A. Prepositions/Prepositional Phrase
* A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to some other word in a sentence. Rule : A preposition always introduces a phrase. The noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition which introduces the phrase.
* A prepositional phrase is a group of words beginning with a preposition and usually ending with a noun. It usually do the work of adjectives and adverbs in some ways as in an adjective phrase and adverb phrase.
Here are some examples from the texts that shows us the uses of preposition in sentences :
1. Tassai lived on the top of a mesa that looked far out over the Painted Desert.. (Adverb Phrase) * The phrase modifies the verb lived.
2. He told them that the people of three towns were going to meet for a time of dancing and feasting. * Of three towns modifies the noun people.
3. Tassai was one of the very last to come into the open place on that big day. (Adjective Phrase) Note: An adjective phrase may also modify the object of another prepositional phrase. * on that big day modifies the open place which is the object of the preposition into.
4. She liked to lie on the edge of the mesa and look over the desert and dream long dreams .(Adverb Phrase) * The phrase modifies the verb look.
5. She ran into the door and did not notice that
the little white girl who had followed her had stopped just outside the door way. * Into the door and outside the doorway modify the verbs ran and stopped.
B. Tenses of Verbs ( Simple Past Tense)
* The simple past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Rule: Make the simple past form of a verb by adding -ed onto the end of a regular verb but, irregular verb forms have to be learned. * Regular verbs are changed to the simple past by adding ‑ed to the end of the root form. If the verb already ends in ‑e, we just add ‑d. Examples: play – played ,type – typed
* Irregular verbs follow no pattern when they change to the simple past tense. You’ll have to check a dictionary if you’re unsure as to what the past tense might be. Examples: see – saw, build – built
Some verbs don’t change from their present form like put, cut, set, cost, hit.
The following are sentences from the texts that use the simple past form of the verb:
1. She liked to lie on the edge of the mesa and look over the desert and dream long dreams.
2. All through the hours she worked in the fields, Tassai thought of her jar. 3. His voice shook a little so that he had to clear his throat. 4. Tassai had thrown aside the blanket and held the jar unwrapped in her arms. 5. They planned to show all the finest things that they could make so that the white man would change his mind.