What Trojan hero did the Romans considered themselves descended from? – Aeneas. What Greek historian described and explained Rome’s rise to power? – Polybius Who were the legendary twin brothers who founded Rome in 753 B.C.? – Romulus and Remus What three things did Polybius consider the main causes of Rome’s greatness? Which Hellenistic philosophy taught that we should strive for “pleasure,” defined as the absence of pain? –Epicureanism Which Hellenistic philosophy taught that logos, a Greek word meaning “word,” or “reason,” was the guiding force in the universe? Stoicism What building material did the Romans perfect that revolutionized construction?- liquid cement. What important engineering principal did the Romans utilize to enable the building of structures like aqueducts and domes? – The Romans used columns and arches for support. What was the area of early Rome that served as a center for political, religious, and commercial activity?
What event did the Arch of Titus, at the entrance to the Roman Forum, commemorate? From which ancient civilization did the cult of Isis originate? -Egypt Which Phrygian goddess did the Romans look at as the “Great Mother”? -Cybele Know some of the most significant of the Mystery Religions according to the Romans. Which early Christian leader was most responsible for universalizing the message, and making Christianity more than a Jewish sect? Where and how does the Gospel of Matthew urge the faithful to pray? What does the Greek word Christos mean literally? Christos means “anointed; chosen.
What Roman Emperor divided the empire into eastern and western halves?- Emperor Diocletian What did the Edict of Milan do? The Edict of Milan legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire. What Greek city did Constantine transfer the capital of the Roman Empire to? Constantine made the Greek colony of Byzantium the new capital of the Roman Empire. He changed its name to Constantinople, which later, in turn, became Istanbul. What statement of faith came out of a church council called together by Constantine? St. Augustine, in his City of God, said to let the barbarians come, so long as _____ ? What does asceticism mean? An ascetic is one who practices extreme self-denial and austerity.
What is the Sanskrit word for the individual soul, that piece of brahman in us? In Hinduism, what do we call the idea that our actions have consequences for ourselves and the world? -Karma What do Hindus call the extinguishing or “blowing out” of our soul? Who are the three great gods (Trimurti) of the Hindu pantheon? -Brahmā, Vishnu, and Shiva In Indic religions, what is the word for an incarnation of a god in material form? The great spiritual conversation between Arjuna and Krishna takes place in what scripture? What does the title “Buddha” literally mean? The term Buddha means “awakened one” or the “enlightened one. Buddhism arose as a reform movement in what religion? -Hinduism What are the Buddha‟s Four Noble Truths? 1. Life means suffering.
2. The origin of suffering is attachment. 3. The cessation of suffering is attainable. 4. The path to the cessation of suffering. According to the Buddha, how can one free oneself from selfish desire and live a happy life? What divine being told Muhammad that he was God‟s new messenger? What does the word “Islam” mean literally in Arabic? -The Arabic word ‘Islam’ simply means ‘submission’ What is the name for the flight of the Muslims from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD? -Hegira What is the name of the Holy Book of Islam? – Quran.
How many times each day are Muslims required to pray to Allah? -5 times a day Know the “Five Pillars of Islam.” The Testimony of Faith, Prayer, Giving Zakat (Support of the Needy), Fasting the Month of Ramadan, The Pilgrimage to Makkah: To what city, Muhammad’s birthplace, do Muslims make the pilgrimage known as the hajj? The birthplace of Muhammad is Mecca (or Makkah) in the nowadays country of Saudi Arabia. Mecca is the same caity that Muslims go for Hajj as Kaba is there. What Spanish-born Muslim philosopher was instrumental in advocating Aristotle, thus foreshadowing Scholasticism? What three cultures were the main components of the civilization that came to be known as “Western Christendom”? – Classical, Germanic, and Christian What Anglo-Saxon poem was the first great European epic not written in Greek or Latin? What language were Hinduism’s holy books, the Vedas and the Upanishads, written in? -Sanskrit
In what chanson de geste do we read of Christian warriors willing to die for their faith? The infidelity of what two characters brought about the fall of Camelot in the Arthurian cycle of stories? What do we call the set of seven sacred acts that impart grace to Christians? What philosophical movement of the Middle Ages sought to combine Aristotelian reason with Christian faith? Who was the author of the Summa Theologica, the greatest monument of medieval philosophy? Which of the Seven Deadly Sins was considered the most harmful? – Pride What is the only creature that shares mankind‟s “intellectual” nature? Who was the author of the Divine Comedy? – Dante Alighieri
What two people guide Dante through the various divisions of the afterlife? What do we call the interlocking rhyme scheme of the Divine Comedy? –Terza Rima What man was most responsible for the innovations of the Gothic cathedral? In addition to pointed arches, what new architectural feature enabled Gothic cathedrals to rise much higher? -About the height, being closer to God, though this is not a technical issue. About gargoyles, enter in the tradition of gothic representation, maybe evils or closer to the alchemical icons Besides their apotropaic function, what was the practical function of Gothic gargoyles? What theological innovation of Abbot Suger made use of the new improvements of large stained-glass windows? – To provide light
Arch of Titus;
Augustus of Prima Porta;
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius;
Jesus as Good Shepherd;
Images of Vishnu and Shiva Nataraja;
Kaaba of Mecca;
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem;
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris;