1. Bold the law that correctly defines the Son of Sam law.
a. Legislation that prohibits criminals from contacting their victims or their victims’ families b. A law that prohibits a parent from testifying against his or her son c. Legislated rules prohibiting criminals from profiting from their crimes through sales or publications of their stories to or through the media d. Laws that prohibit the press from releasing details of a pending case
2. Identify two victim resources available locally and nationally. Include the organization’s name and website, and a summary of their services. The National Center for Victims of Crime ( http://victimsofcrime.org/ ). This organization is nonprofit organization that pursues the rights for victims. They are a nation resource that helps victims rebuild their lives. National Network to End Domestic Violence (http://nnedv.org/ ). This organization helps aid the fight against domestic violence. They provide training, technical assistance and many resources to local communities.
3. The ___Eigth___________ Amendment states that excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
4. This program was conceived in 1929 by the International Association of Chiefs of Police to meet a need for reliable statistics on crime in the nation. The program is now handled by the FBI. Bold the correct answer.
a. Crime Statistics Bureau
b. Uniform Crime Reporting
c. Statistics and Crime Unit
d. The Program for Criminal Statistics
5. What term refers to problems that follow from the initial victimization, such as the loss of employment or inability to pay medical bills? ____Post-Crime Victimization____________
6. Where did victim-impact statements originate? Why were victim-impact statements granted? It first originated in Fresno, California in 1976 but the law didn’t become active until 1982. The reason why it was granted is for the person making statement. It allows the victim to specifically address the experiences they are facing after the crime.
7. Locate a case that involves mitigating factors. Cite the case and explain why the case had mitigating factors. a. Walton v. Arizona (1990)
i. A man was convicted of kidnapping, robbery, and murder. The judge found aggravated circumstances while the defense argued that Walton’s childhood was victim of sexual abuse and substance abuse.
8. Explain three-strikes legislation and include an example case summary. Include a reference for the case. a. The 3 strikes law enforces harsher sentences for repeat offenders. In California, they’re usually considered violent offenses enforce a sentence of 25years to life for the third strike. The case of Lockyer v. Andrade is a third strike case in which Andrade was convicted of his third strike for selling video tapes from a local kmart. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/01-1127.ZS.html
9. How many U.S. states currently use capital punishment? What forms of capital punishment are used? 34 states (including military & federal). Methods are lethal injection, gas chamber, hangings, and firing squad.
10. What is the relationship between the Eighth Amendment and capital punishment?
a. It doesn’t allow capital punishment to be misused and excessively abused.
11. ___ Restorative justice____is an attempt to make the criminal whole again and uses the restorative justice sentencing model.
12. List three possible forms of court-ordered restitution:
13. ____hate Crime______ stem from prejudices against one’s race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical disability, or mental disability.
14. Define the following:
a. Incapacitation: refers to the offender’s ability to commit further offences being removed. sexual orientation
b. Rehabilitation and restoration: Rehabilitation is the re-integration into society of a convicted person.
c. Concurrent and consecutive sentencing: Consecutive sentencing means that when a criminal defendant is convicted on multiple counts. the sentences for each must be served one after the other. Concurrent sentencing allows sentences for more than one crime to be served at one time(for the dismissal of other charges in return).
d. Plea bargaining: is an agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some type of concession from the prosecutor.
e. Intermediate sanctions: a term used in regulations enacted by the United States Internal Revenue Service that is applied to non-profit organizations who engage in transactions that inure to the benefit of a disqualified person within the organization.