The Roles of the Executives and Managers Essay Sample

The Roles of the Executives and Managers Pages
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Introduction

Hotels are not only places one can find great food and comfortable rooms; they are also centers for community life, entertainment, communication, and personal services.1 Thus, it is no surprise that the hospitality industry is labor-intensive; many staff members of all organizational levels are needed. The majority of these employees are entry-level personnel. Their work is directed by supervisors, several of whom were line level employees earlier. These “first-level” managers are critical to the success of the organization. They not only implement procedures and emphasize the organization’s culture, but also serve as the link between staff and higher levels of the organization.

As a team, we interviewed six members of the executive team at Hilton Boston Back Bay: Debra Small, director of Human Resources; Edward Ortiz-Alcantara, manager of Human Resources; Paul Dwyer, Director of Security; Ruth Raposo, Director of Housekeeping; Stan Pendrak, Director of Catering; and John Sparaco, Assistant Banquet Manager. The purpose of our interview sessions was to learn the functions of the department, the roles of the executives/managers, and to understand how the organization functions.

The Seven S Model is a useful tool for companies to determine what works in their organizations. The hard variables – Structure, Strategy, and Systems – must align with the soft variables – Skills, Style, Staff, and Shared Values – in order for the organization to perform well (Exhibit A). This paper will analyze Hilton Back Bay and their use of the Seven S Model to determine organizational alignment.

2. SHARED VALUES: CULTURE:

* Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is like “the operating system” of the organization. It guides how employees think, act and feel. 3 Neither the company, nor the individual employee will progress unless a solid framework of values is instituted within the company.

The hotel industry, in all respects, “from its clientele, locality, or labor market,” is probably the most culturally diverse of all industries.4 Thus, Hilton’s organizational culture revolves around its people, its brands and high standard expectations in the way they operate around the world.5 These values are centered around employees, the environment, customers and their community. Every employee considers the Hilton working environment as a ‘big happy family’. Managers at Hilton believe that this value and the positive working environment hold them together, and make them love their jobs. Providing a rich cultural environment motivates employees, maintains a satisfied staff and develops a better relationship between the managers and their employees.6 They believe that these values help them cope with different circumstances and work with different people from different backgrounds. These values form the common ground for them to work together. Managers at Hilton, such as Ms. Raposo, manager of Housekeeping, says “Even though it’s a strict working environment, seeing friendly faces all around me makes me feel like I am a part of one big happy family”.

3. STRUCTURE:

* Organizational Structure

In order to be successful, an organization must have an organizational structure that is consistent with the goals, strategies, policies, and procedures set forth. Hilton implements a formal hierarchy, which assigns legitimate power to individuals, who then use this power to direct work processes and allocate resources. Hilton operates under a mechanistic structure with a focus on a functional structure of departmentalization. As seen in Exhibit B, Hilton operates with a narrow span of control and high degrees of formalization and centralization. Regarding the Housekeeping Department, Ms. Raposo stated that her department is highly functional where her team members work in their specific field (i.e. housekeeping and laundry). An important advantage of this structure is that they foster professional identity and clarify career paths. Direct supervision is easier because managers have experience in that functional area and employees approach them with common problems and issues.7 By using functional structures, Hilton “creates an economy of scale that would not exist if functional specialists were spread over different parts of the organization.”8

4. STYLE:

* Leadership

“I define leadership as leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that represent the values and the motivations, the wants and the needs, the aspiration and the expectations, of both leaders and followers”9. Being aware of the organization’s common goal, the managers should lead their workers in a way that would motivate them to work towards that common goal.

However, different leaders have their own unique ways of leading their workers. At Hilton, the managers have a common leadership style: people-oriented leadership. They are highly concerned about their employees and believe that the only way to earn their ‘team members’ respect and achieve the goal of their department is by giving them respect in return and showing that they appreciate their hard work. Mr. Pendrak, the Catering Department Director says “I believe in managing my team the way that I would want to be managed. I try to keep an open-door policy with my team at all times, and emphasize the power of making decisions for the betterment of the team”. While a few managers freely allow their employees to participate in the decision making, the others only accept ‘suggestions’ from their workers. “What a leader does is less to motivate than to liberate, involve, make people accountable and cause them to reach for their potential” 10.

At Hilton, managers like Mr. Dwyer believes that to be an efficient and successful leader, he needs to involve team members in each major task, understand their needs and support their decisions. “I consider myself a working boss because I would never ask someone to do something that I would not do myself. I help people; they help me”. Rather than being an autocratic leader, each manager believes in leading in a democratic way, by giving each employee a chance to express himself/herself. Hilton managers believe in equality. They place themselves in the workers shoes and consider what they feel about their job. They would “never ask a worker to do anything that they would never want to do.” For example, Ms. Raposo says, “There is nothing here that I haven’t done. I have kicked off my shoes and buffed the floor. I didn’t know how to make beds. The first time it took me 15 minutes to make the bed. And that’s a lot of time, considering the tight schedule each team member has. But I did it. To earn the respect of each team member, I work with them on a personal basis.”

The managers at Hilton believe that an effective leader is one who builds a trustworthy, respectful, and friendly relationship with their workers. However, some managers do not allow their team members the liberty to voice individual opinions and participate in the decision making process. Managers should practice participative leadership by letting their employees make decisions, which gives them a sense of job satisfaction and a feeling of empowerment.

. Also, focusing highly on their workers might lead the managers at Hilton to ignore their production. It is equally important for a manager to give importance to their task (production) as it is to consider their employees. In the hotel industry, competition is extremely intense, and it is expected that each corporation has a high level of productivity in order to satisfy the customers’ needs. Unless leaders drive their employees to pay special attention to their jobs, this expectation cannot be held. Therefore, it is pertinent for a successful and effective leader to be people-oriented and task oriented. Hilton managers should use the Leadership Grid (Managerial Grid) to asses their current positions as a people-oriented or task-oriented leader. By using this, leaders can improve their work quality by focusing on the negative aspects of their leadership skills.

5. STAFF:

* Selection, Training, and Evaluation of Employees

“The hiring and training of people that have the capacity and skills sets to deliver quality service is the first step to guest satisfaction,” B. Thomas Goliano, CEO of Hilton Corporation once said. The first step in the hiring process is to select potential employees, who are thoroughly screened against “developed criteria, specifications, and a quality management culture.”11 Each employee should be matched against the ideal to evaluate their suitability for the job.12 At Hilton Hotels, the hiring process begins with the Human Resources department. According to Ms. Debra Small, “Every applicant goes through the interview process and then we [Human Resources] decide which candidates suit specific departments.”

