottomans attempted to attack Skanderbeg in Svetigrad, by bringing 150,000 men to attack. However, Skanderbeg’s defences were too strong for the Ottomans, and the Ottomans had to retreat since disease was beginning to spread in their camp, and since winter was coming, they had to abandon the siege. Another tactical move that Skanderbeg made was to modify defences in Lower Dibra, since he noticed for the first time an unguarded pass through which the Turks could enter unopposed. Thus, Skanderbeg had workmen and ordinance sent in from Kruje, and within six months, a fortress had been built to overlook that area which was called Modrici. The fact that Skanderbeg built a small fortress near the pass through which the Turks could go through shows Skanderbeg’s military skills, since he knew that high security of that area would be required, and that the Turks most likely knew of this pass. Later in the war between the Albanians and the Ottomans, the Ottomans created a new weapon of artillery, which posed a great threat towards the defences in all of Skanderbeg’s castles.
In order to gain some protection from the new weapon of artillery, vertical walls were modified to sloping ones in order to minimize the damage done by the cannon balls. By modifying his defences in all of his castles, Skanderbeg reveals his military skills seeing that he knew that if he did not do this, castles would be destroyed very easily, which would also cause many casualties. As an adept tactician, Skanderbeg was fully aware of this, which shows Skanderbeg’s military skills. The attack at Ujebardha was another conflict in which Skanderbg used his defensive tactics to defeat the Ottoman army. In 1457, the Ottomans brought 90,000 soldiers in another attempt take over the Albanian land, led by General Isa beg Evrenoz, an experienced tactician. After evading the army for months, Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman camp at Ujebardha on September 2nd, and defeated them.
On June 22nd, 1461, Skanderbeg and the Sultan declared peace. Skanderbeg fought many battles after this in order to support their allies in Naples and renegades within his own country. This shows Skanderbeg’s military skills as he was able to evade the army until he believed his army was ready to attack, which was in the Ottoman camp at Ujebardha. In relation to Skanderbeg’s victory in Ujebardha, he also used these same kinds of tactics in order to defend many Albanian camps that were located near Kruje. Balaban Pasha, a new general under the Ottoman army, tried to finish the campaign as fast as he could and wanted to bribe an Albanian camp near Kruje to let them through. However, Skanderbeg anticipated these Turkish movements and waited for him to arrive and defeated his army at the Albanian
camp. This anticipation of a possible planned attack by the opposition continues to demonstrate Skanderbeg’s tactical skills. Many years later, Firuz Pasha heard that the Albanian forces had been disbanded, so he planned to march quickly with his 15,000 troops down the valley of Prizen, and arrive unannounced outside Kruje itself.
However, Skanderbeg was already aware of this, and prepared to ambush the invaders, which succeeded and resulted in many casualties for the Ottoman army. Skanderbeg’s use of ambushing the invaders shows Skanderbeg’s defensive tactical skills in order to defeat Firuz’s troops with the least amount of losses on Skanderbeg’s side. In addition to his tactic, the fact that Skanderbeg had the ability to quickly react and come up with the decisions to defeat the Ottoman army also shows Skanderbeg’s military skills. When Skanderbeg was not using defensive manoeuvres to protect Albania, he employed offensive tactics in order to defend Albania from the Ottoman army. One technique he used in order to attack the Ottomans was surprise attacks. He first applied this way of attacking by capturing the fortress of Trani without the Ottomans being aware. Now that Skanderbeg had control of this area, he now waited for the Ottomans to pass by and await defeat by Skanderbeg’s men within the fortress.
When the Turks were going past the fortress of Trani, unaware that Skanderbeg had captured it, Skanderbeg and his forces massacred the Turks and preventing them to get to Kruje. This shows Skanderbeg’s military skills since he was aware of the fact that he would have a tactical advantage to attack the Ottomans from the fortress, since they did not know he was there. It also demonstrates how he used his military skills to prevent the Ottomans to reach Kruje, the heart of Albania. Skanderbeg also used his surprise attack technique during the battle of Torviollo. In this battle, The Turks sent out a well known general named Ali Pasha to take care of the ‘Albanian situation’. Militarily, Skanderbeg expected this and was prepared to fight in Torviollo, a grassy upland slope flanked by woods. When the two troops met up, the Ottomans expected an easy victory due to the lack of men that stood in front of Ali Pasha. However, the rest of Skanderbeg’s men were hiding in the woods preparing for a flank.
