We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act Essay Sample

The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC
  • Pages:
  • Word count: 620
  • Category: genetic

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all the help you need with your essay and educational goals.

Get Access

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act Essay Sample

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act passed and signed into law by President Bush in 2008 seeks to outlaw any inappropriate usage by employers and health insurers of individual genetic information. It prohibits the use by an employer of a person’s genetic information to decide his or her insurance premiums or the use of such information by employers in making their vital decisions that range from job placement, hiring or any other decisions that regard employees.

The history of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act dates back to the 104th Congress in 1995 where several bills were introduced by the likes of Mark Hatfield and Dianner Feinstein. The bills introduced then were closely related to Genetic Information Nondiscrimination. GINA was introduced in 2007 by Slaughter and senator Showe and passed the vote in the house on April of 2007. It was introduced in the senate by Showe, Kennedy, Enzi and Dodd and it was overwhelmingly supported. From there it was sent to the House of Representatives where it again gained support and was signed into law on May 2008.

According to the act, genetic information refers to an “individuals genetic test results, genetic test results of family members and the occurrence of a disease or disorder in family members, but not information about gender or age of the individual.” (The Week in Congress.Com, 2007)

The passage of the GINA was embroiled into controversy drawing heated debates from the insurers and the general public. The insurers and the employers are prohibited by the law from using individual’s genetic information in consideration of hiring or firing prospects for the employers or in determination of the amount of premium to be paid. Such information should not be used as it is tantamount to modern day discrimination.

The controversy in the process of passage of GINA pitted several stakeholders. NIH National Human Genome Research Institute was one body that was in support of the GINA. It argued that GINA was timely as it would guard against genetic discrimination and would “ensure that biomedical research continues to advance,’ as patients will be “more comfortable availing themselves to genetic diagnostic tests.” (2008) The argument forwarded here is that GINA will play a great role in advancing the study of genetics as by protecting the right to privacy, it will encourage more volunteers to take genetic tests in confidence that such information will not be used against them by employees and health insurers. Stakeholders in opposition to the GINA ranging from employers and health insurers decried the broadness of the act (Marie Godfrey, 2008).

The genetic information non discrimination employment coalition and the National Association of Manufacturers claimed that the bill failed to address the inconsistencies that exist across the states, and that it creates room for punitive litigations against employers and health insurers.

Although GINA will be in force in 2009, it is bound to provide considerable challenges to the employers in terms of its implementation. There are also fears that employers and health insurance companies will be soft targets for litigations, this however is disapproved by the fact that so far the number of litigations have not increased. Future prospects of the act should seek to address this as well as pursuing for the implementation of uniform standards in all the states to eradicate the existing inconsistencies.


National human genome research institute, May 21, 2008. Genetic Discrimination. Retrieved on August 5, 2008 from http://www.genome.gov/10002077#3 TheWeekInCongress.com, April 27, 2007. Managing America: Health. Legislation News & Report. Retrieved on August 5, 2008 from


Marie Godfrey, 2008. Arguments against the genetic nondiscrimination bills. Geneforum. Retrieved on August 5, 2008 from http://www.geneforum.org/node/534

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

The genetic disorder of fibrodysplasia

The genetic disorder of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva has only been recorded about 2500 times since the 1800’s and believed to occur in approximately 1 in 2 million people worldwide (Molecular Consequences of the ACVR1R206H Mutation of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva*). Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva or FOP is a disorder that makes muscle and connective tissue gradually get turned into bone which then in turn inhibits motion. Individuals...

Influencer of obtaining a high IQ

This principal was poorly exemplified throughout this study. Dr. Jarvis has not ruled out any other hypothesis or potential factors. Dr. Jarvis states that milk is solely the single influencer of obtaining a high IQ; however, there are other factors that have a higher impact upon intelligence. For instance, those who live in communities with higher living standards such as high income tend to have...

The organism’s genetic makeup

I chose a subject that is nasty in my opinion, but, I am choosing the scarlet king snake as my subject on natural selection. Decades have gone by since the extinction of the coral snake in parts of the southeast. In its place the scarlet king snake has taken over. “Batesian mimicry, in particular, is when a toxic species is mimicked by a more palatable...

Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering has been an controversial topic due to the many sides that it has an impact on. Some say that genetic engineering can aid the environment, since genes could be manipulated in trees to absorb more CO2 to reduce the threat of global warming[1]- while others ( also in some religious beliefs) ) think that the humans should not have the right to manipulate...

Research Notes - Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

Recombinant DNA Technology Identification and isolation of the desired gene or DNA fragment to be cloned. Insertion of the isolated gen in a suitable vector. Introduction of this vector into a suitable organism or cell called host (transformation). Selection of the transformed host cell, and Multiplication /expression/ integration followed by expression of the introduced gene in the host. A brief description of these steps is...

Get Access To The Full Essay
Materials Daily
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
Free Plagiarism
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.
Sorry, but only registered users have full access

How about getting this access

Become a member

Your Answer Is Very Helpful For Us
Thank You A Lot!


Emma Taylor


Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Can't find What you were Looking for?

Get access to our huge, continuously updated knowledge base

The next update will be in:
14 : 59 : 59
Become a Member