Training allows management to make more effective use of manpower. It not only provides the means for enhancing performance of employees working at less than their best, but also for making better use of staff already working well.13 Training is necessary to meet performance goals in the hospitality industry. 14 There are six basic steps in the training process (Exhibit C). Hilton implements these six steps in their Training and Development process. The first part of the Hilton’s training begins with the “New Team Member Orientation.” This mandatory orientation introduces new team members to goals and expectations of the hotel as well as identifying the importance of member contribution. This is also the process that engages the new member in his/her new work environment. The second portion of the training process is “Departmental Orientation.” This orientation focuses on the work area, tools, and skills of the job.

It is also when training-on-the job begins using the Hilton Brand specific Standards, known as “Performance for Excellence.” 15 Implementing a hands-on- experience is an advantage because it allows team members to learn at a faster pace, thus more productivity. The objective of training should be to help employees better perform their jobs. In order for this to happen, it is necessary for the employee to understand exactly what their job entails.16 Hilton fulfills this objective thoroughly during the training and development process. During training, the new team member identifies with the motivational core job characteristics of the job characteristics mode. Hilton’s orientation sessions inform the new team members on what their level of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job feedback is. In turn, these characteristics set the basis for job motivation. Training also encourages employee cohesiveness. Employees who have similar values and skills will have more of an inclination to work together. By grouping employees together, training is easier because of task similarity and the opportunity to learn from each other.17

After the selection of new team members and the training and development process, performance appraisal and evaluation is the ongoing responsibility of every leader. 18 The first evaluation new team members receive at Hilton is a 90-day introductory period. As Mr. Ortiz-Alcantara, manager of Human Resources, explained, “This period evaluates the employee to make sure they are aligning with their position. If they are not, they will then be relocated to another department that suits them better.” The introduction period is very important because employees need to fit in with their working environment to increase job satisfaction. After this initial evaluation, new team members are then re-evaluated one year after the hire date by their supervisors. This re-evaluation requires “a three-page form that grades the employees in specific regions.” There are nine aspects of evaluating performance (Exhibit D).

At Hilton, different managers implement different types of evaluations. For example, Ms. Raposo, director of Housekeeping, she says “evaluates [her] team members based on their performance and their motivation level. If they show keenness towards working on special projects without being mentioned to, they automatically are positively evaluated. I believe employees can show their eagerness to work by being well-informed.” Performance evaluations should also be conducted periodically to inform team members of how they are doing and if their work is satisfactory or not.19 Mr. Pendrak, director of Catering, does exactly this within his own department. “Employees are evaluated and issues are reviewed as a group at weekly departmental meetings. Individual employee assessment is completed once a quarter.” Hilton’s performance evaluations encourage motivation by allowing team members to see that their rewards are directly proportional to their efforts. It also helps develop as well as reinforce their organization’s culture.

* Individuals & Teams

“No individual is more important than the other. People on the team share varying degrees of responsibility, but the success of the team is really determined by the performance of each individual and the contribution of the individual makes the team effort” – General George S. Patton on Teams.

Today, teams are replacing individuals as the basic building blocks of organizations. The hospitality industry requires the coordinated efforts of a large number of staff members to come together and work cooperatively as a team.20 At Hilton Hotels, employees are called “Team Members.” Each department is a team and all teams work together to properly accommodate service and products to guests. This is more formally known as “Individual Hospitality Department Teams.” 21 Each department manager we interviewed emphasized the importance of cross-functional communication of different departments. Mr. Paul Dwyer, director of Security, explained that it was pertinent his department inform all other departments about any safety and security issues. Likewise, Ms. Raposo explained that Housekeeping “must also communicate directly with the Front Desk in order to ensure that sufficient supplies are available and there are personnel in place to fulfill the customer needs.”

Hilton’s departments are team-organized departments, where they have a supervisor and team members interact and coordinate work activities directly with each other. Teamwork involves a feeling of belonging; it is present in an organization that is characterized by “cohesion, mutual warmth and support, trust, and pride.” 22 Most departments at Hilton have a smaller team size, have similarity in skills, and interact on a regular basis, which enhances higher levels of cohesion and motivates team members to work together. The key to effective performance of an organization is a good “team” dynamic. If a team gets along well, the company prospers because the staff is happy. 23 Hilton proves to be no exception to creating this dynamic and synergy between team members. In order to improve the function of the team, Hilton managers implement team building activities. Ms. Raposo implements team building activities such as, “organizing events like Potluck dinners on special occasions like Mother’s Day as well as organizing different events for each day of the National Appreciation week.” Mr. Pendrak builds team member relations by “going out with each other to celebrate any special occasions for the team. For example, we go bowling as a group or go out for some drinks.”

After performing a project, adjourning and giving feedback is crucial to team development.24 Understanding where the team went wrong is essential to prevent future mistakes. Interaction between people is essential thus meetings are an important part of team building.25 Regularly scheduled staff meetings in each Hilton Hotel department are planned to keep the team members informed thus providing smooth functionality of the team.

* Employee Participation

“Empowerment has clearly become the latest in a long litany of vogue practices that have ebbed and flowed over corporations like the changing of the tide. Many (corporations) utilize an advanced form of empowerment called self-directed work teams.” 26 An example of the effective use of self-directed work teams is in the Housekeeping Department at Hilton. A housekeeper is assigned to a specific floor based on experience and years with the hotel. This housekeeper is assigned an assistant and works in conjunction with the other members of the Housekeeping Department. Their responsibilities include the management of their floor, the inflows and outflows of their work, and the correction of problems. The housekeepers receive feedback from a guest upon check-out through a guest feedback form. One of the major benefits of employee involvement is the improvement of decision quality (Exhibit E). With the adoption of self-directed work teams, Hilton “should enjoy higher productivity and quality, leading to lower costs and higher product demand”. 27

6. SYSTEMS:

* Motivation

“Motivation is not something that a manager does so that employees will ‘come to work motivated.’ Motivation must be viewed as an outgrowth of meaningful work. For work to have meaning it must be designed to challenge the employee.”28 All Hilton managers and team members follow Alderfer’s ERG Theory of motivation. ERG theory groups human needs into three broad categories: existence, relatedness, and growth.