This tactic, chosen by Skanderbeg, was quite successful since the Turks were defeated by three in the afternoon This battle displays Skanderbeg’s military skills because the location in which he fought was chosen to his advantage by hiding his soldiers in the forest around the battlefield in order to flank the Ottoman fleet, which was led by a well known general. The 1446 invasion further exemplifies Skanderbeg’s success as a military strategist. The invasion was led by one of the Sultan’s generals, this time Mustafa Pasha. Pasha attempted to avoid pitched battles and ambushes. So Skanderbeg, having failed to bring Pasha to battle, retired to the hills, and on the night of 27th September, the Albanians entered the sleeping Turkish camp and killed those who did not manage to escape. This tactic to attack the Turks at night shows Skanderbeg’s military skills since he realised that his two previous tactics were evaded by the Turks.
The other technique Skanderbeg used, however less often, was the direct attack technique. He first used this technique through the way he actually captured the fortress of Trani. He did this by inviting Antonio Josciano Infusado, the enemy commander of the fortress of Trani for a conference, and once they met, Skanderbeg kidnapped him and made him hand over the fortress. He chose to this due to the fact that it was the perfect location for Skanderbeg to attack the Turks. The way Skanderbeg received this location was due to the skill he had in offensive tactics, more specifically, his direct attack technique. It shows Skanderbeg’s military skills since he was capable of fooling the enemy commander to hand over the fortress.
The offensive tactical skills is also shown since Skanderbeg now expected that the Ottomans would not be aware of his presence in this fortress, in which the Ottomans would have to pass through in order to get to Kruje. Skanderbeg used this tactic again to attack a fresh Turkish force which was sent to relieve the one which had been laying siege to Kruje since the previous year under Balaban Pasha.. Skanderbeg attacked them before they could join up with the besiegers, which made it easier for his army to fend off the Ottomans. Skanderbeg’s military skills are clearly displayed here since he decided to defeat the two leaders before meeting up with the main group. This decision by Skanderbeg prevented a heavy, direct attack on Kruje. Skanderbeg was very militarily skilled using tactics as shown from his successful defensive and offensive manoeuvres. However, Skanderbeg was also an expert in boosting the morale of his soldiers, which was also very important in defending Albania from the Ottoman army. One way Skanderbeg boosted the morale of his soldiers was through victories.
The first time it was evident that Skanderbeg had boosted the morale of his soldiers was when Skanderbeg’s army defeated Balaban Pasha’s army. For example, Balaban Pasha tried to defeat Skanderbeg by bringing 40,000 men with him north of Berat to defeat Skanderbeg in combat. In this battle, Skanderbeg was victorious with only 12,000 men at his disposal. This victory had a positive impact on his soldiers. Skanderbeg’s military skills are displayed in the victorious battle against 40,000 men where he boosted the morale of the soldiers since they were greatly outnumbered with only 12,000 men and were still victorious. In addition, in every battle in which Skanderbeg had been involved, he would end the battle with very minimal casualties. This success further boosted the confidence of the soldiers fighting for him, since they were more confident of the fact that they were not going to die in battle with Skanderbeg as their leader. Skanderbeg’s well-planned and thoughtful tactics also boosted the morale of his soldiers, since he would always end battles with minimal casualties which would encourage more men to eventually fight for him.
In addition to boosting morale through victories, Skanderbeg also increased the morale of his soldiers by other means. The most important was when Skanderbeg was appointed Captain General of the Holy See by Pope Calixus III. The fact that Skanderbeg was appointed to such a high ranking by such an influential individual boosts the morale of his soldiers since they are now being lead by a high ranked individual. He also boosted the morale of his soldiers because at the time, the fact that Skanderbeg’s mother was Serbian did not influence the amount of Albanians fighting for him, and brought many Serbians to fight for him. Skanderbeg, realizing this, embraced Serbian traditions in order to keep them fight with him. This shows how Skanderbeg boosted the morale of the non-Albanian soldiers fighting with him, and how Skanderbeg was able to have so many non–Albanian soldiers. Conclusion
Through the evidence provided, Skanderbeg’s diplomatic and military skills, to a large degree, prevented the Ottomans from taking over Albania. He consistently demonstrated a style of diplomacy and military tactics which enabled Skanderbeg to return to Kruje, regain his father’s land which had been lost to the Ottomans. He also united the Albanian tribes under the League of Lezhe, which played a dramatic role in defending Albania, and successfully established and maintained alliances with neighbouring countries. Skanderbeg also played a huge role in the neighbouring countries since he proved to be a trustworthy and loyal ally by helping these countries in their time of need.
He helped put Albania on the map, and was also recognized by the Pope and received the title ‘Captain General of the Holy See’, a very high Christian rank. During his time of resistance, Skanderbeg distracted the Ottomans from attacking Italy, which helped the Italians to organize defences and make stronger political alliances. Overall, Skanderbeg was very important to the Albanian people and is now recognized as a legend in Albanian history due to his exemplary skills as a military strategist and a diplomat.