Existence needs include such things as food, shelter, and safe working conditions. These factors are so basic to worker performance that they have a strong negative impact on morale and motivation if they’re neglected by managers.29 At Hilton, team members are given free meals during their shift. Also, team members who have been employed by Hilton for at least six months can take advantage of the Complimentary Room Program. Regarding working conditions, team members need adequate equipment, space, heating, lighting, and ventilation. They should be able to enjoy the environment in which they perform their jobs. A way to improve working conditions at Hilton is to add vibrant colors to the walls and play popular music in the work areas. These factors will make the team members more satisfied, thus increasing their motivation to perform.

Relatedness needs include a person’s need to interact with other people, receive public recognition, and feel secure around people. “The employer should provide an environment of acceptance, confidence, mutual trust, and openness toward employees.”30 Most of the managers interviewed stated that a factor that keeps them motivated is the friendly environment and the close-knit bond they share. Ms. Raposo does an excellent job in creating interpersonal relationships with her 62 team members by sharing “secrets” from a book called 101 Secrets of Happy People. This innovativeness proves to her team members that she wants to keep them interested in their jobs. More departments at Hilton should incorporate non-work related activities to keep their team members motivated.

Growth needs consist of a person’s self-esteem through personal achievement as well as the concept of self-actualization. All managers interviewed stated that a personal motivational factor is the constant room for growth. Mr. Dwyer says “I have come so far with this company and I have grown so much, that it is exciting to see where this can take me.” Even though these managers show ambition toward their own careers, they still need to be focused on satisfying their clients and team members. Mr. Pendrak states that “the true challenge for me is to try and find a balance between satisfying clients and satisfying myself for growth in the company.” All managers at Hilton should adopt this approach to ensure maximum opportunities for everyone involved.

* Communication

“Accurate and full communication— the giving or exchange of information, ideas, and feelings through talking, writing, or signs— is vital to the health or an organization.”31 In order for successful communications to occur, employees require a high level of communication competence. After employees determine the appropriate communication patterns, they utilize the communications process model (see Exhibit F), which assists in the transmittal of messages and feedback. There are many different ways to transmit information through an organization, such as verbal and nonverbal communication.

Electronic mail (e-mail), a form of nonverbal communication, is relied on heavily at Hilton. Mr. Ortiz-Alcantara, from the Human Resources Department, stated that “any communication between cross-functional departments is done mainly through e-mail”. This communication channel is preferred because of the simplicity of coordinating work and for sending well-defined information for decision making. “The use of e-mail tends to increase the volume of communication and significantly alters the flow of that information throughout the organization”. 32 In addition to the abundant use of e-mail by all employees, managers of Hilton are given Nextel cellular phones that must be turned on at all times. The use of cellular phones emphasizes verbal communication channels between departments, making the interdepartmental communication a successful aspect of Hilton.

Another effective communication channel is the use of an open-door policy for employees. According to Mr. Pendrak, he likes to keep an open-door at all times to ensure the maximum level of communication and to “emphasize the power of making decisions for the betterment of the team”. When employees can see how their contributions improve a process, they are more likely to feel a connection to the organization. Employees strive when they feel that they are essential in the survival of the business.33 More managers at Hilton should emphasize an open-door policy to ensure effective communication.

A high level of interdepartmental communication determines the extent of knowledge for all employees. Banquet meetings are held three times per week. These meetings are headed by Mr. Pendrak, and include six departments. These are informational meetings which review the details of the upcoming corporate and social events. Even though these meetings are beneficial for the departments involved, the Front Office department should also be involved to maximize communication. As seen in Exhibit G, the Front Office is the centralized unit of hotel management. Hilton should involve the Front Office Department with all the interdepartmental meetings because they are the hub of the organization. The employees of this department are in direct contact with hotel guests and should be well informed on all issues regarding the hotel. These meetings would be beneficial for the other managers to implement and to improve the communication process.

Another important aspect to the communication process is the transmittal of feedback. The ability to give and receive constructive feedback is an essential skill for managers and team members alike. “A control system is useless unless it provides those and authority with the information they require in order to manage the business effectively. Making such feedback available to all levels in the organization may help to develop and indeed motivate the staff.” 34 While providing feedback is a very important part of effective interpersonal communication, receiving feedback is essential to this level of effectiveness. The duty of the receiver is to be an active listener (see Exhibit H). Though all departments interviewed stated that feedback and evaluation periods occur, there was no mention of employees providing feedback on their department or managers’ performances. It would be beneficial to the company if surveys were completed by all employees regarding the company’s performance (see Exhibit I).

The use of employee surveys is very important to an organization because it “can help top management to understand employee problems and can give employees some feeling of participation and value to the organization”.35 Mr. Dwyer, Director of Security, states that constant interaction and feedback are what makes his department run smoothly. These tasks are less complicated for Mr. Dwyer’s department because of its rather small size. However, for the Housekeeping Department, employee surveys should be utilized to get a full understanding of all team members’ positions. Some housekeepers have been working for Hilton for over fifteen years and their expertise in the field can thoroughly advance Hilton’s position.

7. SKILLS:

* Conflict Resolution and Problem Solving

Conflict management is one of the many important aspects of an effective manager. If conflict is disregarded, it can slow down the achievement of goals. Properly managed, conflict can be constructive and helpful.36

Conflict resolution is a process that focuses on regulating disputes so that people in opposition can rise above their individual viewpoints and see possibilities of working together in a “mutually supportive” ways.37 Each manager that was interviewed cited conflict as a significant aspect of management in the hotel industry. At Hilton, all managers manage conflict using the same tactics. They resolve conflicts by attempting third-party conflict negotiation. As a neutral person, managers at Hilton can resolve differences efficiently, effectively, and fairly.

If a conflict cannot reach the area of potential agreement; the individual department head forwards the case to the HR Department. HR will evaluate the situation and take the necessary action, which may result in the employee termination.For instance, Miss Raposo’s strategy for conflict management is simply to ‘get the two team members to [my] office and ask them to talk it through’. She does not allow the employees to ignore their problems, since she believes that avoiding trivial conflicts might lead to greater problems in future. Likewise, Ms. Small also believes in solving the problem as soon it occurs and moving on. She tries to maintain a friendly working environment by forcing employees to attend different communicational work shops.

It is very important for management to recognize the sources of such conflicts and make sure that such disputes do not arise in future again. At Hilton, conflicts are successfully managed. The management intervenes as the third party who is then able to look at the conflict through a different perspective. Effectively negotiating attempts to end in a win – win situation, which results in an maximizing the benefits and minimizes the ugly consequences of the conflicts.

* Quality and Performance

As of today, organizations are satisfied if their customers are satisfied. However, many organizations like Hilton believe that their goal is to achieve its customers’ loyalty.38 Hilton serves it’s customers by addressing the customers needs and set their environment in such a way that their customers always leave the hotel with a sense of satisfaction. They believe that in an industry like that of hotel industry “the winners – those companies who can deliver for their guests, customers, employees, shareholders and owners – will be those with the best brands…the best locations…size and scale…the best people…attractive marketing programs…and financial strength. Few fit the bill. Hilton Hotels Corporation stands above the rest”.39 According to Mr. Robert E. Dirks, the Vice President of Hilton Group, “If Hilton Hotels & Resorts can identify ways to help guests perform or feel better when away from home, then we want to be able to provide these travelers with the means to do so.” 40

In order to ensure this type of quality, Hilton tracks internal and external performance along with customer satisfaction and loyalty through a number of processes. They follow the Strategic Performance and Management System, which uses the Balanced Scorecard and the Customer Satisfaction Tracking System (Exhibit J) 41. They also use OnQ, which is an IT driven tool. This tool helps Hilton to keep track their guests and their preference from all over the nation. OnQ is extremely helpful in judging the level of satisfaction that was achieved by staying at Hilton 42. Hilton also established an institute called the Hilton Quality Service Institute that provides intensive service workshops. It also educates each employee on the hospitality programs and service philosophy. They also have an ongoing cultural philosophy called “the 100% Satisfaction Guarantee” through which they “commit to high quality accommodations, friendly and efficient service, and clean comfortable surroundings, for all guests”. 43

In this rapidly changing environment, it is important for each company in every industry to align their positions to change. At Hilton, the management is well equipped with the latest information technological tools to ensure their productivity level is as expected. For example, they use Customer Satisfaction Tracking System to make sure that their customers are satisfied and their loyalties lie with Hilton. Latest technological equipments open up new business opportunities, allow companies to compete globally and also help to improve and strengthen the employee-management relations by keeping in constant touch. Hilton has an advantage by improving the quality of their service and enriching their performance by utilizing these management tools.

8. STRATEGY

* Conclusion

At Hilton Back Bay, the organizational culture fosters an environment that is connected with the hard variables and soft variables of the Seven S Model. Hilton’s friendly, “one big happy family” culture motivates team members to work effectively together and remain with the organization. All the managers effectively lead their team members democratically as well as coaching to create a strong bond. Quality and performance directed toward customer service is an important aspect at Hilton. They successfully achieve this goal by implementing several information technology tools. Although Hilton’s organization is aligned with the Seven S Model, communication should be improved between team members and their managers. With the employees giving feedback to managers, a closer network and working environment should be created to achieve organizational goals. Furthermore, Hilton should also involve their employees in the decision making process. This will only lead to a stronger staff with more motivation and job satisfaction. In conclusion, we feel that Hilton has aligned the Seven S’s in their organization. It is evident that their management works as a system and their vision is aligned in every aspect of the company.

Endnotes

1. Henkin, Shepard. Opportunities in Hotel and Motel Management Careers. Chicago: VGM Career Books, 2001. p. 2

2. Daschler, John P. and Jack D. Ninemeier. Hospitality Management Library. Vol. 13. East Lansing: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association,1984. p.1

3. McNamara, Carter. “The Management Assistance Program for Non-Profits.” Organizational

Culure. 19 March 1999.<http://www.mapnp.org/library/org_thry/culture/culture.htm>

4. Smith, Henry Clay. Psychology of Industrial Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1964. p. 253.

5. Goldsmith, Alistair L., Dennis P. Nickson, Donald H. Sloan, and Roy C. Wood. Human Resource Management for Hospitality Services. London: International Thomson Business Press, 1997. p 64.

6. Hilton Group Plc. “A letter from David Michels.” <http://www.hiltongroup.com/>.

7. Cassee, Ewout and Rudolf Reuland. The Management of Hospitality. New York: Pergamon Press. 1983. p. 42.

8. Burns, T. and G. Stalker. The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock, 1961.p. 4

9. Robey, Designing Organizations, p. 186-189.

10. Jones, Peter and Lockwood Andrew. People and the Hotel and Catering Industry. London: Cassell Publishers Limited. 1984.p. 110

11. Lewis, Robert C. and Richard E. Chambers. Marketing Leadership in Hospitality. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold,1989.p. 42

12. Cullen, Noel C. Team Power: Managing Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry.

Upper Saddle River: Prentice Halls, Co., 2001. p.162

13. Lockwood, Andrew and Peter Jones. People and the Hotel and Catering Industry. Cassell Publishers Limited, 1984. p. 29

14. Jones, Christine and Val Paul. Accommodation Management. London: Batsford Academic and Educational, 1985. p.127

15. Forrest, Lewis C. Jr. Training for the Hospitality Industry: Techniques to Improve Job Performance. East Lansing: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association, 1983. p. 11

16. Hilton Boston Back Bay: Team Member Handbook.” Hilton Hotels.

17. Forrest, Lewis C. Jr. Training for the Hospitality Industry: Techniques to Improve Job Performance. East Lansing: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association, 1983. p. 36

18. Rutherford, Denney G., ed. Hotel Management and Operations. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995. p. 96

19. Cullen, Noel C. Team Power: Managing Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Halls, Co., 2001. p. 239

20. Cullen, Noel C. Team Power: Managing Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Halls, Co., 2001. p. 239

21. Forrest, Lewis C. Jr. Training for the Hospitality Industry: Techniques to Improve Job Performance. East Lansing: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association, 1983. p. 247

22. Cullen, Noel C. Team Power: Managing Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry.

Upper Saddle River: Prentice Halls, Co., 2001. p. 40

23. Lane, Harold E. and Mark van Hartevelt. Essentials of Hospitality Adminstration. Reston: Reston Publishing Company, Inc., 1983. p. 116-117

24. Grigg Darryl, Jennifer Newman, “Three Steps to building a good team; Groups no longer work in the same location, but they can work together, nevertheless,” Edmonton Journal, October 16th, 2002; Careers. p. F7.