Albanian Figures Skanderbeg – Skenderbeu http://rubin.financial.officelive.com/AlbanianFigures.aspx. Accessed: December 21st, 2011
Fitzhenry, James. George Kastrioti Skanderbeg “Iskander” http://www.roman-catholic-saints.com/skanderbeg.html. Accessed: December 20th, 2011
Hodgkinson, Harry Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero. U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005
History of War. Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg (1405-1468) http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_skanderbeg.html Accessed: December 19th, 2011
Islami and Frashëri, Historia ë Shqipërisë. Tiranë: Office of scholarly publications of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, 1968, p268
Malcom, Noel., Kosovo: A Short History. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 1998
Noli, Fan Stylian, George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405 – 1468). New York:
International Universities Press, 1947
Schmitt, Oliver Jens, Skënderbeu, Tiranë: K&B Publications, p129
 Harry Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero ( U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005), 1 The origin of this book is from the United States, written by the author Harry Hodgkinson in 2005. He is a writer, journalist and naval intelligence officer. The purpose of this book is to inform readers briefly of the life of Skanderbeg, then go more in-depth about the battles that Skanderbeg led in order to hold off the Ottomans from taking over Albania during his life. The value of this work is that there is a list of sources. Since this source includes a list of sources, it shows that Harry Hodgkinson used explicit support and evidence to support his claims within the monograph. He is also an expert on the Balkans, which is very valuable when sourcing this piece of writing. However, its limitations include the fact that it is a monograph. Because it is a monograph, not all of the information given is related specifically to Skanderbeg’s military or diplomatic skills. It provides a general overview and history, only mentioning aspects of the military and diplomatic elements. Another limitation is the fact that there are some perspective issues, as he over-traumatizes some events, in order to side with the Albanians.
 Harry Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero (U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005), 40.  Fan Stylian Noli, George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405 – 1468). New York: International Universities Press, 1947, 35.  Oliver Jens Schmitt, Skënderbeu, Tiranë: K&B Publications, p129  James Fitzhenry. George Kastrioti Skanderbeg “Iskander” http://www.roman-catholic-saints.com/skanderbeg.html. Accessed: December 20th, 2011 The origin of this source is a secondary source that is an internet document from the Roman Catholic Saints website. The purpose of this source is to provide an overview of the events of Skanderbeg’s life for individuals interested. Its value is that it is an overview, which provides a great amount of information in a brief amount of time and space. Its
limitations include the fact that it is a secondary source and that there is no list of sources. The fact that it is a secondary source limits this, since it creates a lack of detail in the account of the source, and can also leave out necessary information and give false perceptions. Since this source does not include a list of sources, the information may not be reliable, there can be errors within the text, and the fact that the source is brief could show that some information is left out.
 Fan Stylian Noli, George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405 – 1468). New York: International Universities Press, 1947, 67  Ibid, 35.
 Noel Malcom, Kosovo: A Short History. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 1998, 189
 Harry Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero ( U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005), 90.  Islami and Frashëri, Historia ë Shqipërisë. Translated by Nick Hoxha. Tiranë: Office of scholarly publications of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, 1968, p268
 Harry Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero ( U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005), 73.
 Fitzhenry, James. George Kastrioti Skanderbeg “Iskander” http://www.roman-catholic-saints.com/skanderbeg.html. Accessed: December 20th, 2011
 Harry Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero ( U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005), 72.
 Ibid, 73.
 Harry Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero ( U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005), 109.
 History of War. Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg (1405-1468) http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_skanderbeg.html. Accessed:
December 19th, 2011
 Harry Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero ( U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005), 118.
 History of War. Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg (1405-1468) http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_skanderbeg.html. Accessed: December 19th, 2011  Noel Malcom, Kosovo: A Short History. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 1998, 203  Fan Stylian Noli, George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405 – 1468). New York: International Universities Press, 1947, 61.  Ibid.
 Harry Hodgkinson, Scanderbeg: From Ottoman Captive to Albanian Hero ( U.S.A: I.B Tauris, 2005), 75.  Ibid, 82.
 Fan Stylian, Noli. George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405 – 1468). New York: International Universities Press, 1947, 59.
 Fan Stylian, Noli. George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405 – 1468). New York: International Universities Press, 1947, 60.  Malcom, Noel., Kosovo: A Short History. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 1998, 216  Noel, Malcom. Kosovo: A Short History. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 1998, 204  Ibid.
 Fan Stylian, Noli George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405 – 1468). New York: International Universities Press, 1947, 53
 Albanian Figures Skanderbeg – Skenderbeu http://rubin.financial.officelive.com/AlbanianFigures.aspx. Accessed: December 21st, 2011