25. Forrest, Lewis C. Jr. Training for the Hospitality Industry: Techniques to Improve Job

Performance. East Lansing: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association, 1983. p. 73

26. Employee involvement, Employee-Centered Management, and Empowerment.?HRM Guide Network. 8 November 2003. <http://www.bestbooks.biz/hrm/employee_involvement2.htm>.

27. Price, Alan. Human Resource Management in a Business Context. Thomson Learning. November, 2003.

28. Hospitality Management Library. Training. 2nd edition. Volume 14 Lewis C. Forrest, Jr. 1990.

East Lansing, Michigan. Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association. p.294.

29. Hospitality Management Library. Human Resources. Volume 12. David Wheelhouse. 1989. East Lansing, Michigan. Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association. p.200.

30. Hospitality Management Library. Human Resources. Volume 12. David Wheelhouse. 1989. East Lansing, Michigan. Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association. p.202.

31. Smith, Henry Clay. “Psychology of Industrial Behavior. 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1964.

32. C.S. Saunders, D. Robey, and K.A. Vaverek, “The Persistence of Status Differentials in

Computer Conferencing,” Human Communications Research 20 (1994), pp. 443-72;

33. “Managing Business – and People – in the Post-September 11 Era.” The Management Magazine of the American Hotel & Lodging Association December 2001. p. 39-40.

34. Lockwood, Andrew and Peter Jones. People and the Hotel and Catering Industry. Great Britain: Cassell. 1984.

35. Abbey, James R., Dunnovan L. Sapienza, and Jerome J. Vallen, eds. Readings on Managing Hotels, Restaurants, and Institutions. Rochelle Park: Hayden Book Company, Inc., 1977. p. 56

36. Daschler, John P. and Jack D. Ninemeier. Hospitality Management Library. Vol. 13. East Lansing: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association, 1984. p.238 (CONFLICT section)

37. Yarbrough, Elaine. Artful Mediation. Boulder: Cairns Publishing, 1995. p.xv (CONFLICT)

38. Nunley, Roger H. The Customer Care Institute. “Customer Service Doesn’t Cut it Anymore.” 1993. <http://www.customercare.com/library/research/pdf/Loyalty_Nunley.pdf

39. The Hilton Family. “Feel At Home No Matter Where Your Travel Takes You.” <http://www.hiltonworldwide.com/en/ww/brand/brand.jhtml>.

40. The Hilton Family. “Scientific Study of Business Travelers Shows Significant Gap Between Perception and Reality.” 4 November 2003. http://www.corporate-ir.net/ireye/ir_site.zhtml?ticker=HLT&script=412&layout=9&item_id=466412

41. Norton, David P. “Using the Balanced Score Card.” 30 August 2003. <http://ebook.realbuy.ws/B00005REHD.html>.

42. Cuneo, Eileen Colkin. Information Week. “Hilton’s $5O Million Answer”. May 26, 2003

43. The Hilton Family. “Corporate History.” <http://www.hiltonworldwide.com/en/ww/company_info/corporate_history.jhtml>.

Works Cited

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Daschler, John P. and Jack D. Ninemeier. Hospitality Management Library. Vol. 13. East Lansing: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association, 1984.

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Banquet Department

Interviewee: John Sparaco

Title: Assistant Banquet Manager

Yrs of employment: 3.5 years

Phone: (617) 710-7029

Address: 40 Dalton Street

Boston, MA 02215

Time & Place of interview: October 21, 2003 in Hilton offices

Interviewers: Erin Cluney, Abhishek Gupta, Cindy Kao, and Sneha Rateria

Job Description – prepares banquets; makes sure that everything is functioning smoothly; head of the decision making process; main function is the delegation of tasks; involved in the billing process for banquets

1) How is the Banquet department managed? What is the Structure?

– The Banquet department consists of 6 people:

2 Assistants� 3 Directors � Assistant Banquet Manager

2) Is there any teamwork within the company? Do you encourage employee participation and involvement?

– The Banquet, Sales, Marketing, and Kitchen departments are constantly working together to perform everyday duties of Hilton. Basically, everything that the Banquet Department is involved in is team-work based. Even though the assistants of the Banquet Department are not involved in the decision-making process, employees do take it upon themselves to participate.

– Banquet meetings are held on every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of the week. These meetings are headed by Mr. Stan Pendrak, Director of Catering, and include the following departments: Kitchen, Catering, Restaurant, Banquet, Audio/Visual, and Housekeeping Departments. These are informational meetings which review the details of the upcoming events.

3) What is your definition of leadership? How do you lead your department?

– Respect your employees and they will respect you.

– Mr. Sparaco believes that he manages according to the democratic leadership style.

4) What types of rewards are given to employees to ensure they stay motivated?

– There are always privileges that employees receive from working in the hotel industry, such as free hotel rooms in any of Hilton hotels nationwide.

– Another key motivator for employees is the constant opportunity for growth within the company. Mr. Sparaco started as an on-call server for Hilton for about a three year period. Since then, he has progressed through the hierarchy of the organization to the Assistant Banquet Manager.

5) The hotel industry has been at a low and many hotels have been cutting costs. Has cutting costs resulted in employee reduction or salary cuts?

– Hilton in Back Bay has made no cutbacks with the economic downturn of 9/11. No employee has been fired as a result of this event.

– In the recent past, Hilton has held huge corporate .com parties, which would be tremendously profitable for Hilton. The company and the staff have realized that this .com phase has come to an end and they will never experience a time like that again.

6) Do you experience an overall job satisfaction? Why?

– Mr. Sparaco explains that he has a general satisfaction in completing his duties every day at Hilton. Furthermore, he explained that he would stay with Hilton even if a competitor came along and offered him a better job. He recalled that he used to be a store manager for a CVS store which has proved that he has come a long way.

7) What are the frustrations of being a manager?

– The one most frustrating aspect of being a manager and interacting with people is their different personalities. Sometimes, it is challenging to work with people who think and act differently than you do. You can’t change a person; you just have to work with them.

8) What is the process of resolving conflict?

– Any type of conflict within the Banquet Department stays within the department. Usually, they hold one-on-one meetings with the assistants of the department. All conflicts are encouraged to be dealt with in a mature manner.

– Also, employees of the Banquet Department are reminded that they are lucky to have jobs. They should realize this and act in a professional way to get their jobs done.

9) Describe the employee training process.

– The Banquet Department does not complete any hiring of new employees. All new employees are hired by the Human Resources Department. Also, they are pre-screened and pre-trained before working in the department.

– As part of the employee training process, Hilton Corporation provides workshops for new and existing employees regarding harassment and management training.

10) Do you receive any special benefits from Hilton?

– Mr. Sparaco explains that he receives no cash bonuses for himself.

11) What are your goals as a manager?

– Mr. Sparaco’s goals are to wake up each morning and make sure that he does a good job at work. This is a learning process, so he intends on learning something new everyday, whether it be from himself or his co-workers.

– Another goal is to move up in the corporation. There is always room for growth in the hotel industry, and if he stays with Hilton long enough, he can be promoted to a new position.

Security Department

Interviewee: Paul Dwyer

Title: Director of Security

Yrs of employment: 14 years; 8 years as Director

Phone: (617) 867-6166

Address: 40 Dalton Street

Boston, MA 02215

Time & Place of Interview: October 21, 2003 in Hilton offices

Interviewers: Erin Cluney, Cindy Kao, Abhishek Gupta, and Sneha Rateria

Job Description – watches over and provides for the general safety of the entire job; a 24 hour/ 7 days a week job. Before being the Director of Security, Mr. Dwyer was a security guard and an Assistant Director, so he is fully aware of all the duties for each employee.

1) How is the Security department managed? What is the Structure?

– The Security department consists of 11 people:

General Hotel Manager

�

6 Security Officers� 4 Managers � Director of Security

– Since this department is very small, everyone is involved in the general decision-making process.

2) How do you evaluate your employees?

– Employees receive written evaluations every 90 days. Also, they receive more formal and in-depth written evaluations on a yearly basis.

– There are no formal meeting times for the department because security is a 24/7 job. However, they have smaller departmental meetings at 3:00pm, when there is a shift change.

3) What is your definition of leadership? How do you lead your department?

– Leadership is the ability of a group to come together to accomplish a common goal.

– I consider myself a working boss because I would never ask someone to do something that I would not do myself. I help people; they help me!

4) Describe the employee training program.

– The hiring of new employees is done by the Human Resources Department. After being pre-screened, these new employees are individually interviewed by the Security Department.

5) What keeps you motivated to stay with Hilton?

– There are always new challenges that come up with this job. It is always very interesting and changing. Constant room for growth is a factor that always keeps me motivated. I have come so far with this company and I have grown so much, that it is exciting to see where this can take me.

6) What are your goals as a manager?

– One of the goals of being a manager is to have everything run smoothly. To have everyone feeling safe when they are in this hotel is a personal goal that I need to accomplish everyday.

– Also, I like to constantly interact with my employees because this will make me aware of their issues and concerns. Constant interaction and feedback makes this department run smoothly.

7) What are the frustrations of being a manager?

– The two most frustrating aspects of being a manager is staffing and high employee turnover. Extensive training goes into the process of hiring new Security Officers, so it is very frustrating when they don’t stay with the company very long.

8) What is the process of resolving conflict?

– People don’t necessarily have to like each other but they have to work with each other. Emphasis on talking the problem out is encouraged. Because of the small size of the department, conflicts are brought to the attention of a manger or the director almost immediately. Almost all the time, conflicts are kept within the Security Department. The conflict is brought to the Human Resources Department only if it cannot be resolved otherwise.

9) After 9/11, there was a huge increase in national security. What steps did you take to ensure that all guests and employees at Hilton Back Bay were safe?

– We have always prided ourselves on keeping the utmost level of security for Hilton. We have strict practices that must be upheld every day. After 9/11, there was a small tweaking of some of our everyday procedures. However, there were no major changes in Hilton’s security policies and procedures.

10) How does communication flow within your department?

– The Security Department relies heavily on the use of e-mail within the department as well as interdepartmentally. For example, if engineering were to be working on the pipes during the day, and the water would be turned off for a few hours. The Engineering Department would then e-mail the Director of Security, who then e-mails all of his security guards with the information. This happens within a matter of five minutes, so employees are given the most up-to-date information required to complete their duties.

– Along with the informal meetings held at shift change, there are quarterly formal meetings. These meetings are to provide all employees of pertinent changes regarding Hilton Corporation. Once again, these small departmental meetings are a way to engage in constant feedback with Security Officers, Managers, and the Director.

Human Resources Department

Interviewee: Debra Small

Title: Director of HR department

Yrs of employment: 4.5 years

Phone: (617) 867-6123

Address: 40 Dalton Street

Boston, MA 02215

Time & Place of Interview: October 21, 2003 in Hilton offices

Interviewers: Erin Cluney, Abhishek Gupta, Cindy Kao, and Sneha Rateria

Job Description – manages and overlooks the HR department; reports to General Manager of Hilton Back Bay as well as Northeast Vice President of HR

Interviewee: Edward Ortiz-Alcantara

Title: HR Manager

Yrs of employment: 1996-2001, 2 yr leave of absence, present

Phone: (617)867-6124

Address: 40 Dalton Street

Boston, MA 02215

Time & Place of Interview: October 21, 2003 in Hilton offices

Interviewers: Erin Cluney, Abhishek Gupta, Cindy Kao, and Sneha Rateria

Job Description – administrative work; interacts more with employees

1) What are the specific functions of the Human Resources department?

– Coordinates and schedules employee training sessions

– Implements employee training

– Develops and implements employee benefits

– Resolves employee issues

– Coordinates recognition programs

2) How is the HR department managed? What is the Structure?

– The HR department consists of 3 people:

General Hotel Manager Northeastern VP of HR

Training Manager � HR Manager � Director of HR

3) What is the process of resolving conflict?

– Hilton has an open-door policy. The HR department encourages that the employees try and resolve conflicts within their department first. If conflicts cannot be resolved, employees should bring it to the attention of the HR department.

– The first step we take in resolving conflicts is to identify the problem. For example, if it is between two people. Each person will discuss individually what they feel the problem is. Then we will bring the two people together and address each other’s concerns. Solutions will be made and implemented.

4) What are your policies on sexual harassment?

– We require all our employees to go through extensive harassment training. Currently, there is a new program that has just been created that is mandatory for all employees. Employees go through this extensive and intensive training session once a year and have follow-up/refresher sessions every few months. We are very strict in enforcing this policy: for employees who refuse to attend harassment training, they will be asked to leave the company. If there is a harassment incident, the accused is suspended until a formal investigation is complete. If the accused is found guilty, there is a zero-tolerance policy and the accused will be terminated from their position.

5) What is the process of hiring new employees and the specifications required?

– Hilton is an equal opportunities corporation. We follow specific guidelines and have extensive reporting in our hiring process. Every applicant goes through the interview process and then we decide which candidates suit specific departments. We also implement an IT system called the ERMA tracking system. The system tracks how many employees work for us and the titles of their positions.

6) How do you evaluate employees?

– All new employees go through a 90-day probation period. This period evaluates the employee to make sure they are aligned with their position. If they are not aligned, they will be relocated to another department that suits them better. All employees are then re-evaluated one year after their hire date. This re-evaluation consists of a three-page form that grades the employees in specific regions. In addition, all managers are evaluated once a year.

7) Does the company offer any development or benefits programs?

– Hilton has a “Life Balance” program. This program is open to all employees whenever needed. Life Balance is an employee assistance program, which is paid for by Hilton Corporation. This program offers free advice on any subject and is completely confidential. For example, an employee could be looking for quality childcare around the area. Life Balance will go through all the childcare programs around the area and tell that employee the best options they could choose from.

8) Does the company offer a reward-based system?

– HR is in charge of the recognition program. There are two types of awards: the Pride Award and the Leadership Award. The Pride Award is given every month to an employee. The managers from each department nominate a candidate. Then, the executive board meets and votes on which employee should receive the award. The General Manager presents a plaque and cash bonus to the recipient. The Leadership Award is awarded to a manager each quarter and is similar to the Pride Award.

9) How does communication flow within the organization?

– Each week we have an executive meeting where all managers of different departments meet with the General Manager of the hotel. The purpose of the meeting it to make sure everyone is aware of the happenings of the hotel. Then, it is the responsibility of the managers to bring back any news to their employees.

– Each month there is a Town Hall meeting where all employees meet to discuss what is going on in the hotel and how things are doing.

– Any communication between departments is done mainly through email. We rely heavily on our e-mail system. Also, all managers carry a Nextel phone and must have it on at all times.

– We have three bulletin boards that posts what is going on in the organization. We have a corporate communication board which allows all employees to know the occurrences of Hilton Corporation. There is also a bulletin board that posts employee highlights such as birthdays, promotions, new employees, etc. The third bulletin board highlights benefits, anniversaries with Hilton Back Bay, and meetings.

10) The hotel industry has been at a low and many hotels have been cutting costs. How has this affected this hotel and have they resulted in employee reduction or salary cuts?

– The hotel industry has been at a low, and we don’t think it will ever be back to what it used to be. A few years ago, there would be several parties throughout the year where people would spend enormous sums of money. Although the hotel industry has been hit hard, especially after September 11th, we have been proud to say that our hotel has not had one layoff since then. If the hotel is cutting costs, it will not specifically affect the employee. For example, we have cut costs on holiday parties or recognition programs. We have informed employees that in order to cut costs we would rather cut these costs rather than employee salary cuts or layoffs; everyone understands and agrees with these new policies.

11) Both of you have been with the company for several years. What keeps you motivated to stay?

– Debra: We have 226 employees here and everyone knows everyone else. It is a very family- oriented atmosphere that we have created. We have such diversity in the hotel and it’s great to be part of this family. In addition, I find it intriguing how different people from different places come to Hilton Back Bay. They create an atmosphere where everything is always interesting and changing.

– Ed: Like Debra said, the family atmosphere here keeps me motivated to stay. I know everyone’s name and everyone knows me – it creates a close-knit bond. I enjoy making people’s day and the fact that I am always helping someone keeps me motivated. In addition, promotion is always rewarding. At Hilton, anyone can be promoted. You can start as a housekeeper and be promoted to manager of a department. It is motivating to know that you can make a difference and can be recognized for this.

12) What kind of leading style do you implement?

– Debra: I am a very big proponent of model leading. I feel that in order to lead someone, you must be able to set that example.

– Ed: I think the best leaders are those that give feedback. I always tell employees what good things they are doing as well as some improvements they could make.

13) Do you feel an overall job satisfaction? Why?

-Debra: I definitely feel job satisfaction. I enjoy coming to work and doing my job. It is very satisfying to say that we have one of the lowest turnover rates.

– Ed: I am very satisfied with my job. It is already proof that I get satisfaction from my job by coming back to Hilton after a two-year leave. If I was not satisfied with my job, I would not be here.

Housekeeping Department

Interviewee: Ruth Raposo

Title: Director of Security

Yrs of employment: 9 years; GSA- AD of Front Desk- AD House Keeping, 2 years as Director of House Keeping

Phone: (617) 867-6112

Address: 40 Dalton Street

Boston, MA 02215

Time & Place of Interview: October 21, 2003 in Hilton offices

Interviewers: Erin Cluney, Cindy Kao, Abhishek Gupta, and Sneha Rateria

Job Description- I have a span of control of 62 ‘team members’. These team members are comprised of lobby, laundry, house men, supervisors and administrative staff. In addition to strategic planning and observing, I must also communicate directly with the Front Desk in order to ensure that sufficient supplies are available and there are personnel in place to fulfill the customer needs. I entertain customer requests directly, if they happen to be disappointed by the housekeeping functions. I must be aware and cater to the needs of VIP guests, large social groups of hotel guests and conference clients. I am given specific guidelines and quality standards by the Regional Hilton office in New York. For instance, there are certain inventory levels with regard to linen and other accessories which need to be kept at all times. I make purchasing decisions in order to reach those required levels. I am in constant communication with managers from across other departments, 24 hours a day. This is to ensure interdepartmental communication and each manager has been provided with a Nextel Phone to do so.

1) What is the structure of the Housekeeping department?

-I exercises control over 62 team members. Lobby team members, laundry staff, house men, supervisors and housekeepers constitute the Housekeeping department. These different employees have different responsibilities.

2) You have 62 employees working directly under you. Do you experience a lot of conflicts amongst workers?

-In my experience of 9 years, I have dealt with a lot of conflicts amongst workers. However, I never panic and try to solve problems amongst my employees on an individual basis. I hear both sides of the story and try to figure out the bottom line. I make sure that the employees solve the problem and move on. However, if I think that the problem is out of control, I seek help from the HR Department.

3) How do you keep your employees motivated?

-They know what their job is, nothing new for them, so I always try to do something different to keep them motivated and to make them love their job. I am a ‘motivational’ kind of manager. I believe that to keep my employees motivated, I need to be innovative and come up with new ideas to keep them interested in their specific duties. I came across a book called ‘101 Secrets of Happy People’, which gave me an idea. I took a secret, typed it up and sent it out to all my team members. The next day, we all gathered to talk about my little ‘secret’. I wanted to share a secret with them, and I did. It had nothing to do with work. This helped me develop an interpersonal relationship with my employees.

4) What is your goal for each day?

– At the beginning of each day, I write up a To-Do-List. My goal is to complete each task on that list; my goal for the day is to accomplish as many tasks on that list as possible. I carry this list with me at all times, so that I can write down new tasks. I pride myself whenever I finish my list because it shows that I’ve accomplished my goal for the day.

5) How do you evaluate your employees?

– I evaluate my employees based on their performance. The CLTS- Customer Loyalty Tracking System also helps us evaluate our employees based on their comments about each employee. I evaluate them on their level of motivation. If they show keenness towards working on special projects without being asked to, they are positively evaluated. I believe employees can show their eagerness to work by being well-informed. Being ignorant doesn’t work for me. My job is to inform them, it’s their responsibility to accept the information that I provide them with.

6) Are there any type of rewards offered to your employees?

-I need to show appreciation towards my staff for all their hard work. To accomplish this, I have a set reward system. The comment cards filled out by our customers help us decide who the recipient of this prestigious award should be. Other than rewards, I show my appreciation by organizing events like Potluck dinners on special occasions like Mother’s Day. I organize different events for each day of the National Housekeeping Appreciation Week. We have games and prizes. It’s a lot of fun. We give out certificates to the people who have done their best over the course of the year.

7) How does communication flow within your department?

– I am in contact with my team members at all times. The department maintains its flow of communication through e-mails and weekly meetings. Every morning I meet with all my team members to discuss any special occurrences for the day. Besides the morning meetings, the 24 hour schedule forces me to arrange pre-shift meetings with my staff. The department meets every Monday, Wednesday and Fridays at 2pm with the Banquet, Catering, Kitchen, and Audio Visual Department to discuss our progress and special events for the next week. I maintain constant communication with the Front Desk to be aware of the special events. We have monthly meetings with the laundry room and the supervisors to order supplies.

8) How would you define leadership? What kind of leadership style do you implement?

– Leadership is knowing what they are doing and doing it with them. I believe that to be a good leader, one needs to work with the workers, and not work at the top; need to do what they are doing. There is nothing here that I haven’t done. I have kicked off my shoes and buffed the floor. I didn’t know how to make beds. The first time it took me 15 minutes to make the bed. That’s a lot of time, considering the tight schedule each team member has to follow. To earn the respect of each team member, I work with them on a personal basis. I also believe in leading by example.

9) What keeps you motivated to stay with Hilton?

– I have been with Hilton for nine years. I believe the friendly environment has made me stay at Hilton. I started working at Hilton when I was 19 years old. Since then, I have being seeing the same faces every day. Everyone here has a very good and friendly attitude. I feel I am at a very comfortable position. It’s simply fun. The good positive environment keeps me motivated. Also, I love meeting people from all over the world. This industry gives me the opportunity to meet new people. Even though it’s a strict working environment, seeing friendly faces all around me makes me feel like I am a part of ‘one big happy family.’ You might just catch us throwing things at each other one of these days.

Catering Department

Interviewee: Stan Pendrak

Title: Director of Catering

Yrs of employment: 4 years

Phone: (617) 867-6086

Address: 40 Dalton Street

Boston, MA 02215

Time & Place of interview: October 21, 2003 in Hilton offices

Interviewers: Erin Cluney, Abhishek Gupta, Cindy Kao, and Sneha Rateria

Job Description – books and prepares weddings, bar mitzvahs, and all corporate and social events for Hilton Back Bay; makes sure that everything is functioning smoothly;

1) How is the Catering Department managed? What is the Structure?

– The Catering department consists of 5 people:

Vice President/Director of Northeast Region

Director of Catering

(Conference Center Sales Manager-2 Convention Service Managers-Catering and Service Administrative Assistant)

– The home base for the Catering Department is located in Hilton at Logan Airport. Both Hilton at Logan Airport and Hilton Back Bay are the responsibilities of the Catering Department in Back Bay. Within Hilton Back Bay, the Banquet and the Catering Department are intertwined. Because of the unique setup of this department, there are a lot of checks and balances.

2) Do you experience job satisfaction?

– I absolutely love my job, and sometimes feel that the money is not important. I feel a great sense of satisfaction when I know that my clients are satisfied. Also, I feel a sense of satisfaction when I book and sell expensive corporate and social events, which helps me grow individually. The true challenge for me is to try and find a balance between satisfying clients and satisfying myself for growth in the company.

3) What is your definition of leadership? How do you lead your department?

– I believe in managing my team the way that I would want to be managed. I try to keep an open-door policy with my team at all times, and emphasize the power of making decisions for the betterment of the team.

– A hands-on leader is good, but micro-managing is bad. Teammates should not feel like they are being smothered. I definitely lead democratically when it comes to my team, for I am a very people-oriented person.

4) What types of rewards are given to employees to ensure they stay motivated?

– Since we all belong to such a small unit, we like to go out with each other to celebrate any special occasions for the team. For example, we go bowling as a group or go out for some drinks. The department also makes sure that team members receive birthday cards and flowers.

5) How do you evaluate employees?

– Employees are evaluated and issues are reviewed as a group at weekly departmental meetings. Individual employee assessments are completed quarterly.

– Another large aspect of the Catering Department is interdepartmental meetings held on every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of the week. These meetings are headed by Mr. Pendrak and include the following departments: Kitchen, Catering, Restaurant, Banquet, Audio/Visual, and Housekeeping Departments. These are informational meetings which review the details of the upcoming events.

6) What aspects keep you motivated to do your job every day?

– I always find that I learn something new every day from doing my job, whether it is from my team, my clients, or me. If I finish a day of work without learning anything, I believe that that day was a waste. Learning is a continuous process and everyone should learn from their co-workers.

– Even though this is one of the challenges to being a manager, I find that overcoming this challenge keeps me motivated: finding a balance between happiness and making money. If I can achieve a healthy balance between these two factors, I feel that I have accomplished my main goal as a manager.

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